2 1. Final Exam Wednesday (6/9) - 8:00 – 9:30 Period 2 – Rm Period 7 – Rm. 273Period 3 – Rm Period 9 – Rm. 2642. Study Guide due Tues. (6/8) (at the start ofclass) for 10 pts Extra Credit on the FinalNOTE: No extra credit will be awarded to completed study guides submitted after the deadline (start of class on Tues. 6/8)
3 Review all notesBe sure all novels have been turned back inView outline of characters, plot, themes, vocab and figurative elements on study guide to help focus your review.Define characters – symbolism, actionsDefine plot events – what happens, why, what themes it conveysKnow all background information (authors’ lives, historical context, allusions, literary terms)There will be a short section to read – you must know your literary terms in order to decipher information and identify accurate answers – this is a skill you should have developed through this class.You will have an essay that deals with satire – this was the main focus of 11th CP – you need to be able to explain what it is, how its written and how the examples we have read may impact society.
5 Huxley’s Life:Family famous scientists (evolution)Blind 2 yrs (primary writing theme = vision)Totalitarian Influence = MussoliniFDR – fireside chats = government as parental forceStory set in London but about AmericaPublished 1932
6 Literary Terms:Satire – uses wit, irony and exaggeration to highlight and criticize societal flawsDystopia – dystopian society is characterized by misery, oppression, violence, disease, and/or pollutionMood – Brave New World opens with a cold mood; void of emotions (wintriness responds to wintriness)
8 Hypnopedia – sleep teaching (brainwash morals) Content Terminology:Hypnopedia – sleep teaching (brainwash morals)Conditioning – psychological and behavioral practices used to control the way the citizens think and actNeoPavlovian – behavioral conditioning used to create a desired reflex (electric shock therapy; Delta children)Bokanovsky Process – used to create clones (egg proliferates from 1 to 96)
9 Content Terminology:VPS – violent passion surrogate (represents fear and anger as natural part of humanity)Pregnancy Substitute – undertaken by Fanny Crowne; shows biological maternal urges still existMotto – Community, Identity, StabilityFord – deity (because their society is the idea of mass production applied to biology)
10 Content Terminology:Centrifugal Bumble Puppy – World State game; shows point of sports was commerce (requires travel; elaborate equipment)Caste System – inescapable social structure (citizens are genetically assigned: Alpha (smartest; no clones), Betas, Gammas, Deltas, Epsilons (lowest; semi-human)Soma – mood altering drug; taken if negative emotion does arise
11 Malpais – savage reservation (New Mexico) Content Terminology:Solidarity Service – World State religious service; honors Ford; ends in emphasis on carnal / physical (goal = unity)Malpais – savage reservation (New Mexico)Lighthouse – John’s final retreat; represents isolation; hopeFeelies – World State entertainment; movies in which the audience experiences all sensations viewed on screen
12 Characters:Bernard Marx – Alpha plus, psychologist (ironic), shorter, outcaste, discontentD.H.C. – strict; secret past (Linda); humiliated by Bernard; becomes recluseMustapha Mond – World Controller (1 of 10); formerly a renegade scientist; believes his role is a necessary sacrificeHelmholtz Watson – Alpha, too intelligent (outcast by choice); Bernard’s friend
13 Characters:Henry Foster – ideal World State male; Lenina dates him for 4 months; focused on statisticsLenina – most desired female; ignorant of ‘freedom’; predisposition towards love (Henry; John)Fanny – Lenina’s clone; has pregnancy substitute
14 Characters:John the Savage – Savior archetype; tries to resist temptations of World State; loses his way (commits suicide)Linda – John’s mother; loved D.H.C; stranded on Savage Reservation; euthanized through somaPope – Linda’s lover on the Savage Reservation; gives John The Complete Works of William Shakespeare; hated by JohnMitsima – teaches John how to work the clay and make a bow and arrow
15 Characters:Morgana Rothschild – Bernard is distracted by her unibrow during the Solidarity ServiceBenito Hoover – always happy; Foil for Bernard MarxDarwin Boneparte – feelies reporter that makes John’s purification ritual an instant sensation during his lighthouse retreat
