Presentation on theme: "Group Members Mohd. Mohsin L2F03BBIT0185 Zeeshan Amer Dar L2F03BBIT0192 Rana M. Hassan L2F03BBIT0226 Arslan Ahmad L2F03BBIT0213 Imran Khan L2F03BBIT0235."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Waziristan Waziristan (Urdu: وزیرستان ) is a mountainous region of northwest Pakistan, bordering Afghanistan and covering some 11 585 km ² (4,473 mi ² ). It comprises the area west and southwest of Peshawar between the Tochi river to the north and the Gomal river to the south, forming part of Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas. The North-West Frontier Province lies immediately to the east. The region was an independent tribal territory from 1893, remaining outside of British-ruled empire and Afghanistan. Tribal raiding into British-ruled territory was a constant problem for the British, requiring frequent punitive expeditions between 1860 and 1945. The region became part of Pakistan in 1947. Waziristan is divided into two "agencies", North Waziristan and South Waziristan, with estimated populations (as of 1998) of 361,246 and 429,841 respectively. The two parts have quite distinct characteristics, though both tribes are subgroups of the Waziris and speak a common Waziri language. They have a formidable reputation as warriors and are known for their frequent blood feuds. Traditionally, feuding local Waziri religious leaders have enlisted outsiders in the Pakistani government, and U.S. forces hunting al-Qaeda fugitives, in attempts at score-settling. The tribes are divided into sub-tribes governed by male village elders who meet in a tribal jirga. Socially and religiously Waziristan is an extremely conservative area. Women are carefully guarded, and every household must be headed by a male figure. Tribal cohesiveness is so strong through so-called Collective Responsibility Acts in the Frontier Crimes Regulation. Waziristan is inhabited by the Darwesh Khel or Wazir tribes (from which the region derives its name) who live in fortified mountain villages and the Dawars (also known as Daurr or Daur) who farm in the valleys below. Geographically Wazir are living in the mountaineous region of the area where as Dawar are living in the Plain area. Razmak, Datta Khel, Spin wam, Dosali, Shawa are the places where wazir are living. Miranshah, Mrali, Edak, Hurmaz, Hassu Khel, Haider Khel are the places where Dawar are Living.
Waziri relations with Pakistan Relations with the Pakistani state have been tense for many years. There has been a strong strain of Pashtun unity ( thus irredentism in national terms ). This is not surprising, as the border with Afghanistan, though it follows the geography of the high watershed divide, is made porous by many high mountain passes of long traditional use. Thus the international border, of relatively recent creation, owes nothing to traditional ethnic boundaries. It is only nominally controlled by the Pakistani authorities and is in practice largely independent of the state, with the tribes fiercely guarding their independence and on occasion fighting state forces. After the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, thousands of Afghan refugees fled across the border to Waziristan, which became an important base for the mujahideen guerillas fighting the Soviet occupation. Afghan refugees were categorized in to (a) Muhajerrin or Refugees and (b) Mujahideen or freedom fighters. The government's public explanation was that only refugees are living in settled areas of Pakistan while the Mujahideen are based in the tribal areas. The area reprised its 1980s role in 2001 during the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan, this time playing host not only to refugees but also to defeated Taliban and al- Qaeda fighters. Osama bin Laden himself was widely believed to have taken refuge either in Waziristan or just across the Afghan border. The Pakistani government sent thousands of troops into the region in 2002 to hunt for bin Laden and other al-Qaeda fugitives. In March 2004, heavy fighting broke out at Azam Warsak, near the South Waziristan town of Wana, between Pakistani troops and an estimated 400 militants holed up in several fortified settlements. It was speculated that bin Laden's deputy Ayman al-Zawahiri was among those trapped by the Pakistani Army. Bin Laden is now suspected to be found or located in this region.
