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Final Exam Wednesday (6/9) - 8:00 – 9:30 Period 2 – Rm. 275 Period 3 – Rm. 266 Period 7 – Rm. 273 Period 9 – Rm. 264.

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Presentation on theme: "Final Exam Wednesday (6/9) - 8:00 – 9:30 Period 2 – Rm. 275 Period 3 – Rm. 266 Period 7 – Rm. 273 Period 9 – Rm. 264."— Presentation transcript:

1 Final Exam Wednesday (6/9) - 8:00 – 9:30 Period 2 – Rm. 275 Period 3 – Rm. 266 Period 7 – Rm. 273 Period 9 – Rm. 264

2 1. Final Exam Wednesday (6/9) - 8:00 – 9:30 Period 2 – Rm. 275 Period 7 – Rm. 273 Period 3 – Rm. 266 Period 9 – Rm. 264 2. Study Guide due Tues. (6/8) (at the start of class) for 10 pts Extra Credit on the Final NOTE: No extra credit will be awarded to completed study guides submitted after the deadline (start of class on Tues. 6/8)

3 Review all notes Be sure all novels have been turned back in View outline of characters, plot, themes, vocab and figurative elements on study guide to help focus your review. Define characters – symbolism, actions Define plot events – what happens, why, what themes it conveys Know all background information (authors’ lives, historical context, allusions, literary terms) There will be a short section to read – you must know your literary terms in order to decipher information and identify accurate answers – this is a skill you should have developed through this class. You will have an essay that deals with satire – this was the main focus of 11 th CP – you need to be able to explain what it is, how its written and how the examples we have read may impact society.

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5 Huxley’s Life: Family famous scientists (evolution) Blind 2 yrs (primary writing theme = vision) Totalitarian Influence = Mussolini FDR – fireside chats = government as parental force Story set in London but about America Published 1932

6 Literary Terms: Satire – uses wit, irony and exaggeration to highlight and criticize societal flaws Dystopia – dystopian society is characterized by misery, oppression, violence, disease, and/or pollution Mood – Brave New World opens with a cold mood; void of emotions (wintriness responds to wintriness)

7 BNW Symbols: Bernard = Discontent Lenina = Ignorance Mond = Leadership John = Religion Helmholtz = Intelligence

8 Content Terminology: Hypnopedia – sleep teaching (brainwash morals) Conditioning – psychological and behavioral practices used to control the way the citizens think and act NeoPavlovian – behavioral conditioning used to create a desired reflex (electric shock therapy; Delta children) Bokanovsky Process – used to create clones (egg proliferates from 1 to 96)

9 Content Terminology: VPS – violent passion surrogate (represents fear and anger as natural part of humanity) Pregnancy Substitute – undertaken by Fanny Crowne; shows biological maternal urges still exist Motto – Community, Identity, Stability Ford – deity (because their society is the idea of mass production applied to biology)

10 Content Terminology: Centrifugal Bumble Puppy – World State game; shows point of sports was commerce (requires travel; elaborate equipment) Caste System – inescapable social structure (citizens are genetically assigned: Alpha (smartest; no clones), Betas, Gammas, Deltas, Epsilons (lowest; semi-human) Soma – mood altering drug; taken if negative emotion does arise

11 Content Terminology: Solidarity Service – World State religious service; honors Ford; ends in emphasis on carnal / physical (goal = unity) Malpais – savage reservation (New Mexico) Lighthouse – John’s final retreat; represents isolation; hope Feelies – World State entertainment; movies in which the audience experiences all sensations viewed on screen

12 Characters: Bernard Marx – Alpha plus, psychologist (ironic), shorter, outcaste, discontent D.H.C. – strict; secret past (Linda); humiliated by Bernard; becomes recluse Mustapha Mond – World Controller (1 of 10); formerly a renegade scientist; believes his role is a necessary sacrifice Helmholtz Watson – Alpha, too intelligent (outcast by choice); Bernard’s friend

13 Characters: Henry Foster – ideal World State male; Lenina dates him for 4 months; focused on statistics Lenina – most desired female; ignorant of ‘freedom’; predisposition towards love (Henry; John) Fanny – Lenina’s clone; has pregnancy substitute