16 BNW Themes:Individual is helpless against a strong majority or technological temptationsTechnology limits our humanityConformity (and/or communism) destroys individuality
17 BNW Quotes:“Wheels must turn steadily but cannot turnunattended.” (Mond)“Oh Brave New World.” (John)“I searched and shouted, but there was nosign of her.” (D.H.C.)“Did you ever feel as though you hadsomething inside of you just waiting tocome out?” (Helmholtz)
18 BNW Quotes:“Oh my dear, my dear. If only you knew howglad – after all these years a civilized face.” (Linda)“I ventured to think that your fordship might find the matter of sufficient scientific evidence.” (Bernard)“Like a caffeine solution party.” (Helmholtz)“Everyone who is anyone.” (Mond)
20 Shelley’s LifeMother died as a result of childbirthIsolated / difficult childhood = distant relationship with fatherAffair with Percy Shelley shockedsociety = scandalPercy was older and alreadymarried
21 Shelley’s InfluencesGalvanismIndustrial RevolutionGothicism - genre of literature that combines elements of both horror and romance.Suspense, horror, unreliable narrator, Creature of Nightmare, connection to nature, supernatural elementsRomantic Literature – emphasis on individual’s emotions and imagination, as well as connect to and an in-depth description of natureRomantic hero, heightened emotion, rebellion, connection to nature, imagination, emphasis on individual
22 Shelley’s Novel as Satire Unethical and dangerous use of technology in the text highlight and warn against the abuses of the Industrial Revolution and unquestioned scientific advancements of Shelley’s era.The monster represents the dangers of technology and the industrial revolution.
23 Frankenstein Plot Review (The Letters) Epistolary (structure of text)Written by Walton to his sister Margaret SavilleDetail the events surrounding his quest (discover the properties of magnetism; the Northwest Passage)Initially filled with hubris; longing for gloryViews Frankenstein as a peer; friendLearns from Frankenstein’s mistakeShows compassion to The MonsterAbandons quest
24 Frankenstein Plot Review (Frankenstein’s Narrative) Happy childhoodRebelled: studied Agrippa, Paracelsus, Magnus (occult)Mother rescues Elizabeth from peasant familyViews power of lightening (idea for experiment)Mother’s scarlet feverIngolstadt (Waldman = mentor)Isolation; constructs monsterHorrified; disgusted (rejects creation; denial)
25 Frankenstein Plot Review (Frankenstein’s Narrative) Frankenstein’s fever and deliriumNursed back to health by HenryLetter from ElizabethWilliam’s murder; Justine’s confession / executionVictor ‘escapes’ into nature (avoids guilt)Listens to the Monster’s storyPromises to create female monster(companion)
26 Frankenstein Plot Review (The Monster’s Narrative) Longs for friendship; loveInitially learns through senses (like an infant)Rejected by villagers (develops fear of humans)Resides in a lean-to attached to DeLacey’s cottageLearns through observation; books (Plutarch’s Lives, Sorrows of Werter, Paradise Lost)Attempts connection with old man DeLacey (blind)Rejected by DeLacey’s; burns down cottage (vows revenge)Seeks Victor (wants companion)Betrayed by Victor (vows revenge)
27 Frankenstein Plot Review (The DeLacey’s) Felix helped Turk (political prisoner)Gave the Turk and his daughter passports in his family’s nameSister and father imprisoned as a resultUpon release – exiled; live in poverty in cottageSafie escapes from father; reunited with Felix ( in love)Admired by the MonsterThe Monster learns language as Felix teaches SafieEventually reject the Monster out of fear
28 Frankenstein Plot Review (The Monster’s Goal) Primary Goal – Friendship and UnderstandingReaches out to Victor (rejected)Entered village (attacked and driven out)Approaches DeLacey (rejected and attacked)Asks for female to be created (destroyed before his eyes)Mourns Victor (his only ‘companion’)
29 Frankenstein Review (Archetypes) Romantic Hero – social rebel, uninhibited, melancholyTransgressor – crosses a natural boundary or lawOutsider – isolated journey; seeks acceptanceSatanic – Hero – villain whose evil deeds are justifiable within the novel’s contextPromethean-Hero – a rebel against a larger order, one who defies traditional moral categoriesWarrior-Hero – strong; actions determine a nation’s fate
