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Germplasm supply systems: Market- based and Decentralized interventions Which way do we go? Charles Wambugu, ICRAF.

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Presentation on theme: "Germplasm supply systems: Market- based and Decentralized interventions Which way do we go? Charles Wambugu, ICRAF."— Presentation transcript:

1 Germplasm supply systems: Market- based and Decentralized interventions Which way do we go? Charles Wambugu, ICRAF

2 Topics to be covered 1. Evolution of germplasm supply systems in Kenya: The case of fodder shrubs – Charles Wambugu 2. Seed packaging and distribution to smallholder farmers: The small pack case – Esther Karanja 3. Germplasm supply system through Kenya Association of Tree Seed and Nursery Operators (KATRESNO) - Juma Gichohi & Simon Githambo 4. Seed supply system through KEFRI - Tree Seed Centre – Peter Angaine 5. Experience of Kenya Seed Company in crop seed supply systems – Mwangi Nderito

3 The Scope of Coverage Presentation of personal and institutional experience:  Rationale behind specific pathways used in germplasm distribution  Internal checks that ensure distribution of quality germplasm  Mechanisms used in promotion and marketing of germplasm  Challenges and constraints faced in germplasm supply  Lessons learnt from various approaches used by different organizations  Strategies in place/suggested to overcome these challenges

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5 Scaling up the adoption of fodder trees in the central highlands of Kenya Charles Wambugu Steve Franzel Evolution of germplasm supply systems in Kenya: The case of fodder shrubs Which way do we go? Charles Wambugu, ICRAF

6 Outline  Introduction to fodder shrubs production in the East African region  Background information on promotion of fodder shrubs in Kenya  Justification to improved seed supply systems in Kenya  Interventions in seed supply systems  Decentralised seed supply systems  Challenges  The way forward  Questions and answers

7 Introduction to fodder shrubs production in the EA region Note: Our target in research and promotion strategies are smallholder farmers  The shrubs are meant to meet several needs such as protein supplementation in livestock feeds, soil erosion control, soil fertility improvements, wood energy, stakes and poles, bee forage, fencing, etc  Criteria for assessing appropriate fodder shrub species  Compatibility with existing farming systems  Provide high quality forage materials  Fast growing  Persistence - can survive over a long period of time  Easy to manage  Can be coppiced  Can withstand frequent harvesting  Provide multiple benefits – forage, fuelwood, erosion control, etc

8 Some of the commonly used fodder shrub species in the East African region Calliandra calothyrsusLeucaena trichandra

9 Morus alba (mulberry) Sesbania sesban Chamaecytisus palmensis (tree lucerne) Gliricidia sepium Several indigenous species - specific to locality

10 Adoption of fodder shrubs in the EA region

11 Adoption of fodder shrubs in Kenya

12 Research and promotion of fodder shrubs in Kenya: Historical Background  1980s: Fodder shrubs were introduced in Kenya through NGOs - mainly as source of wood energy  Late 1980s and early 1990s: Research on best practices in production and utilization of various fodder shrub species by IRS (ICRAF, ILRI) and NARS (KARI, KEFRI)  Late 1990s to mid 2000: Intensive research and promotion efforts that targeted dairy farmers through research and extension services  Early 2000: Research into calliandra seed supply systems (ICRAF & Technoserve initiative) - identification of bottlenecks in demand and supply mechanisms  Mid 2000: Focus on effective and sustainable seed supply systems  2006: Experiment on a low cost scaling up process through strategic communication (use of SCALE approach)

13 Justification for improved seed supply systems in Kenya  Recent improvements in dairy sub-sector in Kenya has led to an increase in milk prices leading to rapid adoption of fodder shrubs  However, availability of seed has been a major constraint in rapid expansion and adoption of fodder shrubs  There is need for innovative ways to ensure quality seeds are supplied to an expanding demand  Seed production is mainly in western Kenya but the demand is primarily in central Kenya  Social networks were used in germplasm distribution, thus quality issues were difficulty to address  Calliandra calothyrsus is the most preferred species by dairy farmers but it is a “shy seeder” thus contributing towards seed scarcity  Many organizations were distributing seeds and seedlings for free making the private sector lack the incentives to get involved  Farmers in new areas may not know the benefits of fodder shrubs and thus may be unwilling to invest in buying seeds

