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Nigeria: National Responses and Regional Dynamics In Peace Promotion

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1 Nigeria: National Responses and Regional Dynamics In Peace Promotion
Hajiya Bilkisu mni Chairperson Projects. Federation of Muslim Women’s Association in Nigeria FOMWAN. Presented at the Conference on Sustainable Mechanisms for Preventing Violent Extremism in West Africa Organised by WANEP and CORDAID April Cotonou, Benin Republic

2 NIGERIA: Introduction
Population 167 million .A Young population 60% is under 35 yrs of age Poverty Rate is high- 67% 100million people live on less than $1 Poverty level is 70% in N.Nigeria and 30% in the south Maternal Mortality is the single most important health issue facing Nigerian people. Maternal Mortality Rate 487 per 100,000 This figure masks wide regional disparities which range from 339 per 100,000 live births in the Southwest to 1,716 per 100,000 live births in the North East Contraceptive Prevalence Rate is 10% Total fertility rate of 5.7% Unmet need for FP is 6 million couples Early Marriage One in Four married by age 15. Teenage Pregnancy 23% young population where about 60% are under 35 years HIV/AIDS prevalence is also 4.3%. Child mortality rates are 100 per 1,000 children under five years of age. Source NDHS 2008

3 Alienation of Muslim Youth
In 2002 a group of youth, most of them of middle class background , well educated and privileged became radicalised and broke away from mainstream Islamic movements They were a peaceful dissenting group who became disenchanted with the bad governance in their country particularly at the state and local governments where Govt was indifferent to societal problems High youth unemployment, recruitment of youth for use as thugs to rig elections, promotion of drug addiction among youth, corruption etc Most of them were Islamic of youths from Yobe and Borno State in the North East of Nigeria. The youth were disenchanted with the poor governance in their states where the governors and most leaders are Muslims whom they see as giving Islam a bad name

4 Jamaatul Daawah Many of them had completed school and had no jobs.
Some were successful in their businesses and became the supporters of their less endowed members The level of corruption they see in a country which has immense material and human resources made them dissociate themselves from the government. They denounced the type of governance that was seen as a product of western education Boko and western style democracy. They declared it as haram meaning prohibited in Islam. This gave the sect their nick name Boko Haram. Their movemnt is named is Jama'atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda'awati Wal-Jihad (People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet's Teachings and Jihad It is important to call people what they call themselves

5 The Appeal of Madina Model
These youths decided that the Nigerian version of democracy was not working for them and decided to go back to the Islamic model of a welfare state in Madina, the first Islamic state Some of them tore their certificates and said Western education and democracy are not the solution to their problems In Madina, there was equality before the law, accountability and transparency in governance and the Caliph was considered culpable if a citizen went to bed on a hungry stomach Madina had a position of Ombudsman to collate feed back on governance and the integration of this into policy ensured good governance

6 Their Own Commune Some of these youth decided to establish their own commune and lead a pure life that will be built on equity and submission to the laws of Allah’ Some of them settled in Yusufari in Yobe state They engaged in agriculture, invested in transportation and lived simple lives that distanced them from the government but observed duties and responsiblities for their community member and lived peacefully with non members of their commune

7 The Trigger for Violence
From 2002 the jama’at group remained peaceful until their funeral procession was attacked by security agencies They retaliated and called for help. Their members and other sympathisers trooped into Maiduguri to defend the attack on the Jamaat group In the crackdown on the Jama’at members about sources said about 2000 people were killed and several were arrested The extra judicial killing of their leader Mohammed Yusuf was the last straw that broke the camel’s back They reasoned government agents killed them because they oppressors since no law of the land prescribed death for dissenters who were peaceful

8 The Insugency About 700 people were killed in the military operation in the first crackdown Some sources put the figure at people dead and property destroyed was put at millions of naira The Jamaatu then declared war on the police and started attacking police stations, military formations and local politicians and pro establishment clerics who were all Muslims. They also attacked prisons in Maiduguri and Bauchi to release their members who were detained without trial

