Presentation on theme: "Dr. Mohammad Javed Ansari, PhD. Contact info: COLLEGE OF PHARMACY PHARMACEUTICS II (PHT 312 ) 29 April 2015."— Presentation transcript:
Dr. Mohammad Javed Ansari, PhD. Contact info: COLLEGE OF PHARMACY PHARMACEUTICS II (PHT 312 ) 29 April 2015 DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICS, COP, SAU, AL-KHARJ
OBJECTIVES OF THE LECTURE At the end of this lecture, you will be aware of: What are disperse systems? What are various types of disperse systems? What are colloidal and coarse dispersions? What are suspensions? What are advantages / disadvantages of suspensions? What are various stability problems of suspensions? How suspensions are stabilized?
LECTURE OUTLINE Disperse system classification. Definition of pharmaceutical suspension. Advantages / disadvantages, rationale & application. Theory of suspension: sedimentation, stability & Brownian motion. The Properties of ideal / optimal Suspensions. Classification. Formulation aspects. Difference between flocculated & deflocculated suspensions. Rheological Characteristics. Preparation. Evaluation. Stability. Packaging and Storage.
Advantage/Application of Pharmaceutical Suspensions Insoluble drug or poorly soluble drugs which required to be given orally in liquid dosage forms ( in case of children, elderly, and patients have difficulty in swallowing solids dosage forms) To over come the instability of certain drug in aqueous solution: Insoluble derivative formulated as suspension (instable) oxytetracycline HCL (stable) calcium salt A drug that degraded in the presence of water can be suspended in non- aqueous vehicles. Phenoxymethypencillin/ coconut oil and Tetracycline HCL/ oil To mask the taste: (to make more palatable) Paracetamol suspension) and chloramphenicol palmitate. Some materials are needed to be present in the gastrointestinal tract in a finely divided form, to increase the surface area. Fore example, Mg carbonate and Mg trisilcate are used to adsorb some toxins 1. Suspensions as oral drug delivery systems
2. Suspensions for topical administration They can be fluid preparations, such as Calamine Lotion, which are designed to leave a light deposit of the active agent on the skin after quick evaporation of the dispersion medium. Some suspensions are semisolid in consistency, such as pastes, which contain high concentrations of powders dispersed. It may also be possible to suspend a powdered drug in an emulsion base, as in Zinc Cream. Advantage/Application of Pharmaceutical Suspensions
3. Suspensions for parenteral use Suspensions are formulated for parenteral administration in order to control the rate of absorption of the drug. By varying the size of the dispersed particles (rate of dissolution) of active agent, the duration of activity can be controlled. In vaccines: e.g. Diphtheria and Tetanus vaccines 4. Suspensions for ophthalmic use: various eye drops 5. Suspensions in aerosol Inhalation therapy. suspension of active agents in mixture of propellants 6. X-ray contrast media: oral and rectal administration of propyliodone. Advantage/Application of Pharmaceutical Suspensions
Theory of suspension: Sedimentation The velocity of sedimentation is expressed by Stoke’s law. v = d = the diameter of the particle in cm. s = the density of the dispersed phase (particles). o = the density of the dispersed medium. g = the acceleration due to gravity = the viscosity of the dispersion medium in poise. d 2 ( s - o ) g 18 o
One aspect of physical stability in pharmaceutical suspensions is concerned with keeping the particles uniformly distributed throughout the dispersion. While it is seldom possible to prevent settling completely over a prolonged period of time, it is necessary to consider the factors which influence the velocity of sedimentation. Particle size of any suspension is critical. Larger particles will settle faster at the bottom of the container. The particle size can be reduced by using mortar and pastel But very fine particles will easily form hard cake at the bottom of the container. Theory of suspension: Sedimentation, Stability problem
Theory of suspension: Brownian Movement For particles having a diameter of about 2- 5 m Brownian movement counteracts sedimentation to a measurable extent at room temperature by keeping the dispersed material in random motion.