14 Characters: John the Savage – Savior archetype; tries to resist temptations of World State; loses his way (commits suicide) Linda – John’s mother; loved D.H.C; stranded on Savage Reservation; euthanized through soma Pope – Linda’s lover on the Savage Reservation; gives John The Complete Works of William Shakespeare; hated by John Mitsima – teaches John how to work the clay and make a bow and arrow

15 Characters: Morgana Rothschild – Bernard is distracted by her unibrow during the Solidarity Service Benito Hoover – always happy; Foil for Bernard Marx Darwin Boneparte – feelies reporter that makes John’s purification ritual an instant sensation during his lighthouse retreat

16 BNW Themes: Individual is helpless against a strong majority or technological temptations Technology limits our humanity Conformity (and/or communism) destroys individuality

17 BNW Quotes: “Wheels must turn steadily but cannot turn unattended.” (Mond) “Oh Brave New World.” (John) “I searched and shouted, but there was no sign of her.” (D.H.C.) “Did you ever feel as though you had something inside of you just waiting to come out?” (Helmholtz)

18 BNW Quotes: “Oh my dear, my dear. If only you knew how glad – after all these years a civilized face.” (Linda) “I ventured to think that your fordship might find the matter of sufficient scientific evidence.” ( Bernard) “Like a caffeine solution party.” (Helmholtz) “Everyone who is anyone.” (Mond)

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20 Shelley’s Life Mother died as a result of childbirth Isolated / difficult childhood = distant relationship with father Affair with Percy Shelley shocked society = scandal Percy was older and already married

21 Shelley’s Influences Galvanism Industrial Revolution Gothicism - genre of literature that combines elements of both horror and romance. Suspense, horror, unreliable narrator, Creature of Nightmare, connection to nature, supernatural elements Romantic Literature – emphasis on individual’s emotions and imagination, as well as connect to and an in-depth description of nature –Romantic hero, heightened emotion, rebellion, connection to nature, imagination, emphasis on individual

22 Shelley’s Novel as Satire Unethical and dangerous use of technology in the text highlight and warn against the abuses of the Industrial Revolution and unquestioned scientific advancements of Shelley’s era. The monster represents the dangers of technology and the industrial revolution.

23 Frankenstein Plot Review (The Letters) Epistolary (structure of text) Written by Walton to his sister Margaret Saville Detail the events surrounding his quest (discover the properties of magnetism; the Northwest Passage) Initially filled with hubris; longing for glory Views Frankenstein as a peer; friend Learns from Frankenstein’s mistake Shows compassion to The Monster Abandons quest

24 Frankenstein Plot Review (Frankenstein’s Narrative) Happy childhood Rebelled: studied Agrippa, Paracelsus, Magnus (occult) Mother rescues Elizabeth from peasant family Views power of lightening (idea for experiment) Mother’s scarlet fever Ingolstadt (Waldman = mentor) Isolation; constructs monster Horrified; disgusted (rejects creation; denial)

25 Frankenstein Plot Review (Frankenstein’s Narrative) Frankenstein’s fever and delirium Nursed back to health by Henry Letter from Elizabeth William’s murder; Justine’s confession / execution Victor ‘escapes’ into nature (avoids guilt) Listens to the Monster’s story Promises to create female monster (companion)

26 Frankenstein Plot Review (The Monster’s Narrative) Longs for friendship; love Initially learns through senses (like an infant) Rejected by villagers (develops fear of humans) Resides in a lean-to attached to DeLacey’s cottage Learns through observation; books (Plutarch’s Lives, Sorrows of Werter, Paradise Lost) Attempts connection with old man DeLacey (blind) Rejected by DeLacey’s; burns down cottage (vows revenge) Seeks Victor (wants companion) Betrayed by Victor (vows revenge)

27 Frankenstein Plot Review (The DeLacey’s) Felix helped Turk (political prisoner) Gave the Turk and his daughter passports in his family’s name Sister and father imprisoned as a result Upon release – exiled; live in poverty in cottage Safie escapes from father; reunited with Felix ( in love) Admired by the Monster The Monster learns language as Felix teaches Safie Eventually reject the Monster out of fear

