Presentation on theme: "2. Where American patriots justified in asserting a “right to revolution?” 1. What factors led a people who were the freest and most prosperous in the."— Presentation transcript:
2. Where American patriots justified in asserting a “right to revolution?” 1. What factors led a people who were the freest and most prosperous in the western world to launch a revolution? 4. How were the American colonists, who had a long history of quarreling among themselves, able to prevail against the world’s strongest military power? 3. Could the revolution have been averted---and, if so, what difference would it have made?
1. What factors led a people who were the freest and most prosperous in the western world to launch a revolution?
1. Goals of Mercantilism 2. British Management of Colonies up to Colonial political independence, benefits & burdens of mercantilism 3. Economic structure of colonies – North, Middle, South – in relation to mercantilism 5. British change in policy Colonies are prosperous Some political & Economic Freedom
“Salutary Neglect” abandoned King George III and the Whigs want to solve Britain’s financial woes –War was expensive –Military costs money –Colonists should help pay costs strict enforcement of Navigation Acts and new taxes
Real Whigs Q-> What was the extent of Parliament’s authority over the colonies?? Absolute? OR Limited? Q-> How could the colonies give or withhold consent for parliamentary legislation when they did not have representation in that body??
Tax Burden in the British Empire in 1765 British MemberTax Burden in English Shillings (s) and Pennies or Denarius (d) Great Britain26s Ireland6s 8d Massachusetts1s Connecticut7d New York7d Pennsylvania1s Maryland1s Virginia5d 12 pence (pennies) = 1 shilling So why were the colonists so upset about their taxes?
The American Revolution was the product of 40 years of abuses by the British authorities that many colonists regarded as a threat to their liberty and property. But people do not act simply in response to objective reality but according to the meaning they give to the events. What meaning did the colonists give to the taxes?
British: History of Liberty Magna Carta, Petition of Right, Common Law, wars between liberty & tyranny, Who was considered “free” in British society? Puritans: “spiritual liberty” Enlightenment: Deism, Locke, Rouseau Colonists: -Meeting point between republican & liberal understandings of gov. & society. -Economic autonomy “Thus, if the roots of American freedom lay in the traditions of Christian liberty and of the freeborn Englishmen, its emergence as a new and distinct ideology grew out of the struggle for independence…” (Foner, 1998)
2. Where American patriots justified in asserting a “right to revolution?” 3. Could the revolution have been averted---and, if so, what difference would it have made?
British --> Proclamation Line of 1763 Colonials --> Paxton Boys (PA)
Br. Gvt. measures to prevent smuggling: -- James Otis’ case -- Protection of a citizen’s private property must be held in higher regard than a parliamentary statute. * > writs of assistance -- He lost --> parliamentary law and custom had equal wt.
Loyal Nine Sons of Liberty – began in NYC – Samuel Adams Stamp Act Congress – 1765 * Stamp Act Resolves Declaratory Act – 1766
> William Pitt, P. M. & Charles Townshend, Secy. of Exchequer * Shift from paying taxes for Br. war debts & quartering of troops --> paying col. gvt. salaries. * He diverted revenue collection from internal to external trade. * Tax these imports --> paper, paint, lead, glass, tea. * Increase custom officials at American ports.
Tar and Feathering
The Boston Massacre ( March 5,1770 )
The Gaspee Incident (1772) Providence, RI coast
Committees of Correspondence Purpose warn neighboring colonies about incidents with Br. broaden the resistance movement.
Tea Act (1773) 8 British East India Co.: Monopoly on Br. tea imports. Many members of Parl. held shares. Permitted the Co. to sell tea directly to cols. without col. middlemen (cheaper tea!) 8 North expected the cols. to eagerly choose the cheaper tea.
Boston Tea Party (1773)
The Coercive or Intolerable Acts (1774) Lord North 1. Port Bill 2. Government Act 4. Administration of Justice Act 3. New Quartering Act
The Quebec Act (1774)
First Continental Congress (1774) 55 delegates from 12 colonies Agenda How to respond to the Coercive Acts & the Quebec Act? 1 vote per colony represented.
The British Are Coming... Paul Revere & William Dawes make their midnight ride to warn the Minutemen of approaching British soldiers.
The Shot Heard ’ Round the World ! Lexington & Concord – April 18,1775
How were the American colonists, who had a long history of quarreling among themselves, able to prevail against the world’s strongest military power?
British Strengths Population Advantage in Monetary wealth and naval power
British Weaknesses International Conflict Internal conflict at the outset: Tories v. Whigs
Colonist’s Strengths Outstanding Leadership Self-Sustaining in terms of Agricultural goods Rally cry of a just cause
Colonist’s Weaknesses Poor Organization Continental Congress was a debate club with no continental congress power Jealousy between military appointments Funding – continental money
The Second Continental Congress (1775) Olive Branch Petition