Ideally, the particles in a suspension should not sediment at any time during the storage period. The particles which settle to the bottom of the container must not form a hard cake. Should be easily re-dispersed by gentle shaking and should have the desired flow (Easy to pour yet not watery). Must remain sufficiently homogeneous for at least the period of time necessary to remove and administer the required dose after shaking. Should be free from gritting particles (external use) Should be pleasant & Palatable (orally) Should be chemically & physically stable(Temperature insensitive). No cap-lock. The Properties of ideal / optimal Suspensions
Based On General Classes Oral suspension Externally applied suspension Parenteral suspension Based On Size Of Solid Particles Colloidal suspension (< 1 micron) Coarse suspension (>1 micron) Nano suspension (10 ng) Based On Proportion Of Solid Particles Dilute suspension (2 to10%w/v solid) Concentrated suspension (50%w/v solid) Based On Electro-kinetic Nature Of Solid Particles Flocculated suspension Deflocculated suspension Classification of Suspension
FORMULATION ASPECTS INGREDIENTS of SUSPENSION I - Insoluble drug. II- Vehicle (suspending medium). III- Wetting agents. IV- Compounds allowing control of stability and sedimentation (Flocculating, Suspending agent) V - Additives used to regulate the flow behavior. VI- pH regulators VII- Other additives ( flavour, colour, taste preservatives).
I- The Insoluble Drug: Size of the particles Size distribution of the powder. Ease of wetting. Surface electric charge of the particles in suspension. Chemical stability of the drug, and possible interactions and incompatibilities with other suspension constituents. Work must be done to reduce solid to small particles and dispersed them in a continuous medium. An increase in surface free energy W brought about by dividing the solid into smaller particles and consequently increasing the total surface area A is given by: W = SL. A SL = interfacial tension between the liquid medium and the solid particles. In order to approach a stable state, the system tends to reduce the surface free energy by decreasing surface area (agglomeration).
II- The Suspending Medium or Vehicle: 1 - Distilled water or deionized water. 2 - Water- alcohol 3 - Solution of glycerol. 4 – Non-aqueous vehicles (Topical use). Structured vehicles Structured vehicles are vehicles containing thixotropic compounds/polymers like acacia which are pseudo- plastic or plastic in nature. Thixotropic compounds/polymers form a three- dimensional gel network structure which entrap the particles so that, ideally, no settling occurs. During shaking the gel network is completely destroyed (pseudoplastic and plastic in nature) so that administration is facilitated.
III- Wetting Agents It is difficult to disperse solid particles in a liquid vehicle due to the layer of adsorbed air on the surface. Thus, the particles, even high density, float on the surface of the liquid until the layer of air is displaced completely. The use of wetting agent allows to remove this air from the surface and to easy penetration of the vehicle into the pores. Powders, which are not easily wetted by water and accordingly show a large contact angle, such as sulfur, charcoal and magnesium stearate are called hydrophobic. Powders which are readily wetted by water are called hydrophilic e.g. zinc oxide, talc. The wettability of a powder may be ascertained easily by observing the contact angle and spreading coefficient.
III- Wetting Agents……
Sc = S - L - SL Sc = S - L - SL Sc = Spreading coefficient S = surface tension of solid L = surface tension of liquid SL= surface tension of solid - liquid interface. So for convenient wetting, the value of spreading coefficient (Sc) should be positive. This could be achieved by modification of the values of surface tension of several surfaces involved until a positive value of the spreading coefficient is reached. How modification done?? By adding Wetting agent (surfactant with HLB value 7-9) Eg. Non ionic surfactant polysorbates III- Wetting Agents……
1 - Surfactants: They reduce the interfacial tension between the solid particles and a vehicle ( SL ). As a result of the lowered interfacial tension the Sc will be positive and the contact angle is lowered, air is displaced from the surface of the particles, and wetting is promoted. Disadvantages of surfactants are that they have foaming tendencies. All surfactants are bitter except Pluronics and Poloxamers. Polysorbate 80 is most widely used surfactant both for parenteral and oral suspension formulation. It is non-ionic so no change in pH of medium No toxicity. Safe for internal use. Less foaming tendencies. Compatible with most of the adjuvant. Decreases zeta potential thus stabilizes the suspension III- Wetting Agents……