30 Prometheus – God, gave man fire, punished for ambition Frankenstein Plot Review (Allusions)Prometheus – God, gave man fire, punished for ambitionLuigi Galvani - discovered ‘animal electricity’; basis for plotCornelius Agrippa – occultist / alchemist; conjured spiritsParacelsus – occultist / alchemistAlbertus Magnus - advocated coexistence of science and religionEpistolary – novel told through a series of letters and journal entriesGothic novel - genre with horror, supernatural, remote settings, mystery
31 Frankenstein Plot Review (Allusions) Paradise Lost – novel monster reads (Genesis & original sin)Plutarch’s Lives - novel monster reads (biographies of great Romans)The Sorrows of Werter -novel monster reads (unrequited love)Romantic Quest – journey into nature for self-discoveryRomanticism – genre focused on the individual, emotional, imaginativeShelley – author, wrote due to challenge, many deaths around her
32 Frankenstein Plot Review (Characters) William – youngest Frankenstein; murdered by the MonsterEarnest – middle FrankensteinElizabeth – adopted Frankenstein (from peasants); fears Victor doesn’t love her; weds Victor; murdered by the MonsterJustine – Frankenstein’s servant; arrested / confesses to/ murdered for William’s murderHenry – Frankenstein’s best friend; nurses him back to health; traveling companion; murdered by the Monster; Victor arrested for and found innocent of Henry’s murder
33 Frankenstein Plot Review (Characters) Beaufort – Caroline’s father; Alphonse’s friend (Alphonse marries Caroline to protect her)Alphonse – Frankenstein’s father; tells him not to study the occult sciencesKirwin – sheriff that arrests Victor for Henry’s murder, writes Victor’s father / gets Victor the best room / nurse; helps Victor plan his defenseWalton – writes letters; on quest; learns from Victor’s storyFelix – involvement in a crime cost his family their house and fortune.
34 Frankenstein Plot Review (Characters) Waldman – encourages Victor to study all branches of scienceKrempe – warns Victor not to study occult sciencesCaroline – Victor’s mother; dies from scarlet feverMargaret – Walton’s sister; receives the lettersVictor – transgressor; downfall is hubris; protagonist; dies before he catches / stops the MonsterMonster – primary quest for friendship / understanding; turns to revenge against Frankenstein; persuades Walton to let him go
35 Frankenstein Plot Review (Important Details) Walton’s Quest – magnetic poles, knowledge, passageway, unknownFrankenstein’s Quest - eternal life / scientific powerMonster’s Quest - friendshipNovel’s Structure – epistolary: letters, flashbacks, concluding actionRole of Friendship – drives Walton and the monsterVictor’s Motives – power and ambition / prideMonster’s Motives – love, friendship, acceptance then revenge
36 Frankenstein Plot Review (Important Details) Justine’s Execution – framed, confessesThe De Lacey’s History – Felix committed crime / family paysFelix’s Actions – freed Safie’s father; made fake passportsMonster’s Education – spied on DeLacey’s (Safie being taught); readsFrankenstein’s Promise – create a female companion for the monster
38 Anglo-Saxon Era Review: Celts – native inhabitants of BritainAngles, Saxons, Jutes – hired Germanic mercenary tribes (hired by Romans: Lord Vortigern)Druids – Celts’ Pagan Priests; connected to StonehengeAnimism – Pagan religion that believes spirits are all around and must be satisfiedWyrd – Anglo-Saxon belief they must seek and fulfill their destiny
39 Anglo-Saxon Era Review: Adoration – ultimate goal of an Anglo-Saxon warriorBerserker – legendary Anglo-Saxon warrior; wore animal pelt / fought in trance-like stateAlfred the Great – unified Anglo-Saxon tribes; provided education to all free menRole of the Church – (Christianity) unified the clans through a common sense of morality; provided a link between England and EuropeRole of Women – gracious towards men; keeper of the mead
40 Beowulf Review:Beowulf – epic hero; saves the Danes; becomes a kingGrendel’s Mother – seeks man-price (Weirgeld); defeated by giant’s sword (killed by Beowulf)Aeschere – Hrothgar’s best friend killed by Grendel’s Mother (Weirgeld)Grendel – angered by singing in the mead hall; descendent of Cain; symbolizes anarchy
41 Beowulf Review:Hrothgar – great (generous king of the Danes)Unferth – brother-slayer; challenges Beowulf’s reputation (flyting)The Dragon – symbolizes death; attacks Beowulf’s kingdom after a jeweled cup is stolen from its treasure hoard; kills Beowulf; killed by Wiglaf
