Presentation on theme: "EARLY U.S POLITICS DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE (1776)"— Presentation transcript:
1EARLY U.S POLITICS DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE (1776) CH 2 SUMEARLY U.S POLITICSDECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE (1776)WRITTEN BY THOMAS JEFFERSONPHILOSOPHICAL JUSTIFICATIONLIST OF GRIEVANCESACTION TO BE TAKEN1-PHILOSOPHY2-GRIEVANCES3-ACTION
6WEAKNESSES OF THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION NO POWER TO TAXNO REGULATION OF COMMERCEEACH STATE INDEPENDENTONE VOTE PER STATE9 / 13 REQUIRED TO PASS LAWSSTATE MILITIA BASED MILITARYNO JUDICIAL SYSTEMUNANIMOUS AMENDMENT PROCESS
7THE RESULT… “THE CRITICAL PERIOD” NAT. GOV’T TOO WEAK ECONOMY WAS STAGNATEU.S.BEGAN TO DISSOLVE“THE CRITICAL PERIOD”
9EARLY U.S POLITICS RATIFICATION OF THE CONSTITUTION (1788) FEDERALISTS CH 2 SUMEARLY U.S POLITICSRATIFICATION OF THE CONSTITUTION (1788)FEDERALISTSHAMILTON / MADISON / JAYWANTED RATIFICATIONANTI-FEDERALISTSJEFFERSONAGAINST RATIFICATIONFEDERALIST WIN
10THE COLONIAL MIND BRITISH POLITICIANS WERE CORRUPT BELIEF IN HIGHER LAW “NATURAL RIGHTS”
11THE “REAL” REVOLUTION (IDEOLOGY ) WHAT MADE GOV’T AUTHORITY LEGITIMATE?SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORYHUMAN LIBERTY PRECEDED GOVERNMENTLEGISLATIVE BRANCH MOST IMPORTANTTHEY REPRESENTED THE PEOPLE
33The Constitution Chapter 2 Edwards, Wattenberg, and Lineberry Government in America: People, Politics, and PolicyFourteenth EditionChapter 2The Constitution
34Constitution Definition A constitution is a nation’s basic law. It creates political institutions, assigns or divides powers in government, and often provides certain guarantees to citizens.Sets the broad rules of the gameThe rules are not neutral; some participants and policy options have advantages over others.
35Origins of the Constitution The Road to RevolutionColonists faced tax increases after the French and Indian War.Colonists lacked direct representation in parliament.Colonial leaders formed the Continental Congress to address abuses of the English Crown.
37Origins of the Constitution Declaring IndependenceIn May and June 1776, the Second Continental Congress debated resolutions for independence.The Declaration of Independence, which listed the colonists grievances against the British, is adopted on July 4, 1776.Politically, the Declaration was a polemic, announcing and justifying revolution.
38Origins of the Constitution The English Heritage: The Power of IdeasNatural rights: rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on governmentConsent of the governed: government derives its authority by sanction of the peopleLimited Government: certain restrictions should be placed on government to protect natural rights of citizens
40Origins of the Constitution Winning IndependenceIn 1783, the American colonies prevailed in their war against England.The “Conservative” RevolutionRestored rights colonists felt they had lostNot a major change of lifestyles
41The Government That Failed The Articles of ConfederationThe first document to govern the United States, it was adopted in 1777 and ratified in 1781.It established a confederation, a “league of friendship and perpetual union” among 13 states and former colonies.Congress had few powers; there was no president or national court system.All government power rested in the states.
42The Government That Failed Changes in the StatesLiberalized voting laws increased political participation and power among a new middle class.An expanding economic middle class of farmers and craft workers counterbalanced the power of the old elite of professionals and wealthy merchants.Ideas of equality spread and democracy took hold.
