Cambodia Angkor: old kingdom (7th-13th centuries) Capital city: Phnom Penn Religion: Hinduism (7th-12th centuries), Mahayana Buddhism (12th-14th centuries); Theravada Buddhism (15th-present) Khmer ethnic Mon-Khmer language
Hinduism Polytheistic religion (worship many gods and goddesses) Goal is to achieve moksa--by praying, worshipping (darsana) and giving offering to gods Each god has a female companion and rides on vehicle such as bull (Nandi), lion, goose; each holds some attributes (Siva: tridents and Vishnu: conch shell and wheel)
Triad Brahma-God of Creator Vishnu-God of Preserver (has many incarnations such as Rama and Krishna) Shiva-God of Destroyer (also the protector of animals) Devi-goddess (e.g., Laksmi (“Good Fortune”) and Parvati); symbolizing beauty, benevolent, and wealth as well as power and wrath
Angkor Wat King Suryavarman II (c. 1112-1150 CE) Hindu temple, facing West (direction of death), associates with Vishnu It symbolizes the center of the universe, Mount Meru The moat symbolizes the oceans surrounding the earth The succession of concentric galleries represent the mountain ranges that surround Mount Meru The towers (Gopura) represent the mountain’s peaks It was converted to Theravada temple in the 15th century
Plan Square shape with cruciform cloister Enter on the West side through the causeway Made of sandstone; foundation was made of laterite Upper level carries five towers and surrounding galleries The summit is enclosed by continuous gallery (60m square); the center shrine tower is 42m high.
Interior sculpture: 8 arm Vishnu may have been located in the main sanctuary Interior decorated with bas-relief Themes: Ramayana and Mahabartha epics Historic procession of King Suryavarman II and court The West and East sides depicted the Heavens and Hells Apsaras (celestial beings): approximately 2000