9 Bombs explode in Cities
The extra judicial killing of Muhammad Yusuf drew condemnation from human rights organisations and earned the Jamaatu Daawah members public sympathy and demand for prosecution of those responsible for the killings. Recently, the violence has spread from Maiduguri to Damaturu, Madalla, Kano and Kaduna where police stations and barracks are bombed. The January attack on Kano city where twenty four bombs exploded in one hour killing over 200 people remains the most destructive

10 What Really is Boko Haram?
The Young people who established the movement called it), not Boko Haram. “People of the Way of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and the Community (of Muslims), in line with the earliest generation of Muslims”. This name has a positive meaning that is acceptable to nearly all Muslims(1) A split occurred in the Jama’at Movement One, the political wing is not afraid to use violence to achieve its aims but only after being provoked when security agent shot at a group of the Jamaat who were on a funeral procession The jamaa’s goals are both long-term, like instituting their version of sharia law in Nigeria, and also more immediate, like pushing for the release of their members in prison.: The popular name “Boko Haram” means Western education is prohibited and has its origin in media and public/community coinage (1)

11 Injustice fuelled Boko Haram-Experts
Sheikh Yusuf’s extrajudicial killing was captured as evidence but no one was tried and punished for the crime An Aljazeerah news clip showed police killing poor people who were asked to lie down facedown on the streets of Maiduguri Seeking revenge, Boko Haram targeted the police, the military and local politicians — all of them Muslims. It was clear in 2009, as it is now, that the root cause of violence and anger in both the north and south of Nigeria is endemic poverty and hopelessness (2)

12 Corruption and Bad Governance fuels Insurgency-Experts
“Boko Haram” is an ideology providing inspiration to some Nigerians living in grinding poverty under a set of rulers who concern themselves not with running the country but with simply stealing the country’s oil wealth. It passes no Nigerian’s notice that decades of official plunder have left what should be a thriving -- or at least developing -- nation in a pitiful state of neglect. Illiteracy stands at 40 per cent, and poverty is rising, with 100 million people, or 61 per cent of the population, now living in absolute poverty on less than $1 a day. Despite petroleum’s billions, citizens have to cover all their basic services themselves: health, education and security. Andrew Stroehlein 2012

13 Poverty fuels Insurgency- Experts
The Governor of the Central Bank Sanusi Lamido Sanusi said deprivation, inequity, Poverty and youth un employment is fuelling the Boko Haram insurgency "Boko Haram capitalizes on popular frustrations with the nation's leaders." ‘ In a country where nearly 100 million people live on less than one dollar a day, U S Secretary of State Carson says that desperation is especially felt in northern states where Muslims are the majority and the group is most active. "Nigerians are hungry for progress and improvement in their lives, but northern Nigerians feel this need most acutely," he said. "Life in Nigeria may be tough for many, but life in the north is grim for almost all."

14 Social Problems Fuels Insurgency
President Bill Clinton on a trip to Nigeria in February called on the Nigerian Government not to use the military solution for a social a social problem. In April while launching an almajiri model school in Sokoto, President Jonathan said the almajiri Qura’nic school people number 10 million in Nigeria They do not feed into the formal job market until their curriculum is integrated into formal education system Mean while what do we do with this huge army of hungry, angry and alienated youth roaming our streets? Government has plans to build 100 almajiri schools every year

15 Corruption and Human Rights Abuse fuels Boko Haram
The United Nations says poverty in Nigeria's 12 most-northern states is nearly twice the rate of the rest of the country. Northern children are more likely to be malnourished and illiterate. "Public opinion polls and news reports suggest there is a strong sentiment throughout the country - but especially in the north - that government is not on the side of the people and their poverty is a result of government neglect, corruption, and abuse,"

