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VIETNAM or INDOCHINA WAR (s). FRENCH INDOCHINA French colonize parts of Southeast Asia in 1880s, incl. Kingdom of Vietnam French colonize parts of Southeast.

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Presentation on theme: "VIETNAM or INDOCHINA WAR (s). FRENCH INDOCHINA French colonize parts of Southeast Asia in 1880s, incl. Kingdom of Vietnam French colonize parts of Southeast."— Presentation transcript:

1 VIETNAM or INDOCHINA WAR (s)

2 FRENCH INDOCHINA French colonize parts of Southeast Asia in 1880s, incl. Kingdom of Vietnam French colonize parts of Southeast Asia in 1880s, incl. Kingdom of Vietnam When French fall to Nazis and Japanese in World War II, Vietnamese led by Communist Ho Chi Minh begin revolt When French fall to Nazis and Japanese in World War II, Vietnamese led by Communist Ho Chi Minh begin revolt

3 u55O4U GnM4g&feature=related

4 HO CHI MINH Defeats French in 1954 at Battle of Dienbienphu Defeats French in 1954 at Battle of Dienbienphu French, Communists sign Geneva Accords French, Communists sign Geneva Accords

5 GENEVA ACCORDS Laos and Cambodia to become independent kingdoms. Laos and Cambodia to become independent kingdoms. Vietnam split into North – under Communist control, and South – non- Communist Vietnam split into North – under Communist control, and South – non- Communist Elections to be held in two years (1956) to decide government for whole country Elections to be held in two years (1956) to decide government for whole country

6 THE OUTCOME Elections are never held US and South Vietnam Fear Communist trickery Ngo Dinh Diem is made President of South Viet- Nam with American backing

7 DOMINO THEORY and COMMITMENTS US pledged through SEATO (Southeast Asia Treat Organization – like NATO for Asia) to defend Thailand, Philippines and South Vietnam. US pledged through SEATO (Southeast Asia Treat Organization – like NATO for Asia) to defend Thailand, Philippines and South Vietnam. Domino Theory – fear that if one country in SE Asia becomes Communist, they all will follow. SE Asia is considered a strategic area. Domino Theory – fear that if one country in SE Asia becomes Communist, they all will follow. SE Asia is considered a strategic area. Desire to buy time for Southeast Asian countries to develop freely. Desire to buy time for Southeast Asian countries to develop freely.

8 DOMINO THEORY

9 DIEM Unpopular as president Unpopular as president Authoritarian, aloof from the people Authoritarian, aloof from the people Buddhist protests and betrayal by military officers lead to his downfall in Autumn, Buddhist protests and betrayal by military officers lead to his downfall in Autumn, 1963.

10 DILEMNA! What was US to do about South Vietnam? What was US to do about South Vietnam? Vietcong, backed by North Vietnam and USSR, were making gains in countryside. But there was no viable government.

11 US INVOLVEMENT US backs a series of military governments, begins massive bombing of North Vietnam and begins sending massive numbers of combat troops in 1965.

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13 The Gulf of Tonkin Incident August 2, 1964 – USS Maddox was attacked by three N. Vietnamese patrol boats. August 2, 1964 – USS Maddox was attacked by three N. Vietnamese patrol boats. –US claimed the attack was unprovoked Reality: US covert ops made the NV wary –Maddox was actually collecting information to attack the NV. August 4 th – Second Destroyer sent to support Maddox – Both ships come under attack – attack unconfirmed. August 4 th – Second Destroyer sent to support Maddox – Both ships come under attack – attack unconfirmed. –"There was absolutely no gunfire except our own, no PT boat wakes, not a candle light let alone a burning ship. None could have been there and not have been seen on such a black night."

14 … And its Resolution (Aug.7, 1964) That the Congress approves and supports the determination of the President, as Commander in Chief, to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression. That the Congress approves and supports the determination of the President, as Commander in Chief, to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression. Consonant with the Constitution of the United States and the Charter of the United Nations and in accordance with its obligations under the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, the United States is, therefore, prepared, as the President determines, to take all necessary steps, including the use of armed force, to assist any member or protocol state of the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty requesting assistance in defense of its freedom. Consonant with the Constitution of the United States and the Charter of the United Nations and in accordance with its obligations under the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, the United States is, therefore, prepared, as the President determines, to take all necessary steps, including the use of armed force, to assist any member or protocol state of the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty requesting assistance in defense of its freedom. This resolution shall expire when the President shall determine that the peace and security of the area is reasonably assured by international conditions created by action of the United Nations or otherwise, except that it may be terminated earlier by concurrent resolution of the Congress. This resolution shall expire when the President shall determine that the peace and security of the area is reasonably assured by international conditions created by action of the United Nations or otherwise, except that it may be terminated earlier by concurrent resolution of the Congress.

15 LAOS and CAMBODIA Communist-led uprisings also take place in these two monarchies Communist-led uprisings also take place in these two monarchies Vietcong make great use of the mountainous border with these countries for their supply line from North Vietnam, called the Ho Chi Minh Trail Vietcong make great use of the mountainous border with these countries for their supply line from North Vietnam, called the Ho Chi Minh Trail

16 HO CHI MINH TRAIL

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19 The problem with the enemy is that they are very hard to find….

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21 TET OFFENSIVE Surprise attack by VC and North Vietnamese across South Vietnam during traditional truce period. Surprise attack by VC and North Vietnamese across South Vietnam during traditional truce period. Gives lie to US predictions of Gives lie to US predictions ofspeedyvictory.

22 MY LAI MASSACRE American troops are ordered to destroy a South Vietnamese village and end up massacring 450 inhabitants American troops are ordered to destroy a South Vietnamese village and end up massacring 450 inhabitants Public reaction against war inflamed, but many find it excusable. Public reaction against war inflamed, but many find it excusable.

23 No end In Sight

24 VIETNAMIZAION Elected president in 1968, Nixon promises to turn more of fighting over to the South Vietnamese. Elected president in 1968, Nixon promises to turn more of fighting over to the South Vietnamese. However, to support them he continues the bombing campaign on VC supply lines and, in 1970, invades Cambodia. However, to support them he continues the bombing campaign on VC supply lines and, in 1970, invades Cambodia. Bombing destabilizes Cambodias neutral govt., leading to Red Khmer Rouge victory and killing fields Bombing destabilizes Cambodias neutral govt., leading to Red Khmer Rouge victory and killing fields

25 PEACE TALKS Begin in 1970 Begin in 1970 Two years spent arguing over the shape of the table Two years spent arguing over the shape of the table Cease-fire signed in January, Cease-fire signed in January, American troops go home. Most prisoners of war are released. American troops go home. Most prisoners of war are released.

26 END OF WAR Communists break cease- fire terms and quickly overwhelm South Vietnamese. Communists break cease- fire terms and quickly overwhelm South Vietnamese. North and South Vietnam are re-unified. Saigon becomes Ho Chi Minh City North and South Vietnam are re-unified. Saigon becomes Ho Chi Minh City Communists also win in Laos and Cambodia- Bloodbath in Cambodia Communists also win in Laos and Cambodia- Bloodbath in Cambodia

27 ATERMATH Massive refugees, incl. boat people. Massive refugees, incl. boat people. Vietnam unites under a communist government; Saigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City. Vietnam unites under a communist government; Saigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City. Cambodian killing fields Cambodian killing fields WqBZEQ WqBZEQ WqBZEQ WqBZEQ


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