28 Frankenstein Plot Review (The Monster’s Goal) Primary Goal – Friendship and Understanding Reaches out to Victor (rejected) Entered village (attacked and driven out) Approaches DeLacey (rejected and attacked) Asks for female to be created (destroyed before his eyes) Mourns Victor (his only ‘companion’)

29 Frankenstein Review (Archetypes) Romantic Hero – social rebel, uninhibited, melancholy Transgressor – crosses a natural boundary or law Outsider – isolated journey; seeks acceptance Satanic – Hero – villain whose evil deeds are justifiable within the novel’s context Promethean-Hero – a rebel against a larger order, one who defies traditional moral categories Warrior-Hero – strong; actions determine a nation’s fate

30 Frankenstein Plot Review (Allusions) Prometheus – God, gave man fire, punished for ambition Luigi Galvani - discovered ‘animal electricity’; basis for plot Cornelius Agrippa – occultist / alchemist; conjured spirits Paracelsus – occultist / alchemist Albertus Magnus - advocated coexistence of science and religion Epistolary – novel told through a series of letters and journal entries Gothic novel - genre with horror, supernatural, remote settings, mystery

31 Frankenstein Plot Review (Allusions) Paradise Lost – novel monster reads (Genesis & original sin) Plutarch’s Lives - novel monster reads (biographies of great Romans) The Sorrows of Werter -novel monster reads (unrequited love) Romantic Quest – journey into nature for self-discovery Romanticism – genre focused on the individual, emotional, imaginative Shelley – author, wrote due to challenge, many deaths around her

32 Frankenstein Plot Review (Characters) William – youngest Frankenstein; murdered by the Monster Earnest – middle Frankenstein Elizabeth – adopted Frankenstein (from peasants); fears Victor doesn’t love her; weds Victor; murdered by the Monster Justine – Frankenstein’s servant; arrested / confesses to/ murdered for William’s murder Henry – Frankenstein’s best friend; nurses him back to health; traveling companion; murdered by the Monster; Victor arrested for and found innocent of Henry’s murder

33 Frankenstein Plot Review (Characters) Beaufort – Caroline’s father; Alphonse’s friend (Alphonse marries Caroline to protect her) Alphonse – Frankenstein’s father; tells him not to study the occult sciences Kirwin – sheriff that arrests Victor for Henry’s murder, writes Victor’s father / gets Victor the best room / nurse; helps Victor plan his defense Walton – writes letters; on quest; learns from Victor’s story Felix – involvement in a crime cost his family their house and fortune.

34 Frankenstein Plot Review (Characters) Waldman – encourages Victor to study all branches of science Krempe – warns Victor not to study occult sciences Caroline – Victor’s mother; dies from scarlet fever Margaret – Walton’s sister; receives the letters Victor – transgressor; downfall is hubris; protagonist; dies before he catches / stops the Monster Monster – primary quest for friendship / understanding; turns to revenge against Frankenstein; persuades Walton to let him go

35 Frankenstein Plot Review (Important Details) Walton’s Quest – magnetic poles, knowledge, passageway, unknown Frankenstein’s Quest - eternal life / scientific power Monster’s Quest - friendship Novel’s Structure – epistolary: letters, flashbacks, concluding action Role of Friendship – drives Walton and the monster Victor’s Motives – power and ambition / pride Monster’s Motives – love, friendship, acceptance then revenge

36 Frankenstein Plot Review (Important Details) Justine’s Execution – framed, confesses The De Lacey’s History – Felix committed crime / family pays Felix’s Actions – freed Safie’s father; made fake passports Monster’s Education – spied on DeLacey’s (Safie being taught); reads Frankenstein’s Promise – create a female companion for the monster

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38 Anglo-Saxon Era Review: Celts – native inhabitants of Britain Angles, Saxons, Jutes – hired Germanic mercenary tribes (hired by Romans: Lord Vortigern) Druids – Celts’ Pagan Priests; connected to Stonehenge Animism – Pagan religion that believes spirits are all around and must be satisfied Wyrd – Anglo-Saxon belief they must seek and fulfill their destiny