16 Human Rights Abuse fuels Boko Haram
The Movement for a Better Future ‘ joined other Human Rights groups within and outside Nigeria in condemning, in strong terms, the summary execution of Mallam Muhammad Yusuf, the leader of the ‘boko haram sect’ by the Nigerian Police Force, after he was handed to them by the military alive and unarmed. The execution violates all rules of engagements. The killing of Mallam Yusuf, has interred many potential leads and dimensions in investigating the Boko Haram's phenomenal emergence, source of funds, tentacles and even the psychological mindsets and philosophies of the group’ The Movement for a Better Future therefore called on government, to as a matter of urgency address the lingering economic, environmental and social crises bedeviling this country. The Movement believes that these crises are caused by poverty, unemployment and loss of hope in government. Kabiru Lawanti

17 The Verdict. We are Guilty
Boko Haram is a local problem that is a result of bad governance It requires a local solution It is not about some global terrorism or Al Qaeda in magrib or any where invading Nigeria Our only solution to this insurgency is to promote good governance We can not find the solution outside Nigeria and from any text book on terrorism We must take full responsibility to what we are doing to our children and the youth and develop home bred solution.

18 Northern Leader’s Response
A communique at the end of a meeting of Northern Leaders, among whom were two serving governors etc expressed concern over the activities of Boko Haram, the Movement for the Emancipation of Niger Delta (MEND) and the Movement for the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) The meeting also received the shocking details of the several excesses of the JTF (Joint Task Force) which amounted to no less than gross human rights abuses. The meeting expressed the view that the threat posed by Boko Haram insurgency could best be attended to without the attendant attacks on individual rights and on businesses.

19 Engaging to combat Insurgency
In March, the leaders of jamaat appointed the Supreme Council for Shariah in Nigeria and chose its leader Dr Datti Ahmed as their negotiator with Federal Government A few days later, Dr Datti annouced his withdrawal from the peace talks due to ‘insincerity on the part of Government’ Two weeks later Government said it is at war with the insurgents and will crush the militants’ Military option took precedence over engagement and dialogue

20 CSO Initiative to Dialogue
There is pressure on the Federal government to engage with the Jamaatu Daawah (Boko Haram) Northern leaders under the regional policy group Arewa Consultative Forum have named a panel of distinguished Nigerians to facilitate dialogue between the government and the Boko Haram leaders. As is often the case with peace negotiations the Panel has three men and one woman. The members are Alhaji Shettima Ali Monguno an elder states man and former Minister from Maiduguri the flash point of the insurgency, Sheikh Ahmed Lemu a respected cleric and former Grand Khadi from Niger state where the Christmas bombing occurred, Senator Bukar Abba Ibrahim, former Governor of Yobe state and currently a Senator and Hajiya Khadijah Bukar Abba Ibrahim, a woman leader & member of the National Assembly also from Yobe state.

21 Military Option and its Effects
"Northern populations are currently trapped between violent extremists on the one hand and heavy- handed government responses on the other. They need to know that their president is going to go to extraordinary lengths to fix their problems,“ Horrendous loss of lives and the economy in the North, particularly in Kano the commercial centre is being destroyed by the curfew and trauma inflicted on the citizens. The curfew and excesses of the military joint task force dehumanises the people and dislocates social and economic life In Maiduguri, people are confined to their homes by 7pm The once bustling city is now a replica of a ghost city

22 Capitalising on Boko Haram
Arewa Citizens Action for Change ACAC conducted a research that identified ‘three types of Boko Haram ACAC identified the three faces of the Boko Haram BH BH. They include a core group, the Yusufiyyah BH which is localized in its operation which is directed at ulama who fight their beliefs, those affiliated to the old Borno State Government of Ali Modu Shariff and security agents who are blamed for the extra judicial killing of their leader and almost 90% of its members. ACAC said ‘it is entirely unbelievable that the dispersed, clearly estranged original BH is capable of regrouping and acquiring such immense wealth and training required in the execution of the sophisticated and sustained coordinated attacks we have seen lately’