42 Beowulf Review (Important People and Places): Man-Price – payment / retribution for killing another’s kinsman (Weirgeld)Cain – Biblical allusion (first ‘brother-slayer’); fathered demon raceHeorot – Hrothgar’s great mead hall (attacked for 12 yrs by Grendel)Hubris – destructive pride (Beowulf’s final battle)Hrunting – Unferth’s sword; fails in battle against Grendel’s MotherBrother-Slayer – ultimate Anglo-Saxon crime because loyalty is their most important quality
43 Beowulf Review (Important Literary Terms): Epic – long narrative poem telling about the deeds of great hero and reflecting the social values of the society from which it originatedOral Poetry – Anglo-Saxon tradition of memorizing and passing down stories verballyScop – Anglo-Saxon professional poet (memory of the tribe; keeper of the souls)Heroic Tradition – Anglo-Saxon practice of composing and telling stories focused on braveryElegiac Tradition – mood that mourns the passing of an earlier better time
44 Beowulf Review (Important Literary Terms): Flyting – argument in verse (“Unferth’s Challenge” contains first recorded example)Epithet - descriptive term (word or phrase) accompanying, or occurring in place of, a name, and having entered common usage (LIKE A KENNING)Foreshadowing - clues for the reader to be able to predict what might occur laterKenning – a descriptive figure of speech that takes the place of a familiar noun; Anglo-Saxon poetic deviceRiddle – elaborate and artful description of ordinary objects; used to prove mental dominanceTheme – memento mori (achieve adoration)
46 Historical relevance: Author: Geoffrey ChaucerSetting: Spring (symbolizes change – purpose of satire)Purpose for Voyage: St. Thomas Becket (forgiveness, healing, required, give thanks)Literary Importance: popularized Middle English; gave the power to the peasantsSocial Issues: Bubonic Plague, Church Corruption, Peasant’s Revolt, Materialism
47 Know the purpose of the Prologue Know the seven deadly sins Exposition = CharacterizationKnow the seven deadly sinsPride (worst), Anger, Greed, Wrath, Gluttony, Sloth, LustKnow the three religious vows / what pilgrims must keep themPoverty, Chastity and Obedience (only ECCLESIASTICAL)
48 Focus on the following pilgrims: Knight - highest ranking, back from crusade, purpose to give thanksSquire - Preoccupied with ‘love’, represents lustYoeman - Hunts, wears all green (practical) = LOGICCook - Infected ulcer on his knee = PLAGUE! Conveys the theme,appearances can be deceivingMerchant – Picture of wealth but actually in debt – on the run!Host - his idea to tell the stories (contest for free dinner)Wife of Bath - inherited money from four dead husbands!Expert at love and relationshipsPardoner – worst in Chaucer’s opinion, represents Pride, sells fakerelics (makes a mockery out of the values of the Church)
49 The winner will receive a dinner paid for by all The Canterbury TalesFrame Narrative (stories within a story)Basic Plot:12 pilgrims (religious travelers) journey to the shrine of St. Thomas Becket.To pass the time the Host suggests they have a contest: Each pilgrim will tell a story and the one that is the most entertaining as well as the one that teaches the best lesson wins.The winner will receive a dinner paid for by all
50 Middle English - peasant language (gives power to the commoners!)Prologue:He picked 7 – 9 people and/or professions and used humor, wit, and vivid description (satire) to characterize each in his prologue.Characterization revealed the flaws / positive traits of each individualConsequently, Chaucer sent a message about the given social group
51 1. Why is Chaucer considered England’s first political satirist? Wrote in Middle English (peasant language)Satirist – brought attention to corruptionUsed Exemplum – short story designed to teach a moral lesson (homily)Geoffrey Chaucer
52 3. What was the basis for the Feudal System? Kings owned land 2. Provide a diagram of the Feudal System’s class structure.King Lord Knight Serf3. What was the basis for the Feudal System?Kings owned landLords possessed land (given by king)Knights protected land pledged loyalty and military serviceSerfs worked the land (in debt; slaves)
53 It took 14 yrs to become a Knight! 4. How did the crusades influence Medieval Literature?idealized knighthood (chivalry)Led to genre: Medieval RomanceIt took 14 yrs to become a Knight!
