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Lecture - 2 CSE 3323 The computer industry: historical, social and professional issues Lecture: Dr Ronald Pose Room: 122, Building 26

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture - 2 CSE 3323 The computer industry: historical, social and professional issues Lecture: Dr Ronald Pose Room: 122, Building 26"— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture - 2 CSE 3323 The computer industry: historical, social and professional issues Lecture: Dr Ronald Pose Room: 122, Building 26

2 Lecture - 2 Today’s Lecture Introduction and course outline History – Abacus to the Jacquard Loom Issue – An introduction to ethics

3 CSE 3323 The computer industry: historical, social and professional issues Class Format Lectures provide an introduction to the topics you should investigate further. Lectures will be divided into: –History lecture –Issues lecture The Break (15 minutes) gives you an opportunity to read articles in preparation for the discussion section Discussions with the whole class or when divided into groups allow you to express your views and better form your own opinions Case Studies let you apply your understanding

4 CSE 3323 The computer industry: historical, social and professional issues Passing CSE3323 CSE3323 is a very broad subject. There is a lot of reading material provided / linked to. Try avoid it and you may fail. There is a large research and writing component. In order to do well (D to HD) you will need to do your own research into topics covered in lectures.

5 CSE 3323 The computer industry: historical, social and professional issues Passing CSE3323 "If God intended for us to go to lectures He wouldn't have created double-sided photocopiers." IC RagMag 1991/92 Handouts will be double sided to save paper Much of the important material will come from discussion and will therefore not be in slides You are encourage to take notes of class discussions, but more importantly you are encouraged to participate in discussion.

6 CSE 3323 The computer industry: historical, social and professional issues Outcomes What you should gain for this subject is a better understanding of the history of the computer industry and issues that will effect you in later years as Professionals in the Computer Industry.

7 Lecture - 2 History Part 1 Abacus to the Jacquard Loom 3,000 BC to 1801 CE 3000 BC1801 CE

8 CSE 3323 The computer industry: historical, social and professional issues Computing Compute – v, To determine by calculation; reckon; calculate - The MacQuarie Dictionary (2 nd Ed), 1991 Computer – n, 1. One who computes 2. An apparatus for performing mathematical computations electronically according to a series of stored instructions called a program. - The MacQuarie Dictionary (2 nd Ed), First coined by Sir Thomas Browne (1646) re: def 1: the calculation of calendars

9 CSE 3323 The computer industry: historical, social and professional issues Abacus BC An early computational tool, originally composed of a set of stone tables called abaci A ways of representing countable objects e.g. sheep, wheat etc The abacus was popular during the Middle Ages Picture (next slide), Ref1, Ref2PictureRef1 Ref2

10 CSE 3323 The computer industry: historical, social and professional issues Abacus

11 CSE 3323 The computer industry: historical, social and professional issues Algorithm 1200 AD Mukhammad ibn Musa Al'Khowarizmi a 12 century Tashkent cleric Published a book about written processes that could achieve some goal in calculation The word Algorithm is a corruption of Al'Khowarizmi

12 CSE 3323 The computer industry: historical, social and professional issues John Napier 1612 John Napier, 1 st published use of the decimal point and logarithms 1620sNapier’s work lead to the creation of the slide rule

13 CSE 3323 The computer industry: historical, social and professional issues Blaise Pascal Created an “adding machine” with automatic carrying The device was created to aid his father – a tax collector The first automatic calculation device (calculator)* * Wilhelm Schickard wrote about a calculating machine in 1623 but no copy of it has been found. Ref1, Ref2Ref1Ref2 Ref

14 CSE 3323 The computer industry: historical, social and professional issues Jacquard Loom An automatic loom was invented by Joseph-Marie Jacquard. The loom pioneered the use of punch cards. Riots occurred as workers feared being made redundant by the machines. digital-cinema.html

15 Lecture - 2 Issue 1 Computer Ethics

16 CSE 3323 The computer industry: historical, social and professional issues Ethics “‘Ethics’ has been defined as the code or set of principles by which people live. Ethics is about what is considered to be right and what is considered to wrong” Tom Forester and Perry Morrison, Computer Ethics (2 nd ed), MIT, USA 1994

17 CSE 3323 The computer industry: historical, social and professional issues Ethics 2 Ethicsn.pl. (also treated as sing.) 1 moral philosophy. 2 a moral principles. 2 b set of these. Source: Pocket Oxford Dictionary, Oxford University Press, UK, 1994

18 CSE 3323 The computer industry: historical, social and professional issues Ethical Theories Relativism (Spinoza ) Utilitarianism (J.S. Mill, ) –A subset of Consequentialism Kantianism (Kant, ) –Also known as Deontologism Reference: Tom Forester and Perry Morrison, Computer Ethics (2 nd ed), MIT, USA 1994 – Introduction.

19 CSE 3323 The computer industry: historical, social and professional issues Relativism Ethics is always relative Right and wrong depend on culture There are no universal “rights” or “wrongs”

20 CSE 3323 The computer industry: historical, social and professional issues Consequentialism & Utilitarianism “Right” or “Wrong” depends on the consequences The consequences to society is the primary concern Utilitarianism additionally says “good” is what gives the greatest benefit to the largest number of people

21 CSE 3323 The computer industry: historical, social and professional issues Kantianism Actions are right or wrong in and of themselves (circumstances have no impact) The impact on individuals is important If the means is “bad” the result can never justify it (making the result good)

22 CSE 3323 The computer industry: historical, social and professional issues End of Slides List of images and sources follows. You may wish to visit these sites as they Mostly contain further content as well As the image.

23 The ENIAC Computer The Colossus electronic.html Babbage’s Difference Engine history/Computing.shtml An Abacus Border Images

24 UNIVAC Scans.2.June.11.html IBM ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/701/701_intro.htmlhttp://www- 1.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/701/701_intro.html IBM System/ ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/mainframe/mainframe_2423PH2022.htmlhttp://www- 1.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/mainframe/mainframe_2423PH2022.html The MITS Altair altair_8800.htmlhttp://wwwcsif.cs.ucdavis.edu/~csclub/museum/items/mits_ altair_8800.html


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