Presentation on theme: "THE ADVENTURES OF SHERLOCK HOLMES – SIR ARTHUR CONAN DOYLE Deductive Reasoning."— Presentation transcript:
THE ADVENTURES OF SHERLOCK HOLMES – SIR ARTHUR CONAN DOYLE Deductive Reasoning
VOCABULARY ACTIVITY # 1– WARM UP My mom was _______ because I refused to clean my room, so she punished me by taking away my phone. The directions were so _______ that I got lost; they were not very specific. My family’s _______ Halloween Masquerade Party only happens once a year. I am mad at you because that vase was not _______ to me; it was very special. The detective’s mind is so _______, that he could figure out any puzzle. The cook was so _______, that she fainted from fatigue. My property is so large that our fence has to _______ sixty acres of land. Do not try to _______ me today; I am not going to get irritated with you. My red, and curly, hair is _______; it comes from my mother’s side of the family. I cannot keep a secret, so it should not be surprising that I _______ the information to others.
A SHORT “HISTORY” OF HOLMES Rivers of ink have flowed since 1887, when Sherlock Holmes was first introduced to the world, in an adventure entitled A Study in Scarlet.A Study in Scarlet Most of the great detective's fans know him so well, that they feel they have actually met him. It would therefore be presumptuous to try and define him here, as his many friends and admirers may each have very different views about this legendary personage. For those who have not made-up their minds, it might be useful if they read Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's Autobiography, Memories and Adventures. They will undoubtedly come away with the notion that Sherlock Holmes resembles in many ways Dr. Joseph Bell, one of the teachers at the medical school of Edinburgh University. Arthur Doyle was seventeen years old when he first met Dr. Joseph Bell, who was then thirty-nine. The doctor left an indelible impression upon the young student.Memories and Adventures
A SHORT “HISTORY” OF HOLMES - CONTINUED This is how Conan Doyle described him much later: A "thin wiry, dark" man, "with a high-nosed acute face, penetrating gray eyes, angular shoulders." Dr. Bell "would sit in his receiving room with a face like a Red Indian, and diagnose the people as they came in, before they even opened their mouths. He would tell them details of their past life; and hardly would he ever make a mistake." We owe the improved looks of the great detective, to Sydney Paget, who took his "strikingly handsome" brother Walter as model, when he illustrated a great number of the Sherlock Holmes stories. Conan Doyle dedicated The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes to Dr. Bell, who gave credit to the author for Sherlock Holmes's genius. "You are yourself Sherlock Holmes and well you know it," he wrote him. (http://www.sirarthurconandoyle.com/SherlockHolmes/index.htm)The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes
DEDUCTIVE REASONING – WHAT IS IT? Deductive reasoning is a type of reasoning which goes from general to specific. Deductive reasoning is based on premises and if the premises are true, then the reasoning will be valid.Deductive reasoning Deductive Reasoning: Everyday Examples All apples are fruits, all fruits grow on trees; therefore, all apples grow on trees. William is a bachelor, all bachelors are single; hence William is single. Since all humans are mortal, and I am a human, then I am mortal. All dolphins are mammals, all mammals have kidneys; therefore all dolphins have kidneys. Since all squares are rectangles, and all rectangles have four sides, so all squares have four sides. If Dennis misses work and at work there is a party, then Dennis will miss the party. All numbers ending in 0 or 5 are divisible by 5. The number 35 ends with a 5, so it is divisible by 5. The Earth is a planet, and all planets orbit a sun, therefore the Earth orbits a sun.
LET’S PRACTICE DEDUCTIVE REASONING! Sherlock Holmes uses Deductive Reasoning and his KEEN powers of observation to solve crimes. Use your powers of deductive reasoning to solve the following problems: 1. Joanna constantly misplaces her keys. Joanna’s keychain has a red toy ball on it. Joanna’s cat loves to play with toys that are red. Joanna cannot fine her keys one day. Where are they, and what causes them to constantly go missing? 2. Samuel is a strong swimmer. Samuel’s best friend, Paul, wants to be on the swim team more than anything. There is only one spot left on the team. Samuel and Paul both tryout for the team. Paul is only second to Samuel in swim speed, BUT somehow Paul wins EVERY race at the tryouts. Why was Samuel ALWAYS second at the tryouts?
20 QUESTIONS OR “MYSTERY BOX” Directions: use your powers of observation (your five senses), deductive reasoning, and ONLY 20 questions, to figure out the mystery item. Students – You may only ask “yes” or “no” questions. Teacher – You may ONLY answer “yes” or “no”; don’t confuse the students with sometimes or maybe… Both – have fun, but don’t ruin the game by yelling out answers until you have a “good” idea of what the item is, or you have run out of questions.
THE SIX RULES OF A “GOOD” DETECTIVE STORY These are the six standards that most detective stories follow. As you read the different adventures and cases of Sherlock Holmes and John Watson, identify which of the six rules are present in the stories, and which specific detail from the story matches each rule. 1. The Crime Must Be Significant 2. The Detective Must Be Memorable 3. The Criminal Must Be A Worthy Adversary/Opponent 4. The Clues Must Be Made Available To The Reader 5. The Suspects Must Appear Early In The Story 6. The Solution, To The Crime, Must Be Reasonable and Possible
“THE SPECKLED BAND” RFQ’S 1. How does the narrator’s relationship to the protagonist affect his perspective? 2. State the observations that Holmes makes to know that Miss Stoner is agitated? Why does Holmes then offer Miss Stoner coffee? 3. During Miss Stoner’s recounting of the night her sister died, what evidence supports her fear that her sister was murdered? 4. Choose the best word to describe Dr. Roylott’s behavior when he came to visit Sherlock Holmes at 221B Baker Street. bullish [boo l-ish] adj. – 1. like a bull to obstinate furious [fyoo r-ee-uh s] adj. – 1. extremely angry taciturn [tas-i-turn] adj. – 1. dour, stern to silent in expression throttle [throt-l] v. – 1. to choke or suffocate in any way 2. to silence
“THE SPECKLED BAND” RFQ’S - CONTINUED 5. Why does Sherlock Holmes obtain a copy of Helen Stoner’s mother’s will? 6. List clues that Holmes and Watson find at Stoke Moran to support Miss Stoner’s claim that her sister’s death was not accidental. 7. Give details about exactly what happens after Holmes and Watson hear the whistle. 8. What is the “Speckled Band,” and how does it resolve the crime?
VOCABULARY LESSON #5 Livid: furious, very angry Keen: finely tuned and able to sense minor differences, distinctions, or details Agitate: make somebody anxious, to make somebody feel anxious, nervous, or disturbed Weary: tired, especially in having run out of strength, patience, or endurance Vague: not explicit, not clear in meaning or intention Trivial: lacking in seriousness, importance, or value Hereditary: transmitted genetically, passed genetically, or capable of being passed genetically, from one generation to the next Disclose: tell something previously secret, to reveal something that has been kept a secret Encompass: encircle something: to surround, envelop, or encircle something Annual: once a year, happening once a year
IDIOMS LESSON #5 Out of the frying pan and into the fire Figurative meaning: from a bad situation into one that is worse Literal meaning: to jump out of a frying pan into a fire A penny saved is a penny earned Figurative meaning: What you do not spend, you will have.