44The Government That Failed Economic TurmoilPostwar depression left farmers unable to pay debtsState legislatures sympathetic to farmers and passed laws that favored debtors over creditorsShays’ RebellionSeries of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings.Economic elite concerned about Articles’ inability to limit these violations of individual’s property rights
45Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention Gentlemen in Philadelphia55 men from 12 of the 13 statesMostly wealthy planters and merchantsMost were college graduates with some political experienceMany were coastal residents from the larger cities, not the rural areas
46The Philadelphia Convention Philosophy into ActionHuman Nature, which is self-interestedPolitical Conflict, which leads to factionsObjectives of Government, including the preservation of propertyNature of Government, which sets power against power so that no one faction rises above and overwhelms another
47The Agenda in Philadelphia The Equality IssuesEquality & Representation of the StatesNew Jersey Plan —equal representation in statesVirginia Plan —population-based representationConnecticut CompromiseSlaveryThree-fifths compromiseIndividual equality/voting left to states
51Article I: Legislative Branch Bicameral, Senate and House.Sets out terms, selection, and apportionment.Section 8 lists enumerated powers.Final clause is necessary and proper clause.This is the basis for Congress’ implied powers.
52Article II: Executive Branch President with a four-year term.Qualifications for and removal from office.Lists powers of the office.Commander in chief, treaties, appointments.Sets out State of the Union Address.
53Article III: Judicial Branch Establishes only a Supreme Court.Sets boundaries of Supreme Court’s jurisdiction.Gives Congress the power to establish lower courts.
54Articles IV-VII Article IV includes full faith and credit clause. Article IV includes provisions about new states.Article V discusses amendment.Article VI contains the supremacy clause.Article VII contains provisions for ratification.
55The Agenda in Philadelphia The Economic IssuesStates had tariffs on products from other statesPaper money was basically worthlessCongress couldn’t raise moneyActions taken:Powers of Congress to be strengthenedPowers of states to be limited
57The Agenda in Philadelphia The Individual Rights IssuesSome were written into the Constitution:Prohibits suspension of writ of habeas corpusNo bills of attainderNo ex post facto lawsReligious qualifications for holding office prohibitedStrict rules of evidence for conviction of treasonRight to trial by jury in criminal casesSome were not specifiedFreedom of speech and expressionRights of the accused
58The Madisonian ModelTo prevent a tyranny of the majority, Madison proposed a government of:Limiting Majority ControlSeparating PowersCreating Checks and BalancesEstablishing a Federal System
61The Madisonian Model The Constitutional Republic Republic: A form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make lawsFavors the status quo – change is slowThe End of the BeginningThe document was approved, but not unanimously. Now it had to be ratified.
63Ratifying the Constitution Federalist PapersA collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name “Publius” to defend the ConstitutionBill of RightsThe first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, drafted in response to some of the Anti-Federalist concerns about the lack of basic liberties
64Ratifying the Constitution RatificationLacking majority support, the Federalists specified that the Constitution be ratified by state conventions, not state legislatures.Delaware first ratified the Constitution on December 7, 1787.New Hampshire’s approval (the ninth state to ratify) made the Constitution official six months later.
65The Importance of Flexibility The Constitution is short, with fewer than 8,000 words.It does not prescribe every detail.There is no mention of congressional committees or independent regulatory commissions.The Constitution is not static, but flexible for future generations to determine their own needs.
66Constitutional Change The Informal Process of Constitutional ChangeJudicial InterpretationMarbury v. Madison (1803): judicial reviewChanging Political PracticeTechnologyIncreasing Demands on Policymakers
69Understanding the Constitution The Constitution and DemocracyThe Constitution is rarely described as democratic.There has been a gradual democratization of the Constitution.The Constitution and the Scope of GovernmentMuch of the Constitution reinforces individualism and provides multiple access points for citizens.It also encourages stalemate and limits government.
70SummaryThe Constitution was ratified to strengthen congressional economic powers, even with disagreements over issues of equality.Protection of individual rights guaranteed through the Bill of Rights.Formal and informal changes continue to shape our Madisonian system of government.
