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Prescription Privileges Should Psychologists have the right to prescribe? Leanne Fraser November 8, 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "Prescription Privileges Should Psychologists have the right to prescribe? Leanne Fraser November 8, 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prescription Privileges Should Psychologists have the right to prescribe? Leanne Fraser November 8, 2005

2 Field of Psychology Psychology can be defined as being directed toward psychological and behavioural interventions that result in more adaptive functioning (Fox, Barclay, & Rogers, 1982, as cited in DeNelsky, 1996). The field of psychology is not a unitary entity, but a grouping of vastly differing models of study and practice (Klein, 1996)

3 Psychoactive Drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour

4 The Privilege Debate Five key issues: 1.Heritage of Psychology 2.Effectiveness of Psychoactive Drugs 3.Education and Training 4.Effect on Psychology as a Profession 5.Public Interest

5 Heritage of Psychology Against Psychology Psychological intervention

6 Heritage of Psychology For As in every other field, psychology has to move with the times and should welcome the opportunity (Klein, 1996) Results from current opinions should not direct the future (Naussbaum, 2001)

7 Effectiveness of Psychoactive Drugs Against Effectiveness is overstated (DeNelsky, 1996) Psychoactive drugs are over-prescribed (Dobson & Dozois, 2001)

8 Effectiveness of Psychoactive Drugs For When psychotherapy is effective, significant neurobiological alterations have occurred (Naussbaum, 2001) There are times when psychotropic medications will be effective where psychotherapy will not (Naussbaum, 2001)

9 Education and Training Against More time learning about medications than about psychotherapies (DeNelsky, 1996) Lengthy and Costly (Hayes, Walser, & Bach, 2002)

10 Education and Training For Lesser trained medical specialists already prescribing psychotropic medication (Cullen & Newman, 1997, as cited in Walters, 2001) Lengthy education not an issue (St- Pierre & Melnyk, 2004)

11 Effect on Psychology as a Profession Against Greed (DeNelsky, 1996) Dilute the identity of psychologists (Dobson & Dozois, 2001)

12 Effect on Psychology as a Profession For Propel therapeutics to new levels (Nussbaum, 2001) Enhance income and status (Healy, 1995, as cited in Walters, 2001)

13 Public Interest Against Lack of demand (DeNelsky, 1996) Privileges will not change attendance to certain populations (Dozois & Dobson, 1995)

14 Public Interest For Psychotherapy patients use psychotropic drugs (Olfson & Pincus, 1994, as cited in Pagliaro, 1995) Medication being prescribed without proper knowledge (Zimmerman & Wienckowski, 1991, as cited in Walters, 2001)

15 New Mexico Prescription privileges for psychologists Law employs a two-step process Still some controversy

16 Possible Solutions from the Opposition Doctorate in Mental Health (Hayes et al, 2002) Collaboration between medical practitioners and psychologists (Dobson & Dozois, 2001)

17 What Does the Majority Think? Study conducted by St-Pierre & Melnyk (2004) Surveyed Canadian psychology students and clinical psychologists

18 Questions Posed 1. “Do you think it is possible for psychologists to attain the required training in order to properly prescribe psychotropic medication?” 2. “Do you think the attainment of prescription privileges is theoretically or philosophically opposed to the field of psychology?” 3. “Do you think that the attainment of prescription privileges would compromise psychological service delivery in any way?” 4. “How probable do you think it is that Canadian psychologists will ever attain prescription privileges?”

19 Results Trained psychologists should have prescription privileges CPA should advocate for prescription privileges Graduate students would seek privileges Do not believe rights will be granted

20 Graduate Studies Keith Dobson PhD University of Calgary Can obtain a PhD in Clinical Psychology Edouard St-Pierre Lakehead University in 2004

21 References DeNelsky, G. Y. (1996). The case against prescription privileges for psychologists. American Psychologist, 51(3), Dobson, K. S., & Dozois, D. J. A. (2001). Professional psychology and the prescription debate: Still not ready to go to the alter. Canadian Psychology, 42(2), Dozois, D. J. A., & Dobson, K. S. (1995). Should Canadian psychologists follow the APA trend and seek prescription privileges? A reexamination of the revolution. Canadian Psychology, 36(4), Hayes, S. C., Walser, S. D., & Bach, P. (2002). Prescription privileges for psychologists: Constituencies and conflicts. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(6), Klein, R. G. (1996). Comments on expanding the clinical role of psychologists. American Psychologist, 51(3),

22 References Nussbaum, D. (2001). Psychologists should be free to pursue prescription privileges: A reply to Walters. Canadian Psychology, 42(2), Pagliaro, L. A. (1995). Should Canadian psychologists follow the APA trend and seek prescription privileges? Of course they should! An invited critical commentary of Dozois and Dobson. Canadian Psychology, 36(4), Pettifor, M. E. J., & McCrea, S. (1997). The Canadian code of ethics and the prescription privilege debate. Canadian Psychology, 38(1), St-Pierre, E. S., & Melnyk, W. T. (2004). The prescription privilege debate in Canada: The voices of today’s and tomorrow’s psychologists. Canadian Psychology, 45(4), Walters, G. D. (2001). A meta-analysis of opinion data on the prescription privilege debate. Canadian Psychology, 42(2), White, J. H. (2003). APNA participates on task force on psychologists prescribing. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 9(2),

23 What do you think?


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