3 Questions to Consider1. What factors led a people who were the freest and most prosperous in the western world to launch a revolution?2. Where American patriots justified in asserting a “right to revolution?”3. Could the revolution have been averted---and, if so, what difference would it have made?4. How were the American colonists, who had a long history of quarreling among themselves, able to prevail against the world’s strongest military power?
4 1. What factors led a people who were the freest and most prosperous in the western world to launch a revolution?
5 Mercantilism1. Goals of MercantilismSome political & Economic Freedom2. British Management of Colonies up to 1783Colonies are prosperous3. Economic structure of colonies – North, Middle, South – in relation to mercantilism4. Colonial political independence, benefits & burdens of mercantilism5. British change in policy
6 Reorganization of Empire “Salutary Neglect” abandonedKing George III and the Whigs want to solve Britain’s financial woesWar was expensiveMilitary costs moneyColonists should help pay costs strict enforcement of Navigation Acts and new taxes
7 Theories of Representation Real WhigsQ-> What was the extent of Parliament’s authority over the colonies??Absolute?OR Limited?Q-> How could the colonies give or withhold consent for parliamentary legislation when they did not have representation in that body??
8 George Grenville's Program ( )1. Sugar Act2. Currency Act3. Quartering Act4. Stamp Act
9 Tax Burden in the British Empire in 1765 British MemberTax Burden in English Shillings (s) and Pennies or Denarius (d)Great Britain26sIreland6s 8dMassachusetts1sConnecticut7dNew YorkPennsylvaniaMarylandVirginia5dSo why were the colonists so upset about their taxes?12 pence (pennies) = 1 shilling
10 What meaning did the colonists give to the taxes? # 8 on Reading QuizThe American Revolution was the product of 40 years of abuses by the British authorities that many colonists regarded as a threat to their liberty and property. But people do not act simply in response to objective reality but according to the meaning they give to the events.What meaning did the colonists give to the taxes?
11 Birth of American Freedom British: History of LibertyMagna Carta, Petition of Right, Common Law, wars between liberty & tyranny,Who was considered “free” in British society?Puritans: “spiritual liberty”Enlightenment: Deism, Locke, RouseauColonists: -Meeting point between republican & liberal understandings of gov. & society.-Economic autonomy“Thus, if the roots of American freedom lay in the traditions of Christian liberty and of the freeborn Englishmen, its emergence as a new and distinct ideology grew out of the struggle for independence…” (Foner, 1998)
12 Questions to Consider2. Where American patriots justified in asserting a “right to revolution?”3. Could the revolution have been averted---and, if so, what difference would it have made?
13 Rethinking Their Empire British --> Proclamation Line of 1763Colonials --> Paxton Boys (PA)
14 Rethinking Their Empire Br. Gvt. measures to prevent smuggling:* > writs of assistance-- James Otis’ case -- Protection of a citizen’s private property must be held in higher regard than a parliamentary statute.-- He lost --> parliamentary law and custom had equal wt.
15 George Grenville's Program ( )1. Sugar Act2. Currency Act3. Quartering Act4. Stamp Act
17 Stamp Act Crisis Loyal Nine - 1765 Sons of Liberty – began in NYC – Samuel AdamsStamp Act Congress – * Stamp Act ResolvesDeclaratory Act – 1766
18 Townshend Duties Crisis (1767 - 1770) > William Pitt, P. M. & Charles Townshend, Secy. of Exchequer* Shift from paying taxes for Br. war debts & quartering of troops --> paying col. gvt. salaries.* He diverted revenue collection from internal to external trade.* Tax these imports --> paper, paint, lead, glass, tea.* Increase custom officials at American ports.
22 Committees of Correspondence Purpose warn neighboring colonies about incidents with Br broaden the resistance movement.
23 Tea Act (1773) British East India Co.: Monopoly on Br. tea imports. Many members of Parl. held shares.Permitted the Co. to sell tea directly to cols. without col. middlemen (cheaper tea!)North expected the cols. to eagerly choose the cheaper tea.