72AP CHAPTER 2 - OBJECTIVES THE CONSTITUTION 1-EXPLAIN THE NOTION OF “HIGHER LAW” BY WHICH THE COLONISTS FELT THEY WERE ENTITLED TO CERTAIN “NATURAL RIGHTS”. ALSO LIST THOSE RIGHTS.2-COMPARE THE BASIS ON WHICH THE COLONISTS FELT A GOVERNMENT COULD BE LEGITIMATE WITH THE BASIS OF LEGITIMACY THEN ASSUMED BY MONARCHIES.3-LIST AND DESCRIBE THE SHORTCOMING OF THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION.
73AP CHAPTER 2 - OBJECTIVES THE CONSTITUTION 4-COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE VIRGINIA AND NEW JERSEY PLAN, AND SHOW HOW THEY LED TO THE “GREAT COMPROMISE”, AKA CONNECTICUT COMPROMISE.5-EXPLAIN WHY SEPARATION OF POWERS AND FEDERALISM BECAME KEY PARTS OF THE CONSTITUTION.6-EXPLAIN WHY A BILL OF RIGHTS WAS NOT INITIALLY INCLUDED IN THE CONSTITUTION AND WHY IT WAS ADDED.7-LIST AND EXPLAIN THE TWO MAJOR TYPES OF CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM ADVOCATED TODAY, ALONG WITH SPECIFIC REFORM MEASURES.
74AP CHAPTER 2 = IMPORTANT TERMS ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATIONCHARLES A. BEARDCONSTITUTIONCONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTIONDECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCEFEDERALISMFEDERALIST PAPERSGREAT COMPROMISE
75AP CHAPTER 2 = IMPORTANT TERMS JOHN LOCKEJAMES MADISONNATURAL RIGHTSNEW JERSEY PLANSEPARATION OF POWERSSHAY’S REBELLIONVIRGINIA PLAN
76AP CHAPTER 2 - IMPORTANT TERMS AMENDMENT (CONSTITUTIONAL)ANTIFEDERALISTSBILL OF ATTAINDERBILL OF RIGHTSCHECKS AND BALANCESCOALITIONCONFEDERATION
77AP CHAPTER 2 - IMPORTANT TERMS EX POST FACTO LAWFACTIONJUDICIAL REVIEWLINE-ITEM VETOMADISONIAN VIEW OF HUMAN NATUREREPUBLICUNALIENABLE RIGHTSWRIT OF HABEAS CORPUS
78AP CHAPTER 2 = QUESTIONS1-WHY, IF ONE IS CONCERNED WITH PROTECTING HUMAN LIBERTY, WOULD ONE WANT TO MAKE THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH OF GOVERNMENT DOMINATE, RATHER THAN THE EXECUTIVE OR JUDICIARY?2-WHAT FEATURES OF THE CONSTITUTION MAKE IT DIFFICULT FOR GOVERNMENT TO ACHIEVE ANYTHING? WHY WERE THEY INCLUDED?
79AP CHAPTER 2 = QUESTIONS3-THE FRAGMENTATION OF POWER UNDER THE CONSTITUTION (SEPARATION OF POWERS) MAKES THE ENACTMENT OF PUBLIC POLICY A SLOW PROCESS. CAN THE UNITED STATES THRIVE , INDEED SURVIVE, IN A FAST PACED, MODERN NUCLEAR AGE WHEN THE GOVERNMENT CANNOT RESPOND QUICKLY?4-HOW DID THE ORIGINAL CONCEPT OF THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE REFLECT THE FOUNDERS’ DISTRUST OF DEMOCRACY? WHAT OTHER CONSTITUTIONAL FEATURES LIMITED THE ROLE OF POPULAR MAJORITIES?
80AP CHAPTER 2 = QUESTIONS5-EXPLAIN WHAT JEFFERSON MEANT WHEN HE SAID THE TREE OF LIBERTY MUST BE REFRESHED FROM TIME TO TIME WITH THE BLOOD OF PATRIOTS AND TYRANTS?”