54 5. Outline 3+ characteristics of Medieval Literature. Written to entertain / praise the French nobilityPrimarily upper class charactersCentral plot = Knight’s quest; loveCharacteristics: magic, adventure,lady in distress, vague setting
55 6. Outline 3+ characteristics of City Literature. Reaction to inaccurate portrayal of upper class in Medieval RomanceEmerged after serfs bought their freedom (sheep = freedom)Written in Middle EnglishSatireGoal = unify and informthe Middle Class
56 Publisher = transcribed all texts Librarian = preserved all texts 7. List 3+ reasons the Medieval Church was an important force in Medieval culture and literature.Publisher = transcribed all textsLibrarian = preserved all textsTeacher = centers of educationCanterbury Cathedral
57 Canterbury Tales: Prologue Introduces all the pilgrims (travelers)Describes them (symbolic)Gives brief overview of their personalitySatire (like a mirror)Uses comedy and exaggeration tohelp people realize flaws
58 As a result of Chaucer’s writing Literature becomes political venueChaucer demonstrates the power of satireIncreased emphasis of educationWorking class uses pamphlets toorganize and revolt!
60 The archetypes: Survivor, fighter, serial lover, lush, snob, bully, adulterer, hunter, preacher, convict, fugitive, philosopher, serial killer, a con-artist, and an infected As you read, see if you can figure out who’s who!
61 Knight Blood on tunic Giving thanks Highest rank, but most humble PilgrimDescriptionIrony / MessageKnightBlood on tunicGiving thanksHighest rank, butmost humbleSquireLong, blond curlsFancy clothesLover not a fighterVanity; LustNot prepared forbattle
62 PilgrimDescriptionIrony / MessagePrioressSpeaks incorrect FrenchWears red lipstick (prostitute)Pride; LustClergy is corruptOxford ClericLazy; smartBorrows money for booksSlothShould use knowledge to make a difference
63 PilgrimDescriptionIrony / MessageFranklinRetired sheriffEpicureanGluttonyCookInfected boil on his kneeHas plague; good cookAppearances can be deceiving
64 Pilgrim Description Irony / Message PhysicianInvolved in scam with apothecaryAppearances can be deceivingWife of BathGap between teeth; big hips (romantically talented)Inherited money(4 dead husbands)LustTemptress
65 PilgrimDescriptionIrony / MessageMillerEnormous; red hairStarted fight with manhe was robbingWrathPlowmanPoorestDonates 10% to ChurchOne with theleast gives themost
66 PilgrimDescriptionIrony / MessageHostChaucer’s voiceDevises contest ideaLawyerKnows every law but never won a caseAppearances can be deceivingPardonerCons people out of money in the name of the ChurchPrideWorst in Chaucer’s opinion
67 REMEMBER: Characteristics of Medieval Romance: A tale of high adventure (crusade, knight’s adventure, rescue a lady in distress)Idealizes chivalry and knightsPlot based on knight’s love for a ladyImaginary and vague settings(No true sense of time or location)Often involves magic / supernatural
68 Unifies, inspires and informs middle and lower class REMEMBER: Characteristics of City Literature:Satire (parody)Unifies, inspires and informs middle and lower classUsed to identify corruption and criticize governing forcesChaucer popularizes (Middle English; printing press)
69 Medieval Law = OrdealsGuilt or innocent determined by subjecting accused to a painful or impossible taskBased on the premise that God would help the innocent by performing a miracle on their behalf.Forbidden by Pope Innocent IIIWager of Law replaces ‘ordeal’Take oath; 12 people vouch for accused