39 Anglo-Saxon Era Review: Adoration – ultimate goal of an Anglo-Saxon warrior Berserker – legendary Anglo-Saxon warrior; wore animal pelt / fought in trance-like state Alfred the Great – unified Anglo-Saxon tribes; provided education to all free men Role of the Church – (Christianity) unified the clans through a common sense of morality; provided a link between England and Europe Role of Women – gracious towards men; keeper of the mead

40 Beowulf Review: Beowulf – epic hero; saves the Danes; becomes a king Grendel’s Mother – seeks man-price (Weirgeld); defeated by giant’s sword (killed by Beowulf) Aeschere – Hrothgar’s best friend killed by Grendel’s Mother (Weirgeld) Grendel – angered by singing in the mead hall; descendent of Cain; symbolizes anarchy

41 Beowulf Review: Hrothgar – great (generous king of the Danes) Unferth – brother-slayer; challenges Beowulf’s reputation (flyting) The Dragon – symbolizes death; attacks Beowulf’s kingdom after a jeweled cup is stolen from its treasure hoard; kills Beowulf; killed by Wiglaf

42 Beowulf Review (Important People and Places): Man-Price – payment / retribution for killing another’s kinsman (Weirgeld) Cain – Biblical allusion (first ‘brother-slayer’); fathered demon race Heorot – Hrothgar’s great mead hall (attacked for 12 yrs by Grendel) Hubris – destructive pride (Beowulf’s final battle) Hrunting – Unferth’s sword; fails in battle against Grendel’s Mother Brother-Slayer – ultimate Anglo-Saxon crime because loyalty is their most important quality

43 Beowulf Review (Important Literary Terms): Epic – long narrative poem telling about the deeds of great hero and reflecting the social values of the society from which it originated Oral Poetry – Anglo-Saxon tradition of memorizing and passing down stories verbally Scop – Anglo-Saxon professional poet (memory of the tribe; keeper of the souls) Heroic Tradition – Anglo-Saxon practice of composing and telling stories focused on bravery Elegiac Tradition – mood that mourns the passing of an earlier better time

44 Beowulf Review (Important Literary Terms): Flyting – argument in verse (“Unferth’s Challenge” contains first recorded example) Epithet - descriptive term (word or phrase) accompanying, or occurring in place of, a name, and having entered common usage (LIKE A KENNING) Foreshadowing - clues for the reader to be able to predict what might occur later Kenning – a descriptive figure of speech that takes the place of a familiar noun; Anglo-Saxon poetic device Riddle – elaborate and artful description of ordinary objects; used to prove mental dominance Theme – memento mori (achieve adoration)

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46 Historical relevance:Historical relevance: –Author: Geoffrey Chaucer –Setting: Spring (symbolizes change – purpose of satire) – Purpose for Voyage: St. Thomas Becket (forgiveness, healing, required, give thanks) –Literary Importance: popularized Middle English; gave the power to the peasants – Social Issues: Bubonic Plague, Church Corruption, Peasant’s Revolt, Materialism

47 Know the purpose of the Prologue –Exposition = Characterization Know the seven deadly sins –Pride (worst), Anger, Greed, Wrath, Gluttony, Sloth, Lust Know the three religious vows / what pilgrims must keep them –Poverty, Chastity and Obedience (only ECCLESIASTICAL)

48 Focus on the following pilgrims: Knight - highest ranking, back from crusade, purpose to give thanks Squire - Preoccupied with ‘love’, represents lust Yoeman - Hunts, wears all green (practical) = LOGIC Cook - Infected ulcer on his knee = PLAGUE! Conveys the theme, appearances can be deceiving Merchant – Picture of wealth but actually in debt – on the run! Host - his idea to tell the stories (contest for free dinner) Wife of Bath - inherited money from four dead husbands! Expert at love and relationships Pardoner – worst in Chaucer’s opinion, represents Pride, sells fake relics (makes a mockery out of the values of the Church)