PROFILE OF THE North Waziristan ( HISTORICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE ) B ackground C limate T ribes A dministration T OCHI SCOUTS S HAWAL SCOUTS T HALL SCOUTS K HASSADARS
THE WAR (Conflict) & Waziristan War Combatants Pakistan + USA Waziristan tribesmen, al-Qaeda members Commanders Pervez MusharrafAyman al-Zawahiri (probable) Strength 15,000?8000-20,000? Casualties 500 Pakistanis, 50 Americans2000 confirmed Date:March 2004 to present Location: Waziristan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan Result:Ongoing/Unknown
Issues on North Waziristan Osama ’ s Hide-Out Ayman Al-Zawahiri Government Actions } Al - Qaeda
Osama’s Hide-Out Who is Osama? Is he alive? Where is he? Is he really in Pakistan? Or Is Pakistan A hide-out to him?
Introduction A doctor A Mastermind Osama ’ s Right Hand Dead or Alive Believe to be in Pakistan (N. Waziristan) Ayman Al-Zawahiri
Government In government there are set of point of views relating to N. Waziristan. President has a different point of view, prime minister, Minister of interior affairs and etc. All of them have their own point of views on what is going on in N. Waziristan. Like our president Gen. Pervaiz Musharraf said that we do not allow Waziris to build a state within a state as they have their separate flag and a region that is not actually under direct influence of Government of Pakistan. Moreover Minister of interior affairs Aftab Ahmad Khan Sherpao said that the operation in N. Waziristan is just to pull out the foreign militants who took refuge in the region. He said in an early briefing that government want to sort out the matter by dialog but not with militants or miscreants and was open to negotiations with “those who believe in development and peace and progress of the country”. He negates the common rumor that U.S is all that happening in Waziristan by saying that we are not fighting for someone's else agenda which we have to resolve on our own. He added that action should be taken against those who did not accept the sovereignty of country.
Opposition ANP president Asfand Yar Wali said that there could be different reasons for the actions taken place in Waziristan, but despite of these reasons government should stop killing there. He said that opposition and ruling party should unite to resolve the matter as it is a national agenda and now an international agenda revolving around Pakistan, Afghanistan, America and its allies. He said that first of all government should strictly notice the open supply of ammunitions and arms in the region as they are fighting guerilla wars. He said that the issue should be resolve through political way and noted that Parliamentary Committee put unanimous recommendations for the solution of Balochistan but to no avail. He said that government should not commit the same mistake of 1971, otherwise it will result in a loss. Senator Raza Rabbani of the PPP demanded the government to provide evidence of foreign involvement in Waziristan and Balochistan. He asked the government to explain why the recommendations of a parliamentary sub-committee headed by Mushahid Hussain on Balochistan had not been implemented, when the government itself had formed the committee. Rabbani also demanded the government explain exactly what quantum of autonomy it was willing to concede to the provinces, and identify the “hidden hands” which were blocking the implementation of the parliamentary committee’s recommendations. He recommended a joint session of parliament presided over by Gen Musharraf to resolve both issues. MMA the major opposition party in the NA strongly oppose the actions government has taken in the Waziristan region. In that context Maulana Fazl-u-Rehman said that government is only pretending to be a fighter against terrorism, but actually making or giving relief to U.S government He continued by saying that government should stop that killer wave as there are no terrorists in the region. He also added that government is again creating situation like 1971 (Bangladesh), so it should resolve the problem by dialogs not by killings or terrifying innocents in the region. Independent MNA from North Waziristan Maulana Neik Zaman said that situation in N. Waziristan is worse from March 1, 2006. He added that on the dialog of Governor (N.W.F.P) and our local jirga the operation in North Waziristan stopped. But, on the arrival of U.S President the region was again bombarded. Media reported wrong facts as they show a mountainous region being bombarded, but he fact is that a village is bombarded. 14 people including children and women were also killed by firing. He ask government not to kill the locals, but to ensure food and water supply in the region.
Waziris The Waziri’s point of view can be taken by the following questions asked during an interrogation of a civilian belonging to N. Waziristan. His name is Maulana Salahudin, got M.A in Arabic and live in a quite wealthy region of Shawal. He’s been arrested on the charge or suspect of being related with Taliban in early April 2004. He is the most talented person in that region as being a cleric, a Sufi, an educationist and a social worker. During interrogation some questions are just enough to make a judgment of Waziri’s psyche or point of view. These questions are as follows: 1.In the outside world, the valleys of Shawal are considered as hotbeds of al- Qaeda. What is your opinion on this? 2.There is no electricity in the area, no hospital, and you ask for a TV booster?