2 - Glycerin and similar hygroscopic substances Alcohol, glycerin, polyethylene glycol and polypropylene glycol flows into the voids between the particles to displace the air and reduce liquid air interfacial tension so that water can penetrate and wet the individual particles. 3-Hydrophilic Colloids Hydrophilic colloids coat hydrophobic drug particles in one or more than one layer. This will provide hydro-phillicity to drug particles and facilitate wetting. As most of hydrophylic colloids are negatively charged, they cause deflocculation of suspension because force of attraction is declined. e.g. acacia, tragacanth, alginates, guar gum, pectin, gelatin, wool fat, egg yolk, bentonite, Veegum, Methylcellulose etc. III- Wetting Agents……
IV - Compounds Controlling Stability and Sedimentation Suspensions have least physical stability amongst all dosage forms due to sedimentation and cake formation. Viscosity of suspensions is of great importance for stability and pour ability of suspensions. When viscosity of the dispersion medium increases, the terminal settling velocity decreases thus the dispersed phase settle at a slower rate and they remain dispersed for longer time yielding higher stability to the suspension. On the other hand as the viscosity of the suspension increases, it’s pour ability decreases and inconvenience to the patients for dosing increases. Therefore viscosity of suspension should be maintained within optimum range to yield stable and easily pourable suspensions. A – Suspending agents / viscosity modifier / Thickener
Natural gums (acacia, tragacanth, Xanthan gum ), Sugars (glucose, fructose) Cellulose derivatives (sodium CMC, methyl cellulose, MCC), Alginates & Gelatin Clays (bentonite, veegum), Carbomers, Colloidal silicon dioxide (Aerosil) Co-solvents Some solvents which themselves have high viscosity are used as co- solvents to enhance the viscosity of dispersion medium: For example glycerol, propylene glycol, sorbitol. Glycerin viscosity is too high to pour easily and to spread on the skin. It shows the undesirable property of stickiness. It is too hygroscopic to use in undiluted form. Suspending Agents…..
Should have a high viscosity at negligible shear, i.e., during storage. Should have a low viscosity at high shearing rate, i.e., it should be free flowing during agitation, pouring, and spreading. Pseudo-plastic substances such as: tragacanth, sodium alginate, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose show these desirable qualities. A suspending agent which is thixotropic as well as pseudo-plastic are useful since it forms a gel on standing and becomes fluid when disturbed. Apart from above, suspending agents should also be inert, non-toxic and compatible with other excipients used in suspensions. They should be readily dissolved or dispersed in water without need of special technique. They should not influence the absorption or dissolution rate of the drugs. The Ideal Suspending Agent
IV - Flocculating Agents Suspending agents entrapped the particle and reduces the sedimentation of particles. Note that too high viscosity isn’t desirable and it causes difficulty in pouring and administration. Also, it may affect drug absorption since they adsorb on the surface of particle and suppress the dissolution rate. Although, these structured vehicles reduces the sedimentation of particles, not necessarily completely eliminate the particle settling. Thus, the use of deflocculated particles in a structured vehicle may form solid hard cake upon long storage. The risk of caking may be eliminated by forming flocculated particles in a structured vehicle. The basic concern in developing a suitable suspension is to adequately control the Rate of settling and Ease of re-dispersion, Prevention of caking the particles as a dense mass.
IV - Flocculating Agents Flocculating agents are added to enhance particle “re- dispersability. Flocculation is the formation of light, fluffy groups of particles held together by weak Van der Waal's forces. In contrast to deflocculated particles, flocculated suspensions can always be re-suspended with gentle agitation. The best approach is to achieve a controlled flocculation of the particles, where they appear as floccules or like tufts of wool with a loose fibrous structure. Controlled flocculation of particles is obtained by adding flocculating agents, which are (1)-electrolytes (2)- surfactants (3)- polymerscake floccules
Dispersed solid particles in a suspension may have charge in relation to their surrounding vehicle, because of- Selective adsorption of a particular ionic species present in the vehicle. Ionization of functional group of the particle. The ions that gave the particle its charge, are called POTENTIAL- DETERMINING IONS that serve to repel the particles. Immediately adjacent to the surface of the particle is a layer of tightly bound solvent molecules, together with some ions oppositely charged to the potential-determining ions, called COUNTER IONS or GEGENIONS. Electrolytes acts as flocculating agents by reducing the electrical barrier between the particles, thus, decrease the zeta potential, this leads to decrease in repulsion potential and makes the particle come together to form loosely arranged structure (floccules). IV - Flocculating Agents: Electrolytes
Zeta potential is the potential difference between the ions in the tightly bound layer and the electroneutral region. Zeta potential governs the degree of repulsion between adjacent, similar charged, solid dispersed particles. IV - Flocculating Agents: Electrolytes..
