Essential Question: ► How do changes in Scientific Thought mirror changes in society?
Scientific Revolution ► The Scientific Revolution was a new way of thinking about the natural world. Based upon careful observation & a willingness to question accepted beliefs.
Scientific Revolution ► In the mid-1500s, scientists began to question beliefs and make new theories based on experimentation.
Scientific Revolution ► Medieval view Geocentric Theory: The Earth is the center of the universe.
Scientific Revolution ►N►N►N►Nicolas Copernicus – a Polish cleric & astronomer. IIIIn the early 1500’s Copernicus questioned the geocentric theory of the universe HHHHeliocentric Theory: the sun is the center of the universe
► Galileo Galilei Italian Scientist Built a telescope Book: Starry Messenger ► described observations of the heavens that backed up Copernicus & went against Church teachings His findings scared both Catholic and Protestant Churches ► If people believed the Church could be wrong about this, they could question other church teachings. Pope made Galileo read a signed confession
Scientific Revolution ► Scientific Method Logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas Francis Bacon & Renè Descartes ► Two important thinkers who helped to develop the Scientific Method
Scientific Revolution ► Isaac Newton Brought together ideas of Copernicus & Galileo under a single theory of motion. The Law of Gravity The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (the universe is like a giant clock) This book described the theory of universal gravity- every object in the universe attracts every other object, the degree of attraction depends on the size of the objects & the distance between them. The physical laws of motion on earth were the same in the heavens
Scientific Revolution ► Andreas Vesalius dissects human corpses and publishes his observations ► Edward Jenner introduced a vaccine to prevent smallpox ► Gabriel Fahrenheit & Anders Celsius created thermometers to use mercury in a glass to measure temperature. REMBRANDT’S ANATOMY LESSON OF PROFESSOR NICOLAES TULP (1632)