49 The Canterbury Tales Frame Narrative (stories within a story) Basic Plot: 12 pilgrims (religious travelers) journey to the shrine of St. Thomas Becket. To pass the time the Host suggests they have a contest: Each pilgrim will tell a story and the one that is the most entertaining as well as the one that teaches the best lesson wins. The winner will receive a dinner paid for by all

50 Middle English - peasant language (gives power to the commoners!) Prologue: – He picked 7 – 9 people and/or professions and used humor, wit, and vivid description (satire) to characterize each in his prologue. – Characterization revealed the flaws / positive traits of each individual – Consequently, Chaucer sent a message about the given social group

51 1. Why is Chaucer considered England’s first political satirist? Wrote in Middle English (peasant language) Satirist – brought attention to corruption Used Exemplum – short story designed to teach a moral lesson (homily)

52 2. Provide a diagram of the Feudal System’s class structure. King Lord Knight Serf 3. What was the basis for the Feudal System? Kings owned land Lords possessed land (given by king) Knights protected land pledged loyalty and military service Serfs worked the land (in debt; slaves)

53 4. How did the crusades influence Medieval Literature? idealized knighthood (chivalry) Led to genre: Medieval Romance It took 14 yrs to become a Knight!

54 5. Outline 3+ characteristics of Medieval Literature. Written to entertain / praise the French nobility Primarily upper class characters Central plot = Knight’s quest; love Characteristics: magic, adventure, lady in distress, vague setting

55 6. Outline 3+ characteristics of City Literature. Reaction to inaccurate portrayal of upper class in Medieval Romance Emerged after serfs bought their freedom (sheep = freedom) Written in Middle English Satire Goal = unify and inform the Middle Class

56 7. List 3+ reasons the Medieval Church was an important force in Medieval culture and literature. Publisher = transcribed all texts Librarian = preserved all texts Teacher = centers of education

57 Canterbury Tales: Prologue Introduces all the pilgrims (travelers) Describes them (symbolic) Gives brief overview of their personality Satire (like a mirror) Uses comedy and exaggeration to help people realize flaws

58 - As a result of Chaucer’s writing Literature becomes political venue - Literature becomes political venue - Chaucer demonstrates the power of satire - Increased emphasis of education Working class - Working class uses pamphlets to revolt! organize and revolt!

59 Vice Virtue Lust Chastity GluttonyTemperance GreedCharity SlothDiligence WrathPatience EnvyKindness PrideHumility

60 The archetypes: As you read, see if you can figure out who’s who! The archetypes: Survivor, fighter, serial lover, lush, snob, bully, adulterer, hunter, preacher, convict, fugitive, philosopher, serial killer, a con-artist, and an infected As you read, see if you can figure out who’s who!

61 PilgrimDescription Irony / Message Knight Blood on tunic Giving thanks Highest rank, but most humble Squire Long, blond curls Fancy clothes Lover not a fighter Vanity; Lust Not prepared for battle

62 PilgrimDescription Irony / Message PrioressSpeaks incorrect French Wears red lipstick (prostitute) Pride; Lust Clergy is corrupt Oxford Cleric Lazy; smart Borrows money for books Sloth Should use knowledge to make a difference

63 PilgrimDescription Irony / Message Franklin Retired sheriff Epicurean Gluttony Cook Infected boil on his knee Has plague; good cook Appearances can be deceiving

64 PilgrimDescription Irony / Message PhysicianInvolved in scam with apothecary Appearances can be deceiving Wife of BathGap between teeth; big hips (romantically talented) Inherited money (4 dead husbands) Lust Temptress

65 PilgrimDescriptionIrony / Message Miller Enormous; red hair Started fight with man he was robbing Wrath Plowman Poorest Donates 10% to Church One with the least gives the most

66 PilgrimDescription Irony / Message HostChaucer’s voice Devises contest idea LawyerKnows every law but never won a case Appearances can be deceiving PardonerCons people out of money in the name of the Church Pride Worst in Chaucer’s opinion