70 Types of Ordeals:Ordeal by fire (hot coals; boiling oil or lead)Ordeal by hot or cold water (boiling water; submersion)Ordeal by ingestion (poison; twisted substances)Ordeal by torture (confession means guilty)Ordeal by combat (winner = innocent)Ordeal by quest (survive; acquire object;answer question = innocence)
71 The Wife of Bath = Temptress archetype Story parody of Medieval RomanceKnight must complete an ordealStory part of the marriage groupCriticizes gender inequality,justice system and social class bias
72 Read The Wife of Bath’s Tale and answer all reading guide questions – Complete Reading Guide Notes:Wife of Bath’s Themes: Appearances can be Deceiving; Gender Equality; Benefits of PovertyThe Wife of Bath owned a clothing business in London. She is one of the first and most memorable feminist narrators in satirical fiction. Biblically, it challenges the view that Eve caused the fall of man.
73 Incubus – evil spirit (impregnates women) Implored - beggedExtort – get by threats and/or violenceCosseted - pamperedMidas – mythical king; everything he touches turns to goldOvid – Roman poet (topics = love; seduction; transformation)Sovereignty – power (over another)Bequest – gift left through means of a willProwess – outstanding abilityTemporal – earthly; not spiritualChurl – ill-mannered person; fool
74 1. Define the following in relationship to the plot of the Wife of Bath’s Tale Crime:RapeOrdeal:1 year and 1 day to find the answer to, “What women most desire”
75 Quest:Traveled the kingdom asking every women he encountered for the answer (gender flaws revealed to society)Answer:“self-same sovereignty over their husband as their lover.” (Power)
76 Ultimatum:Choice #1 = beautiful; unfaithful wifeChoice #2 = old / ugly; faithful wifeResolution:The Knight tells her to decide (gives her power) = gets beautiful; faithful wifeMessage = equality yields benefits
77 2. What is the Wife of Bath’s archetype 2. What is the Wife of Bath’s archetype? Support your identification with 2 supporting examples.Temptress = archetypePhysical description (gap in teeth; hips)Reputation (claims skilled in love)Multiple husbands; but all dead (she possesses their fortune)
78 3. Explain the ‘moral’ lesson or theme revealed through the Old Woman’s comparison of ‘men and fire’ Social rank and/or gender are no guarantee of honor, virtue or gentilityMessage: Equality is just; people areunpredictable
79 Know the Wife of Bath’s Tale The Knight committed …RapeHis original sentence was …death (beheading!)The Knight’s second sentence was issued by …The QueenIt stated …1yr and 1 day to find “What women most desire”The Knight and the old woman agree that…He will marry her in exchange for the correct answer
80 Know the Wife of Bath’s Tale The correct answer to the Knight’s question is …“self-same sovereignty over her husband and her lover” = powerThe Knight’s initial response to the payment the woman demands…Take everything but his ‘love’ = shallow / superficialThe final choice the old woman offers the man is …Choice #1 – beautiful but unfaithfulChoice #2 – old / ugly but faithfulHis response is …She may choose (he gave her power! She giveshim both – beautiful / faithful)