14 There was need for a shift in paradigm ……….……

15 Interventions in seed supply systems Task: The n eed to meet a huge seed demand but in a rapid way  Identification and assessment of existing mechanisms and pathways for seed production and distribution  Experiments on ways to improve the mechanisms for quality germplasm production and distribution  Sensitization of policy makers, researchers and development agencies on how to scale up production and distribution of quality seed  Promotion strategy: targeting the private sector to link supply and demand more efficiently – an attempt to replace projects and extension services with private entrepreneurs in the seed chain

16 Projects/NGOs KEFRI / KARI ICRAF Smallholder Dairy Farmers Projects/NGOs Smallholder Dairy Farmers Smallholder Seed Producers Seed Dealers/ Producers Western Kenya Central Kenya The situation in Kenya: Market Chain for calliandra seed Problems: 1. Seed producers not linked to final demand 2. Little seed production in area of demand 3. Free seed, a disincentive to seed marketing Seed market chain: Analytical tool to understand calliandra seed market

17 Projects/NGOs KEFRI / KARI ICRAF Smallholder Dairy Farmers Projects/NGOs Smallholder Dairy Farmers Small Seed Producers Seed Dealers Western Kenya Central Kenya Linking farmers to buyers: Market Chain for calliandra seed Dairy coops & societies Seed stockists Smallholder Seed Producers Seed market chain: ICRAF interventions- improving market linkages

18 Decentralised seed supply systems Aim: To develop mechanisms for sustainable germplasm supply The steps that were used:  Free seed distributed to fodder shrub groups in new areas  Enhancement of technical capacity of smallholder seed producers  Involvement of farmers in seed supply – recruitment of seed vendors  Development of mechanisms for reductions in seed wastage - Seed packaging into small packets and attaching monetary value to the seed – outlets were extension services, farm input stockists and lead farmers  Attempts to involve both formal and informal sectors in seed supply - Approached major seed companies but low turn-over from sales and difficulties in quality control discouraged them  Advocacy role - Consultations with KEPHIS and KEFRI Tree Seed Centre (regulatory bodies) in support of the private sector  Facilitating linkages between demand and supply ends – more involvement of the private sector leading to the birth of KATRESNO  Key stakeholders involved in training of KATRESNO members – enhancement of their technical and entrepreneurial skills  Deliberate efforts to discourage extension services from distributing free seeds in areas where KATRESNO is active

19 Decentralised seed supply systems conti  Experimentation on SCALE approach in germplasm distribution  Strategic communication- bombarding potential consumers with information from print and electronic media - radio, TV, newspapers, leaflets, etc leading to huge demand for germplasm necessitating improved linkages of seed dealers in western and central regions  Results – in 2006, >3 tons of fodder shrub seed and > 1m seedlings was distributed by only 25 members of KATRESNO whom we were able to track their activities in that year > 1m seedlings was distributed by only 25 members of KATRESNO whom we were able to track their activities in that year

20 Developing market-based seed and seedlings distribution

21 Challenges  Many of the tree seed dealers are unable to meet the requirements by Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Services (KEPHIS)  Whose responsibility is it to ensure seed dealers meet quality standards and adhere to business ethics in a decentralised system? ….. self regulation? but how??  Large scale farmers are also interested in seed production but need to be assured of markets before venturing into production  Extension services in government and NGOs are still distributing free seeds and seedlings and thus kill the seed market  Emerging diseases and pests  Need for species diversification as a means of risk evasion  How can leading seed companies be involved to help in tree seed distribution through their developed outlets?

22 The way forward  Support and strengthen seed dealers association through: Building their technical and entrepreneurial capacity Building their technical and entrepreneurial capacity Assist association to identify and meet large seed orders from within and outside the country Assist association to identify and meet large seed orders from within and outside the country Assist association to form networks with stakeholders in tree seed market to make it easy to collect and assemble seeds Assist association to form networks with stakeholders in tree seed market to make it easy to collect and assemble seeds  Solicit for support of policymakers and KEPHIS to facilitate marketing of tree seeds through small-scale seed dealers  Sensitize development agencies on the negative effects of distributing free seeds in areas where market forces are in operation  Find better ways of promoting private sector in tree seed supply mechanisms  Research into sustainable ways of enforcing quality control and adherence to business ethics

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