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Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 My Cornell Notes Rules 1. Write neatly 2. abbreviate when possible 3. write one question for each number in a section.

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Presentation on theme: "Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 My Cornell Notes Rules 1. Write neatly 2. abbreviate when possible 3. write one question for each number in a section."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 My Cornell Notes Rules 1. Write neatly 2. abbreviate when possible 3. write one question for each number in a section. (you must number each question throughout the entire chapter notes. ex. 1-30) 4. Your summaries should have as many sentences as numbers with no less than I grade on your questions and summaries so a chapter may have 40 total questions and summaries. I expect all 40 completed at test time. 6. As long as everyone participates in class time note-taking I will post the power point on my website for those who missed or cant keep up.

2 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 The Constitution Chapter 2 Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy Thirteenth AP* Edition Edwards/Wattenberg/Lineberry Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008

3 Objective 1 Discuss the importance of the English philosophical heritage, the colonial experience, the Articles of Confederation, and the character of the Founding Fathers in shaping the agenda of the Constitution writers.

4 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 A. Constitution 1. Definition – A constitution is a nations basic law. It creates political institutions, assigns or divides powers in government, and often provides certain guarantees to citizens. 2. Sets the broad rules of the game 3. The rules are not neutral; some participants and policy options have advantages over others.

5 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 B.Origins of the Constitution 1. The Road to Revolution – Colonists faced tax increases after the French and Indian War. – Colonists lacked direct representation in parliament. – Colonial leaders formed the Continental Congress to address abuses of the English Crown.

6 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © European Claims in North America (Figure 2.1)

7 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © Declaring Independence – In May and June 1776, the Continental Congress debated resolutions for independence. – The Declaration of Independence, which listed the colonists grievances against the British, is adopted on July 4, – Politically, the Declaration was a polemic, announcing and justifying revolution.

8 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © The English Heritage: The Power of Ideas – Natural rights: rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on government – Consent of the governed: government derives its authority by sanction of the people – Limited Government: certain restrictions should be placed on government to protect natural rights of citizens

9 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © Locke and the Declaration of Independence

10 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © Winning Independence – In 1783, the American colonies prevailed in their war against England. 7. The Conservative Revolution – Restored rights the colonists felt they had lost – Not a major change of lifestyles

11 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 C. The Government That Failed 1. The Articles of Confederation – The first document to govern the United States, it was adopted in 1777 and ratified in – It established a confederation, a league of friendship and perpetual union among 13 states and former colonies. – Congress had few powers; there was no president or national court system. – All government power rested in the states.

12 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © Changes in the States – Liberalized voting laws increased political participation and power among a new middle class. – An expanding economic middle class of farmers and craft workers counterbalanced the power of the old elite of professionals and wealthy merchants. – Ideas of equality spread and democracy took hold.

13 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © Power Shift: Economic Status of State Legislators Before and After the Revolutionary War

14 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © Economic Turmoil – Postwar depression left farmers unable to pay debts – State legislatures sympathetic to farmers and passed laws that favored debtors over creditors 5. Shays Rebellion – Series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings. – Economic elite concerned about Articles inability to limit these violations of individuals property rights

15 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © The Aborted Annapolis Meeting – An attempt to discuss changes to the Articles of Confederation in September 1786 – Attended by only 12 delegates from 5 states – Called for a meeting in May 1787 to further discuss changesthe Constitutional Convention

16 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 1 Summary In your Summary you should: Discuss the importance of the English philosophical heritage, the colonial experience, the Articles of Confederation, and the character of the Founding Fathers in shaping the agenda of the Constitution writers. Should have 16 Questions

17 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 2 Identify the important principles and issues debated at the Constitutional Convention and describe how they were resolved.