Caking diagram, showing the flocculation of suspension by means of the electrolyte IV - Flocculating Agents: Electrolytes
If we disperse particles of bismuth subnitrate in water, we find that, they, possess a large positive charge, or zeta potential. Because of the strong forces of repulsion between adjacent particles, the system is deflocculated. The addition of monobasic potassium phosphate to the suspended bismuth subnitrate particles causes the positive zeta potential to decrease due to the adsorption of the negatively charged phosphate anion. With the continued addition of the electrolyte, the zeta potential falls to zero and then increases in a negative direction. The flocculating power increases with the valency of the ions. Calcium ions are more powerful than sodium ions because the valency of calcium is two whereas sodium has valency of one. IV - Flocculating Agents: Electrolytes..
Both ionic and non ionic surfactants could be used to control flocculation, e.g. Tween 80, Sodium lauryl sulfate. The concentration of surfactants necessary to achieve flocculation is critical since these compounds may also act as wetting agents to achieve dispersion. Optimum concentrations of surfactants bring down the surface free energy by reducing the surface tension between liquid medium and solid particles. The particles possessing less surface free energy are attracted towards each other by van der-waals forces and forms loose agglomerates. IV - Flocculating Agents: Surfactants
Polymers like Starch, alginates, cellulose derivatives, carbomers, tragacanth are long chain, high molecular weight compounds containing active groups spaced along their length. These agents act as flocculating agents because part of the chain is adsorbed on the particle surface with the remaining parts projecting out in the dispersion medium. Bridging between these portions leads to the formation of floccules. Polymers exhibit pseudo-plastic flow in solution promoting the physical stability of suspension. Floculating agent Floccules Solid particles IV - Flocculating Agents: Polymers
Flocculated and deflocculated suspensions
Supernatant Redispersibility Sediment Rheology Viscosity Suspension Boundary Velocity of sedimentation Sedimented particle DeflocculatedFlocculated Forms a network like structure fast fall together a distinct boundary between sediment and supernatant clear Separate individual particles slow fall according to size no distinct boundary between sediment and supernatant turbid High Low plastic & pseudoplastic Dilatent Loosely packed and doesn’t form a cake DifficultEasy Closely packed and form a hard cake Not pleasing in appearance Pleasing in appearance
The flow of the acceptable suspension will be either pseudoplastic or plastic & it is desirable that thixotropy be associated with these two types of flow. Thixotropy is defined as the isothermal slow reversible conversion of gel to sol. Thixotropic substances on applying shear stress convert to sol(fluid) and on standing they slowly turn to gel(semisolid). At rest the solution is sufficient viscous to prevent sedimentation and thus aggregation or caking of the particles. When agitation is applied the viscosity is reduced and provide good flow characteristic from the mouth of bottle. Rheological properties of pharmaceutical suspensions
The rheological properties of suspensions are affected by The degree of flocculation that occurs in a given suspension. The presence of floccules tends to reduce the amount of free continuous medium; since much of it is entrapped within the floccules. The viscosity of a flocculated suspension is therefore usually higher than that of a similar suspension in which the particles are deflocculated. Flocculated suspensions exhibit plastic or pseudo-plastic behavior. i.e. the viscosity of flocculated suspensions is relatively high when the applied shearing stress is low, but decreases as the applied stress increases. If plastic behavior is exhibited then the system behaves like a solid up to particular shearing stress (yield value), and no flow occurs in the system until the value is exceeded. Rheological Characteristics of suspensions
Rheological properties of flocculated suspensions The yield value is because the van der Waals forces between adjacent particles, which must be broken first before flow can occur. The more flocculated the suspension the higher will be the yield value.