23 The Criminals Cash In ACAC also identified the second criminal BH ‘where criminal gangs have cashed in using the name of BH to perpetrate crimes such as bank robberies, extortion and arson in different places. The third is the political BH which ACAC said is the most sophisticated, more menacing and more dangerous, coordinated and agenda based aspect of the three. ACAC said the Federal government, its security agencies and a large section of the media are involved in this grand conspiracy’

24 Manipulation of Fault lines
‘The disturbing aspect of this agenda driven BH is a broad based manipulation of ethnic and religious fault lines. ACAC believes that the political BH is using fifth columnists to carry out the most destructive, daring, merciless and violent attacks we see nationwide for which we are quickly told that BH has claimed responsibility. This political BH has an agenda of pitting Muslims against Christians . Working in tandem with it media allies, the political BH has down played stories of Christian attacks on fellow Christians and on churches and transformed them into attacks by Muslim Northern Nigeria on Christians and their churches.’

25 Christians Attacking Churches: Probe Deeper
ACAC listed ‘ten cases of Christians caught bombing or attempting to bomb their own places of worship and non prosecution of those apprehended’. It expressed concern on ‘the indifference of the National Assembly, the utterances of compromised clergy who are bending backwards to concoct excuses to cover up these acts of sadism and to blame it on others.’

26 Fifth Columnists Use Insurgency as a cover
Bishop Mathew Kukah documented disturbing cases of people trying to bomb their own places of worship in a bid to trigger religious crises. He said ‘last year, a Christian woman went to her own parish Church in Bauchi and tried to set it ablaze. Again, recently, a man alleged to be a Christian, dressed as a Muslim, went to burn down a Church in Bayelsa President Jonathan’s home state In Plateau State, a man purported to be a Christian was arrested while trying to bomb a Church. Armed men gunned down a group of Christians meeting in a Church and now it turned out that those who have been arrested and are under interrogation are in fact not Muslims and that the story is more of an internal crisis. In Zamfara State, 19 Muslims were killed. After investigation it was discovered that those who killed them were not Christians. Other similar incidents have occurred across the country.’ Kukah

27 Jamaatu Denies Kidnapping
In March 2012 Boko Haram has dissociated itself from the kidnapping and eventual killing of Francesco Molinara(Italian) and Chris McManus(Briton) in Sokoto state. Some young people who looked like minors were paraded as the ‘Kidnappers’ Abul Qaqa, spokesman for the sect in a conference call with reporters, said, “We are not behind the hostage taking … which led to the military operation yesterday in Sokoto in which the hostages were killed.”   “We have never been involved in hostage-taking and it’s not part of our style, and we never ask for ransom.”  “We know how to settle our scores with anybody. Therefore the allegation that the kidnappers were members of our group is ridiculous.”   Nigeria’s government “had better get its facts straight and find the true identity of the kidnappers,”  “They should not use us to mask their incompetence.” Qaqa added. The Will 14/3/2021

28 Beyond Streotypes So who is bent on creating problems for Nigerians?
Experts urge citizens to look deeper before ascribing all violence to the insurgents “Boko Haram” is also a cover for criminal activity and political thuggery of all sorts. Anything that turns violent can be blamed on the Islamist movement, whether it has a link to it or not. It is a perfect alibi, one that prevents further questioning. Bank robbery? Boko Haram. Attack on political opponents? Boko Haram Andrew Stroehlein 2012

29 Sophistication Beats Boko Haram
However, some experts (ACAC etc )attribute the current spate of violence and increasing sophistication of the attacks to criminal groups and fifth columnists who have cashed in on the existence of Boko Haram to perpetrate crimes There are also reports of politicians using some thugs posing as Boko Haram for perpetuating electoral violence and political assassinations

30 Government’s Response

The Jonathan government has struggled to put a stop to attacks, imposition of a state of emergency and curfew in affected local governments and joint military task forces accused by some local leaders of attacking civilians. Attempts at indirect peace talks with Boko Haram collapsed in March Carson:ibid 2012 Government still insists that it will crush Bboko Haram Infact the government has given a date by which this mission will be accomplished