81 Know the Wife of Bath’s Tale What criticism of women does the Wife of Bath offer?Controlled by emotion (too sensitive / insecure)What is the rhetorical purpose of the Wife of Bath’s story about MidasWomen can’t keep a secret; in connection to Ovid reveals everyone has flawsExplain the irony involved in the answer the Knight receives?He was guilty of forcing his will upon a woman – the answer reveals they wish to enforce their will upon men
82 Know the Wife of Bath’s Tale Is the Knight’s reaction to the old woman an example of direct or indirect characterization? What does it reveal about his character?Indirect – shows he is shallowWhat point is the narrator making by comparing men to fire?Fire remains fire no matter where it is; however, men do not inherit gentility – regardless of rankParaphrase the old woman’s views concerning poverty. What satirical message may they conveyGod chose a life of poverty; not shameful; lesson to learn - kindness
83 Know the Wife of Bath’s Tale Is the Knight’s reaction to the old woman an example of direct or indirect characterization? What does it reveal about his character?Indirect – shows he is shallowWhat point is the narrator making by comparing men to fire?Fire remains fire no matter where it is; however, men do not inherit gentility – regardless of rankParaphrase the old woman’s views concerning poverty. What satirical message may they conveyGod chose a life of poverty; not shameful; lesson to learn - kindness
84 What if you were told…Baby Carrots Warning: A recent flier warns that baby carrots sold in supermarkets pose a health risk because they're processed in chlorine.OrCook an egg with your phone: Two Russian scientist recently proved you can cook (hard-boil) an egg by placing it between two cell phones and texting back and forth!?=
85 Think about the previous scenarios, as well as other Urban Legends you have heard. What are the main characteristics of such narratives? What type of impact do such characteristics have on the reader and/or listener? Why would an author use this style?
86 Best submitted legend: The Flat Tire: Two students decide to go skiing for the weekend, and are having such a good time they decide to blow off the calculus exam They decide to tell their professor that they got a flat tire and therefore deserve to take the exam at a rescheduled time. Hearing the story, said professor agrees . At the appointed time, the professor greets them and places them in two separate rooms to take the exam. The few questions on the first page are worth a minor 10% of the overall grade, and are quite easy. Each student grows progressively confident as they take the test, sure that they have gotten away with fooling the professor. However, when they turn to the second page they discover that they really haven't. The only question on the page, worth 90% of the exam, reads: "Which tire?"
87 Pardoner’s Tale = Exemplum Exemplum – anecdote inserted into a sermon toteach a moral lesson.Similar to an urban legend – same characteristics
88 1. seek to provide a warning (lesson) CHARACTERISTICS:1. seek to provide a warning (lesson)2. use general characters (no specific names)Ex.) Once this guy…Ex.) A college student….Ex.) Three friends decided….3. Contain unexpected twists (irony)4. Contain elements of suspense and horror5. Contain ‘graphic’ or memorable resolutions toconflict to make a clear, memorable point.
89 Pardoner’s Tale Context: Story’s roots are ‘old and widespread”Basic Theme: Avarice (greed) is the root of all evilWhy is the Pardoner ‘teaching’ this lesson situational irony?What may be his real motive?