67 REMEMBER: Characteristics of Medieval Romance: A tale of high adventure (crusade, knight’s adventure, rescue a lady in distress) Idealizes chivalry and knights Plot based on knight’s love for a lady Imaginary and vague settings (No true sense of time or location) Often involves magic / supernatural

68 REMEMBER: Characteristics of City Literature: – Satire (parody) –Unifies, inspires and informs middle and lower class –Used to identify corruption and criticize governing forces –Chaucer popularizes (Middle English; printing press)

69 Medieval Law = Ordeals Guilt or innocent determined by subjecting accused to a painful or impossible task Based on the premise that God would help the innocent by performing a miracle on their behalf. Forbidden by Pope Innocent III Wager of Law replaces ‘ordeal’ –Take oath; 12 people vouch for accused

70 Types of Ordeals: Ordeal by fire (hot coals; boiling oil or lead) Ordeal by hot or cold water (boiling water; submersion) Ordeal by ingestion (poison; twisted substances) Ordeal by torture (confession means guilty) Ordeal by combat (winner = innocent) Ordeal by quest (survive; acquire object; answer question = innocence)

71 The Wife of Bath = Temptress archetype Story parody of Medieval Romance Knight must complete an ordeal Story part of the marriage group Criticizes gender inequality, justice system and social class bias

72 Read The Wife of Bath’s Tale and answer all reading guide questions – Complete Reading Guide Notes: –Wife of Bath’s Themes: Appearances can be Deceiving; Gender Equality; Benefits of Poverty –The Wife of Bath owned a clothing business in London. She is one of the first and most memorable feminist narrators in satirical fiction. Biblically, it challenges the view that Eve caused the fall of man.

73 Incubus – evil spirit (impregnates women) Implored - begged Extort – get by threats and/or violence Cosseted - pampered Midas – mythical king; everything he touches turns to gold Ovid – Roman poet (topics = love; seduction; transformation) Sovereignty – power (over another) Bequest – gift left through means of a will Prowess – outstanding ability Temporal – earthly; not spiritual Churl – ill-mannered person; fool

74 1. Define the following in relationship to the plot of the Wife of Bath’s Tale Crime: Crime: – Rape Ordeal: Ordeal: – 1 year and 1 day to find the answer to, “What women most desire”

75 Quest: Quest: – Traveled the kingdom asking every women he encountered for the answer (gender flaws revealed to society) Answer: Answer: – “self-same sovereignty over their husband as their lover.” (Power)

76 Ultimatum: Ultimatum: – Choice #1 = beautiful; unfaithful wife – Choice #2 = old / ugly; faithful wife Resolution: Resolution: – The Knight tells her to decide (gives her power) = gets beautiful; faithful wife – Message = equality yields benefits

77 2. What is the Wife of Bath’s archetype? Support your identification with 2 supporting examples. – Temptress = archetype – Physical description (gap in teeth; hips) – Reputation (claims skilled in love) – Multiple husbands; but all dead (she possesses their fortune)

78 3. Explain the ‘moral’ lesson or theme revealed through the Old Woman’s comparison of ‘men and fire’ – Social rank and/or gender are no guarantee of honor, virtue or gentility – Message: Equality is just; people are unpredictable

79 Know the Wife of Bath’s Tale The Knight committed … – Rape His original sentence was … – death (beheading!) The Knight’s second sentence was issued by … – The Queen It stated … – 1yr and 1 day to find “What women most desire” The Knight and the old woman agree that… – He will marry her in exchange for the correct answer

80 Know the Wife of Bath’s Tale The correct answer to the Knight’s question is … – “self-same sovereignty over her husband and her lover” = power The Knight’s initial response to the payment the woman demands… – Take everything but his ‘love’ = shallow / superficial The final choice the old woman offers the man is … – Choice #1 – beautiful but unfaithful – Choice #2 – old / ugly but faithful His response is … – She may choose (he gave her power! She gives him both – beautiful / faithful)