31 Joint Islamic Group’s Initiative
Between the 1st and 12th of August 2009, a group of nearly 40 brothers and sisters from a number of Islamic organizations under the Da’wah Coordination Council of Nigeria (DCCN) met at the Da’wah Institute of Nigeria (Islamic Education Trust) in Minna, Niger State, to discuss among other things, various aspects of the “Boko Haram” crisis and tragedy that erupted in some of the North- eastern States of Nigeria – particularly Bauchi, Borno, and Yobe. Those present were selected individuals from some of the DCCN member organizations including the Muslim Students Society of Nigeria (MSSN), the National Council of Muslim Youth Organisations (NACOMYO), the Da’wah Coordination Council of Nigeria (DCCN), and the Da’wah Institute of Nigeria (DIN) – Islamic Education Trust (IET) (1)

32 Lessons from Pakistan ‘War on terror cannot be won by arms alone'
Ehsan ul-Haq, is one of Pakistan's most accomplished military officers. He also highlighted lessons for Nigeria to learn as it struggles to deal with a series of terrorist insurrections by Islamic extremist group, Boko Haram.  Pakistan would welcome close people-to-people contact with Nigeria, This may be good but we know that our problem lies within Nigeria and our ability to design a process of engagement with the Jama’at Dawah to end the conflict and improve our governance

33 Projecting Correct Islamic Message
It is very important that scholars project the correct message of Islam, which is a great religion of peace. They have to project the true message of Islam. Islam has nothing to do with terrorism and violence. It is a religion of peace. So, you have to develop an alternate narrative based on the true and real message of Islam, for which you would need highly enlightened and educated scholars, particularly religious scholars. It is very important not to cede the religious platform to the extremists and the terrorists. The state and its institutions must fight this on the religious platform

34 Islam and Protection of Lives
The seriousness of taking the life of any innocent human being is described by Allah in Qur’an 5:32 – “If anyone kills a human being – unless it be (in punishment) for murder of for spreading corruption on earth – it shall be as though he had killed all mankind; whereas, if anyone saves a life, it shall be as though he had saved the lives of all mankind.”

35 Terrorism & Distorted Religious Ideology
And above all, if the terrorism is based on an ideology, then most critically it'll be important to address the narrative of that ideology. In which case, you have to develop a counter-narrative or an alternate narrative to persuade people away from the narrative which they are pursuing.  Combating narrative based on distorted religious theology

36 National Strategy for Combating Terrorism
Design a comprehensive national strategy to tackle terrorism. This comprehensive national strategy must be over-archingly a political strategy. It may have other components; for example it must have a media component, an information component, a political component, an economic component and of course a military component. But mere use of military force will not solve the problem. It has to be a comprehensive strategy encompassing all the aspects

37 NIREC Religious Leaders working for Peace
The Nigeria Inter-Religious Council (NIREC) is a body made up of fifty (50) members (25 Muslims and 25 Christians) charged with the responsibility of promoting peaceful co- existence and religious harmony in Nigeria. Established in 1999 & Co-chaired by the Sultan of Sokoto, His Eminence, Alhaji Muhammad Sa’ad Abubakar, CFR, mni, President-General, Nigerian Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs and His Grace, Pastor Ayo Oritsejafor. President of Pentecostal Fellowship of Nigeria PFN and , Christian Association of Nigeria (CAN). The National Coordinator is an appointee of the Federal Republic of Nigeria  NIREC has 47 men and three women, Dame Priscilla Kuye, Alhaja Lateefah Okunnu and my humble self

38 NIREC’s Peace Initiatives
250 Youth participants consisting of 100 Christian participants from different parts of Nigeria; 100 Muslim participants from different parts of Nigeria; 25 Muslims from Niger State and 25 Christians from Niger State the host state They were provided with capacity building to be able to undertake conflict analysis, detect early warning signal and undertake community based peace works