Deflocculated suspensions exhibit dilatant behavior. i.e. the viscosity of deflocculated suspensions is low at low shearing stresses and increases as the applied stress increases. Rheological Characteristics of deflocculated suspensions
Preparation of a suspension Overview Wetting and Dispersion of the Active Ingredient. Stabilization of Dispersed Solid. Preparation of the Vehicle /structured vehicle. Addition and Dispersion of Active Ingredient in Vehicle. Addition of Remaining Ingredients and Final Mixing
Preparation of a suspension Step 1. Wetting and dispersion of the Active Ingredient. Dry mill the powders to achieve target particle size and particle size range. Powder should be added to a low viscosity portion of the product, preferably plain water. This allows for most efficient mixing and homogenization. Wetting agent is added to the water to aid in wetting and displacement of air. Drug powder may be treated with a water miscible material such as glycerin to aid in wetting. Step 2. Stabilization of the Dispersed Solid Electrical (Controlled flocculation). Addition of electrolytes to produce charges around each particle and allow for electrical repulsion to prohibit particle interactions.
Preparation of a suspension Step 3. Preparation of the Vehicle Polymers such as sodium carboxymethylcellulose and gums such as xanthan gum and tragacanth will form lumps if added to water improperly. It is often practical to disperse them in a water miscible liquid in which they are insoluble. A common technique is to make a paste of the material in glycerin, then carefully add this paste to water. It is also usual to allow this mixture to stand for up to 24 hours to ensure complete hydration of the polymer. Step 4. Addition and Dispersions in Vehicle The dispersion of the active ingredient is added to the vehicle with low intensity mixing. The mixture is then homogenized to ensure uniform dispersion of the ingredients. Step 5. Addition of Remaining Ingredients and Final Mixing.
Preparation of a suspension: Summary
Evaluation of Suspensions Suspensions are evaluated by determining their physical stability. Two useful parameters for the evaluation of suspensions are Sedimentation volume "F" & Degree of flocculation “B” 1.Sedimentation volume: (F), sedimentation volume of a suspension is expressed by the ratio of the equilibrium volume of the sediment, Vu, to the total volume, Vo of the suspension. F = Vu/Vo The value of F provides a qualitative knowledge about the physical stability of the suspension. F= 1No sedimentation, no clear supernatant F =0.550% of the total volume is occupied by sediment F > 1Sediment volume is greater than the original volume due to formation of floccules which are fluffy and loose
Evaluation of Suspensions: Sedimentation volume
2.Degree of flocculation: (ß), degree of flocculation is the ratio of the sedimentation volume of the flocculated suspension, F, to the sedimentation volume of the deflocculated suspension, F ß = F / F (Vu/Vo) flocculated ß = (Vu/Vo) deflocculated ß is a quantitative & more fundamental parameter than F as it relates the volume of flocculated sediment to that in a deflocculated system 3-Re-disperseability: This is determined by the number of upside down inversions of the suspension contained in a measure. The smaller the number, the easier would be the re- dispersability of the sediment. A number greater than 15 inversions indicated caking. Evaluation of Suspensions: Degree of flocculation
Stability of suspensions Physical Stability Appearance, color, odor & taste Specific gravity Sedimentation arte Sedimentation volume Zeta potential measurement Compatibility with container Compatibility with cap liner Microscopic examination Determination of crystal size Determination of uniform drug distribution Chemical Stability pH change Viscosity change Degradation of active ingredient Antimicrobial activity: 1.Incompatibility with preservative 2.Degradation of preservative 3.Adsorption of preservative onto drug particle
Packaging and Storage of Suspensions: 1) Should be packaged in wide mouth containers having adequate air space above the liquid. 2) Should be stored in tight containers protected from: freezing, excessive heat & light. 3) Label: "Shake Before Use" to ensure uniform distribution of solid particles and thereby uniform and proper dosage. 4) Stored in room temperature if it is dry powder (25 0 C). Note: It should be stored in the refrigerator after opening or reconstitute (freezing should be avoided to prevent aggregation) Stability of suspensions..