81 Know the Wife of Bath’s Tale What criticism of women does the Wife of Bath offer? – Controlled by emotion (too sensitive / insecure) What is the rhetorical purpose of the Wife of Bath’s story about Midas – Women can’t keep a secret; in connection to Ovid reveals everyone has flaws Explain the irony involved in the answer the Knight receives? – He was guilty of forcing his will upon a woman – the answer reveals they wish to enforce their will upon men

82 Know the Wife of Bath’s Tale Is the Knight’s reaction to the old woman an example of direct or indirect characterization? What does it reveal about his character? – Indirect – shows he is shallow What point is the narrator making by comparing men to fire? – Fire remains fire no matter where it is; however, men do not inherit gentility – regardless of rank Paraphrase the old woman’s views concerning poverty. What satirical message may they convey – God chose a life of poverty; not shameful; lesson to learn - kindness

83 Know the Wife of Bath’s Tale Is the Knight’s reaction to the old woman an example of direct or indirect characterization? What does it reveal about his character? – Indirect – shows he is shallow What point is the narrator making by comparing men to fire? – Fire remains fire no matter where it is; however, men do not inherit gentility – regardless of rank Paraphrase the old woman’s views concerning poverty. What satirical message may they convey – God chose a life of poverty; not shameful; lesson to learn - kindness

84 What if you were told… Baby Carrots Warning: A recent email flier warns that baby carrots sold in supermarkets pose a health risk because they're processed in chlorine. Or Cook an egg with your phone: Two Russian scientist recently proved you can cook (hard-boil) an egg by placing it between two cell phones and texting back and forth!

85 Think about the previous scenarios, as well as other Urban Legends you have heard. What are the main characteristics of such narratives? What type of impact do such characteristics have on the reader and/or listener? Why would an author use this style?

86 Best submitted legend: The Flat Tire: Two students decide to go skiing for the weekend, and are having such a good time they decide to blow off the calculus exam They decide to tell their professor that they got a flat tire and therefore deserve to take the exam at a rescheduled time. Hearing the story, said professor agrees. At the appointed time, the professor greets them and places them in two separate rooms to take the exam. The few questions on the first page are worth a minor 10% of the overall grade, and are quite easy. Each student grows progressively confident as they take the test, sure that they have gotten away with fooling the professor. However, when they turn to the second page they discover that they really haven't. The only question on the page, worth 90% of the exam, reads: "Which tire?"

87 Pardoner’s Tale = Exemplum Exemplum – anecdote inserted into a sermon to teach a moral lesson. Similar to an urban legend – same characteristics

88 CHARACTERISTICS: 1. seek to provide a warning (lesson) 2. use general characters (no specific names) – Ex.) Once this guy… – Ex.) A college student…. – Ex.) Three friends decided…. 3. Contain unexpected twists (irony) 4. Contain elements of suspense and horror 5. Contain ‘graphic’ or memorable resolutions to conflict to make a clear, memorable point.

89 Pardoner’s Tale Context: Story’s roots are ‘old and widespread” Basic Theme: Avarice (greed) is the root of all evil – Why is the Pardoner ‘teaching’ this lesson situational irony? – What may be his real motive?

90 THE PARDONER Hair = yellow as wax; Fell thinly like rat tails Small voice of a goat "I think he was a gelding or a mare"? Entire bag of fake relics to sell Brags about it! = Pride Takes advantage of peoples faith ( Worst in Chaucer’s opinion)

91 The Trickster - tries to manipulate the surroundings to ensure that he/she will win or benefit ASSIGNMENT: (1) Define vocab (2) Read The Pardoner’s Tale (3) Answer all comprehension questions (due at the end of the period)

92 Absolution – formal forgiveness Pallor – Paleness; white Sauntered – walk with confidence; stroll Superfluity - excess Carouses – party; drink and celebrate noisily Abominable – disgusting; hateful Avarice - greed Covetousness – quality of craving wealth Perdition – doomed to hell Beck – summon (subject to fortune’s will); destiny calls

93 1. Identify and define two themes evident in The Pardoner’s Tale. Money is the root of all evil (Pardoner’s message) Appearances can be deceiving (Irony in tale)