39 FOMWAN: Advocacy for Peace
Federation of Muslim Women’s Association in Nigeria FOMWAN works in interfaith networks of Muslim and Christian women Carried out a Sharia education and enlightenment project on women’s rights in all 12 Sharia implementing states, with activities such as seminars, workshops, media discussion programs, etc. Its partners include non-Muslim women’s rights advocacy groups in order to promote their understanding of Sharia and to disseminate such knowledge among non-Muslims FOMWAN has initiated formation of similar groups across West Africa FOMWAG in Ghana, FOMWASL in Sierra leone and also in Gambia It networks with ANASI in Niger

40 FOMWAN: Mothers’ Voices
FOMWAN is a voice for peace. As mothers we do not believe in throwing away the baby with the bath water As mothers we must do our best to mediate in any conflict and the Jama’at insurgency is also a challenge for us We support fully the CSO initiatives to address the insurgency and support our fathers Led by Sheikh Lemu and Dr Ahmad We see the Hon. Khadija as a mother who will convey our concern and proffer solutions

41 UNSCR 1325 –Women In Peace Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) urges Member States to take action at the national level in the following areas: •    Women's participation in decision-making and peace processes. •    The protection of women and girls •    Gender training

42 Implementation of UNSCR 1325
The 10th anniversary of Resolution 1325 in October 2010 highlighted the increasing demand for accountability to UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security. Many expressed concern about the fact that only 22 Member States out of 192 have adopted national action plans. Women are still underrepresented if not totally absent in most official peace negotiations and sexual violence in conflict continue to increase.

43 National Action Plan Presently, 35 countries have approved national action plans NAP and numerous others are currently in the drafting phase. The process of developing a plan is also creates awareness and capacity-building in order to overcome gaps and challenges to the full implementation of resolution 1325 (2000). Four countries have launched revised action plans Nigeria is in the process of developing one and zonal consultations are to begin soon to get citizens to contribute to the Country’s NAP

44 IFAPA African Peace Initiatives
Interfaith Action for Peace in Africa (IFAPA) has set in the agenda for involving women in the process of addressing the above situation. This based on the realisation that:- Women have been part and parcel of the conflict and situation of lack of peace in Africa; and   There is hidden potentiality in women towards conflict resolution and peace-making that can only be tapped and utilised effectively through inclusive approaches Two Liberian Women Leaders won the Nobel prize for Peace – President Ellen Sirleaf and Mrs Ggowen an activist

45 IFAPA Women’s Cry for Africa
However, IFAPA noted that for this to be done effectively, it is important to engage the women in the identification of issues and in proposing concrete actions to tackle the issues from grassroots level. During the Second Interfaith Summit held in South Africa in 2005, a pre-Summit gathering for women was carried out specifically for the purpose of deliberating on the women agenda. From this gathering, a continental campaign was launched under the banner ‘A mother’s Cry for a Healthy Africa’ Help Us Launch this Cry in West Africa. IFAPA has a Gender Desk that is willing to work with other CSOs across Africa

46 IFAPA’s Mother’s Campaign
The campaign focuses: In Africa on religious, political and social institutions Outside Africa i.e. women in the Diaspora and to others who would listen to the Mothers Cry for a Healthy Africa. Contacts and linkages have already been made with the Nordic countries and Switzerland after a ten-member women delegation visited these countries and through the IFAPA Nordic coordinating office. As the IFAPA Commissioner for Nigeria i am making to collaborate with IFAPA West Africa office in Senegal and NIREC to launch the Mother’s cry for West Africa This becomes more urgent now that the threat of violence is fast crossing borders

47 ABANTU for Development
ABANTU for Development AfD is an African NGO building capacities of NGOs for promoting development from a gender perspective It has a Regional Office for West Africa ROWA based in Accra, Ghana Regional Office for Eastern and Southern Africa ROESA based in Kenya The ABNTU Nigeria Country Office is in Kaduna It has extensive experience in peace work at the ROWA office working refugees from Liberia and Sierra Leone