90 THE PARDONERHair = yellow as wax; Fell thinly like rat tailsSmall voice of a goat"I think he was a gelding or a mare"?Entire bag of fake relics to sellBrags about it! = PrideTakes advantage of peoples faith(Worst in Chaucer’s opinion)
91 The Trickster - tries to manipulate the surroundings to ensure that he/she will win or benefit ASSIGNMENT:(1) Define vocab(2) Read The Pardoner’s Tale(3) Answer all comprehension questions(due at the end of the period)
92 Absolution – formal forgiveness Pallor – Paleness; white Sauntered – walk with confidence; strollSuperfluity - excessCarouses – party; drink and celebrate noisilyAbominable – disgusting; hatefulAvarice - greedCovetousness – quality of craving wealthPerdition – doomed to hellBeck – summon (subject to fortune’s will); destiny calls
93 1. Identify and define two themes evident in The Pardoner’s Tale. Money is the root of all evil (Pardoner’s message)Appearances can be deceiving (Irony in tale)
94 2. Provide and explain 2 examples of situational irony in The Pardoner’s Tale. Fortune = misfortunePardoner always preaches against avarice (greed); yet is greedyRioters want to kill DeathRioters fear Death killed their friend; yet seek it
95 3. Provide and explain 2 examples of dramatic irony in The Pardoner’s Tale. Reader knows rioters’ plan to ambushReader knows poison is in the rioters’ drinks
96 4. Provide and explain 2 examples of personification in The Pardoner’s Tale Fortune (capitalized; friend; finds)Death (kills, waits, search for ‘him’)
97 5. Identify and explain the Pardoner’s archetype using at least 2 specific supporting examples. Trickster: manipulate the surroundings to ensure that he/she will win or benefitCons villagers into feeling guiltCreates fear of wealthServes in church; but corruptSermon about greed; he is greedyClaims “money is the root of all evil”; correct – it is the root of his evil
98 Pardoner’s Tale:Opens in a tavern (3 rioters there since the night before)Funeral process (their friend); tavern boy states Death is the killerTavern boy warns his mother told him ‘be primed to meet Death wherever you go’ – be readyRioters vow to find and kill DeathOld Man: nobody will trade their youth for his age; tells rioters they can find Death under a tree in the groveRioters actually find gold florins (coins); make plan to sneak it back at night (forget about their initial vow)Youngest goes to get food (poison)Other two plan ambush (stab in the back)Kill youngest; toast his death – ‘drink and be merry later on there will be a corpse to bury’ – drink poison and dieDo find deathTheme of tale ‘money is the root of all evil’
99 Know the Pardoner’s Tale Dramatic Irony = characterization of Death, two different plansSituational Irony = manner in which they find death, characterization of the Pardoner (narrator’s purpose)Satire = criticizing Church corruption; blind faithPersonification = Death and FortuneThemes = greed fuels corruption, appearances can be deceiving
100 Giovanni BoccaccioThe Decameron - frame narrativeBegins with Black DeathSeven women and three men flee from plague-ridden Florence to a villa for two weeks.To pass the time, each tells a storySound familiar?
101 Falconry or hawking is a sport which involves the use of trained raptors (birds of prey) to hunt or pursue game for humans.Historically, falconry was a popular sport and status symbol among the nobles of Medieval Europe
102 The story illustrates many varieties of love--courtly, maternal, marital, and even human affection for a pet--and highlights the lengths an individual will go in the pursuit of love.How do we define nobility? Who (or what) is the noblest creature in the tale?Although written around 1350, this story is truly timeless. It has much to suggest about the nature of giving and sacrifice, loss and guilt, fate and redemption, and above all else, love.
103 1. Describe Frederigo at the start of the story. Why is he this way? Poor; aloneLost his fortune trying to impress Giovanna2. What role does Giovanna’s son play in the plot’s development?Desires Frederigo’s falcon; inherits estate; becomes illReason Giovanna seeks Frederigo
104 3. Does Giovanna get what she wants? Explain. Yes – Frederigo gives Giovanna the falconHowever, it is as dinner; not a gift for her son4. Does Frederigo get what he wants? Explain.Yes – Giovanna marries himHowever, it is out of respect and understanding not passion (love)
106 Essay Prep:Be prepared to complete a literary criticism that explains the author’s motive, tone and satirical lesson as evidenced in the given text. You will need to be able to construct a persuasive essay that identifies a lesson conveyed to society in one of the following texts: Brave New World, Frankenstein, Beowulf, Pride & Prejudice or The Canterbury Tales.
107 Essay Prep:Brave New World: need for individuality, dangers of conformity, dangers of technology, role of religion, role of government, etc…Frankenstein: danger of hubris, need for ethical regulations, dangers of technology, necessity of love, etc…Beowulf: Anglo-Saxon values, danger of hubris, necessity of heroism, etc…Pride & Prejudice: Gender Issues, Marriage Issues, necessity of love, etc…The Canterbury Tales: Corruption of the Church, Need for Middle Class uprising, Appearances can be deceiving, etc…