94 2. Provide and explain 2 examples of situational irony in The Pardoner’s Tale. Fortune = misfortune Pardoner always preaches against avarice (greed); yet is greedy Rioters want to kill Death Rioters fear Death killed their friend; yet seek it

95 3. Provide and explain 2 examples of dramatic irony in The Pardoner’s Tale. Reader knows rioters’ plan to ambush Reader knows poison is in the rioters’ drinks

96 4. Provide and explain 2 examples of personification in The Pardoner’s Tale Fortune (capitalized; friend; finds) Death (kills, waits, search for ‘him’)

97 5. Identify and explain the Pardoner’s archetype using at least 2 specific supporting examples. Trickster: manipulate the surroundings to ensure that he/she will win or benefit – Cons villagers into feeling guilt – Creates fear of wealth – Serves in church; but corrupt – Sermon about greed; he is greedy – Claims “money is the root of all evil”; correct – it is the root of his evil

98 Pardoner’s Tale: Pardoner’s Tale: – Opens in a tavern (3 rioters there since the night before) – Funeral process (their friend); tavern boy states Death is the killer – Tavern boy warns his mother told him ‘be primed to meet Death wherever you go’ – be ready – Rioters vow to find and kill Death – Old Man: nobody will trade their youth for his age; tells rioters they can find Death under a tree in the grove – Rioters actually find gold florins (coins); make plan to sneak it back at night (forget about their initial vow) – Youngest goes to get food (poison) – Other two plan ambush (stab in the back) – Kill youngest; toast his death – ‘drink and be merry later on there will be a corpse to bury’ – drink poison and die – Do find death – Theme of tale ‘money is the root of all evil’

99 Know the Pardoner’s Tale Dramatic Irony = characterization of Death, two different plans Situational Irony = manner in which they find death, characterization of the Pardoner (narrator’s purpose) Satire = criticizing Church corruption; blind faith Personification = Death and Fortune Themes = greed fuels corruption, appearances can be deceiving

100 Giovanni Boccaccio The Decameron - frame narrative Begins with Black Death Seven women and three men flee from plague-ridden Florence to a villa for two weeks. To pass the time, each tells a story Sound familiar? Sound familiar?

101 Falconry or hawking is a sport which involves the use of trained raptors (birds of prey) to hunt or pursue game for humans. Historically, falconry was a popular sport and status symbol among the nobles of Medieval Europe

102 The story illustrates many varieties of love--courtly, maternal, marital, and even human affection for a pet--and highlights the lengths an individual will go in the pursuit of love. How do we define nobility? Who (or what) is the noblest creature in the tale? Although written around 1350, this story is truly timeless. It has much to suggest about the nature of giving and sacrifice, loss and guilt, fate and redemption, and above all else, love.

103 1. Describe Frederigo at the start of the story. Why is he this way? Poor; alone Lost his fortune trying to impress Giovanna 2. What role does Giovanna’s son play in the plot’s development? Desires Frederigo’s falcon; inherits estate; becomes ill Reason Giovanna seeks Frederigo

104 3. Does Giovanna get what she wants? Explain. Yes – Frederigo gives Giovanna the falcon However, it is as dinner; not a gift for her son 4. Does Frederigo get what he wants? Explain. Yes – Giovanna marries him However, it is out of respect and understanding not passion (love)

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106 Essay Prep: Be prepared to complete a literary criticism that explains the author’s motive, tone and satirical lesson as evidenced in the given text. You will need to be able to construct a persuasive essay that identifies a lesson conveyed to society in one of the following texts: Brave New World, Frankenstein, Beowulf, Pride & Prejudice or The Canterbury Tales.

107 Essay Prep: Brave New World: need for individuality, dangers of conformity, dangers of technology, role of religion, role of government, etc… Frankenstein: danger of hubris, need for ethical regulations, dangers of technology, necessity of love, etc… Beowulf: Anglo-Saxon values, danger of hubris, necessity of heroism, etc… Pride & Prejudice: Gender Issues, Marriage Issues, necessity of love, etc… The Canterbury Tales: Corruption of the Church, Need for Middle Class uprising, Appearances can be deceiving, etc…

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