48 AfD Gender Framework for Peace
ABANTU has developed a framework for incorporating gender into peace building AfD Nigeria is also organising reflection seminars on peace in Kaduna where ethno religious violence has become a regular occurence It is implementing micro credit scheme in three local government to combat poverty and assist those affected by the crises ABANTU also works with women politicians to promote effective participation in politics and public life It hosts the gender network of CSOs in Kaduna State and AdvocacyNigeria working for reduction of maternal mortality and morbidity

49 The Youth have Potential
To address alienation the youth have to be engaged (7)The youth of Nigeria are the future and we must empower them to be good leaders. Unemployment remains high among youth and vocational training lacks adequate funding. Youth need to be re-engaged in civic life to build their self-esteem in order to be productive citizens of Nigeria. To encourage this development, Nigerian women develped a manifesto that demand: Legislators should pass laws to ensure that companies within their constituencies to be part of the empowerment program to embrace quota for youth employment. The engagement of youth groups within communities to deter negative activities through education, empowerment and capacity building and mentoring.

50 Recommendations Manifesto demands that
Government should implement the national youth policy. Launch and or increase funding of rehabilitation program for youth who have experienced hardships and who are victims of drug addiction. Increase funding for role model or mentoring program for youth. Increase funding for popular sporting and cultural activities. Government should implement and enforce laws against human trafficking and provide adequate rehabilitation programs for trafficked persons. Women and youth should be involved in the decision making process of laws and policies that affect them. Government should enforce anti-drug laws.

51 Recommendations:West Africa
ECOWAS should encourage implementation of all it protocols implement the African Peer Review Mechanism to check excesses of African leaders’ deficiency in Governance Issues of sit tight leaders Mind boggling corruption Poverty Rigged elections Abuse of human rights Press censorship Violence Against Women

52 Let’s Join Hands Violence in One country in West Africa spills into others and we are all vulnerable as events unfolding in Mali has shown A hausa adage: ‘When your neigbour’s beard is on fire, Pour water on your own beard’ I thank you for listening

53 References (1)A consensus confidential document emerged from the NDCC meeting. It is a draft still being fine tuned Ehsan ul-Haq, -‘War on terror cannot be won by arms alone‘ Presentation at Thomson Reuters Foundation seminar on global security and terrorism NEXT publication Reuters circulated on an internet network (2) Jean Hershkovites-Boko Haram Is Not the Problem By Jean Herskovits Washington Post January 3, 2012 (3)Bilkisu Yusuf ‘Women, Religion, and Peace Building in Nigeria: A Case Study of Kaduna State. Paper presented at the seminar on Women Religion and Peace at United States Institute for Peace ,Washington 5/1/2012Yusuf Bilkisu yusuf-“Managing Muslim –Christian Conflicts in Northern Nigeria: A Case Study of Kaduna State” in Islam And Muslim Christian Relations. Centre for The Study of Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, University of Birmingham and Centre for Muslim-Christian Understanding, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. Volume 14 No 2 April 2007 (5) Johnnie Carson-Nigeria's Islamic Militants Are Capitalizing On Discontent – The Will US based On line newspaper 10/4 2012 (6) Junaid Committee has

54 Footnotes (7) Women ‘s Manifestoe developed by a coaltion of women activists to Engage with Politicians during the 2011 elections in Nigeria . Supported by International Republican Institute (8) On The Trail Of Boko Haram By Andrew Stroehlein Posted: on internet March 13, :35 (9) (Clinton: Nigeria Can Overcome Security, Economic Challenges- This Day Newspaper Lagos 14/2/2012 10) Sanusi Lamido Sanusi ‘Deprivation is the Cause of Boko Haram’ The Willl On Linenewspaper 2 /2/2012 ( Kukah:Mathew Hassan Beyond Boko Haram Al Bushra Newspaper, Abuja 10/2/2012 ACAC In an open letter signed by Tahir Abdullahi Usman, the organisation’s Director of Research and Documentation Daily Trust Abuja March 2012

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