18 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 D. Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention 1. Gentlemen in Philadelphia – 55 men from 12 of the 13 states – Mostly wealthy planters & merchants – Most were college graduates with some political experience – Many were coastal residents from the larger cities, not the rural areas

19 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © Philosophy into Action – Human Nature, which is self-interested – Political Conflict, which leads to factions – Objects of Government, including the preservation of property – Nature of Government, which sets power against power so that no one faction rises above and overwhelms another

20 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 E. The Agenda in Philadelphia 1. The Equality Issues – Equality and Representation of the States New Jersey Planequal representation in states Virginia Planpopulation-based representation Connecticut Compromise – Slavery Three-fifths compromise – Political Equality and voting left to states

21 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © How Three Issues of Equality Were Resolved: A Summary

22 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © The Economic Issues – States had tariffs on products from other states – Paper money was basically worthless – Congress couldnt raise money – Actions taken: Powers of Congress to be strengthened Powers of states to be limited

23 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © Economics in The Constitution

24 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © The Individual Rights Issues – Some were written into the Constitution: Prohibits suspension of writ of habeas corpus No bills of attainder No ex post facto laws Religious qualifications for holding office prohibited Strict rules of evidence for conviction of treason Right to trial by jury in criminal cases – Some were not specified Freedom of speech and expression Rights of the accused

25 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 2 Summary In your Summary you should: Identify the important principles and issues debated at the Constitutional Convention and describe how they were resolved. You should now have 23 questions

26 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 3 Objective 3: Explain the Madisonian model of limiting majority control, separating powers, and creating checks and balances.

27 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 F. The Madisonian Model 1. To prevent a tyranny of the majority, Madison proposed a government of: – Limiting Majority Control – Separating Powers – Creating Checks and Balances – Establishing a Federal System

28 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © The Constitution and the Electoral Process: The Original Plan

29 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances in the Constitution

30 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © The Constitutional Republic – Republic: A form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws – Favors the status quo – change is slow 5. The End of the Beginning – The document was approved, but not unanimously. Now it had to be ratified.

31 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 3 Summary In your Summary you should: Explain the Madisonian model of limiting majority control, separating powers, and creating checks and balances. You should now have 28 questions

32 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 4 Objective 4: Understand the conflict between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists over the ratification of the Constitution.

33 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 G. Ratifying the Constitution 1. Federalists and Anti Federalists Compared

34 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © Federalist Papers – A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name Publius to defend the Constitution 3. Bill of Rights – The first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, drafted in response to some of the Anti-Federalist concerns about the lack of basic liberties

35 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © The Bill of Rights (arranged by function)

36 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © Ratification – Lacking majority support, the Federalists specified that the Constitution be ratified by state conventions, not state legislatures. – Delaware first ratified the Constitution on December 7, – New Hampshires approval (the ninth state to ratify) made the Constitution official six months later.

37 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 4 Summary In your Summary you should: Objective 4: Understand the conflict between the Federalists and Anti- Federalists over the ratification of the Constitution. You should now have 33 questions

38 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 4 Summary In your Summary you should: Objective 4: Understand the conflict between the Federalists and Anti- Federalists over the ratification of the Constitution. You should now have 33 questions

39 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 5 Describe the formal and informal processes by which the Constitution is changed in response to new items on the policy agenda.

40 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 H. Constitutional Change 1. How the Constitution Can be Amended

41 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © The Informal Process of Constitutional Change – Judicial Interpretation Marbury v. Madison (1803): judicial review – Changing Political Practice – Technology – Increasing Demands on Policymakers

42 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 5 Summary In your Summary you should: Describe the formal and informal processes by which the Constitution is changed in response to new items on the policy agenda. You should now have 35 questions

43 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 6 Evaluate the Constitution in terms of democracy and its impact on policymaking.

44 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 i. The Importance of Flexibility 1. The Constitution is short, with fewer than 8,000 words. 2. It does not prescribe every detail. – There is no mention of congressional committees or independent regulatory commissions. 3. The Constitution is not static, but flexible for future generations to determine their own needs.

45 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 J. Understanding the Constitution 1. The Constitution and Democracy – The Constitution is rarely described as democratic. – There has been a gradual democratization of the Constitution. 2. The Constitution and the Scope of Government – Much of the Constitution reinforces individualism and provides multiple access points for citizens. – It also encourages stalemate and limits government.

46 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Objective 6 Summary In your Summary you should: Evaluate the Constitution in terms of democracy and its impact on policymaking. You should now have 40 questions

47 Pearson Education, Inc., Longman © 2008 Chapter Summary 1. The Constitution was ratified to strengthen congressional economic powers, even with disagreements over issues of equality. 2. Protection of individual rights guaranteed through the Bill of Rights. 3. Formal and informal changes continue to shape our Madisonian system of government.


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