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Achieve’s American Diploma Project: Cross State Initiatives Impacting Mathematics Expectations and Policy Florida Math Standards Conference September 18,

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Presentation on theme: "Achieve’s American Diploma Project: Cross State Initiatives Impacting Mathematics Expectations and Policy Florida Math Standards Conference September 18,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Achieve’s American Diploma Project: Cross State Initiatives Impacting Mathematics Expectations and Policy Florida Math Standards Conference September 18, 2006

2 2 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Achieve, Inc. Created in 1996 by governors and concerned CEOs Bipartisan, independent, non-profit Work with states to improve the quality of standards, tests and accountability systems Organized 1999, 2001, and 2005 National Education Summits

3 3 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Achieve’s purpose is to: Prepare all young people for postsecondary education, work and citizenship by raising academic standards and achievement in America's schools.

4 4 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Achieve’s work: help states benchmark their standards, assessments and accountability systems against the best in the country and the world build partnerships that allow states to work together to improve teaching and learning and raise student achievement provide sustained public leadership and advocacy for the movement to raise standards and improve student performance

5 5 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project How well prepared are our students for the world after high school? What does it take to be prepared for postsecondary education and work? What do we expect of our high school graduates? What will it take to close the expectations gap?

6 6 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project n How well prepared are our students?

7 7 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK U.S. high school graduation rates have dropped over past 20 years Source: Mortenson, T., “Chance for College by Age 19 by State in 2000,” Postsecondary Education Opportunity: The Environmental Scanning Research Letter of Opportunity for Postsecondary Education, No. 123, The Mortenson Research Center on Public Policy, September Public high school graduation rates, 1981–2000

8 8 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK High school graduation rate: United States trails most countries Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Education at a Glance 2004, 2004.

9 9 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Too many U.S. students drop out of the education pipeline Source: National Center for Public Policy & Higher Education, Policy Alert, April Data are estimates of pipeline progress rather than actual cohort.

10 10 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Only about half of African American and Latino students graduate from high school in four years Source: Manhattan Institute, Public High School Graduation and College-Readiness Rates: 1991–2002, February 2005, On-time high school graduation, 2002

11 11 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK A high school diploma is not the last educational stop required Jobs that require at least some postsecondary education will make up more than two-thirds of new jobs. Source: Carnevale, Anthony P. and Donna M. Desrochers, Standards for What? The Economic Roots of K–16 Reform, Educational Testing Service, 2003.

12 12 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Change in the Distribution of Education in Jobs, 1973 v % -9% +16% Source: Carnevale, Anthony P. and Donna M. Desrochers, Standards for What? The Economic Roots of K–16 Reform, ETS, 2003.

13 13 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK College bound does not necessarily mean college ready Nearly three in 10 first-year students are placed immediately into a remedial college course. Percentage of U.S. first-year students in two-year and four-year institutions requiring remediation Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Remedial Education at Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions in Fall 2000, 2003.

14 14 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Very few high school graduates are “college ready” Source: Manhattan Institute, Public High School Graduation and College-Readiness Rates: 1991–2002, February 2005,

15 15 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Too few minority students in U.S. graduate from high school “college ready” Source: Manhattan Institute, Public High School Graduation and College-Readiness Rates: 1991–2002, February 2005,

16 16 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Source: National Center for Education Statistics, The Condition of Education, Most U.S. college students who take remedial courses fail to earn degrees nMany college students who need remediation, especially in reading and math, do not earn either an associate’s or a bachelor’s degree. Percentage not earning degree by type of remedial coursework

17 17 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Clearly, we’ve got a problem Students are following all the rules; Meeting all of the requirements for a HS diploma; and still-- Falling through the cracks between high school and the expectations of postsecondary institutions.

18 18 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project What does it take to be prepared for postsecondary education and work?

19 19 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project Partnership of Achieve, Inc.; The Education Trust; and the Thomas B. Fordham Foundation. Partnered with Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Nevada and Texas. Involved wide variety of K–12, higher education and business representatives. Key finding: Unprecedented convergence of skills required for success in college and work. Created end-of-high-school benchmarks to convey the knowledge and skills graduates will need to be successful in college and the workplace.

20 20 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Expectations are the same for both college & “good jobs” The knowledge & skills that high school graduates will need in order to be successful in college are the same as those they will need in order to be successful in a “good job” that l pays enough to support a family well above the poverty level, l provides benefits, & l offers clear pathways for career advancement through further education & training.

21 21 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK College Ready = Career Ready ADP research found a common core of knowledge & skills in math and English that are necessary for success in postsecondary education and in “good jobs”. ACT Study Ready for College Ready for Work: Same or Different?: l whether planning to enter college or workforce training programs after graduation, high school students need to be educated to a comparable level of readiness in reading and mathematics.

22 22 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Work Ready is not the same as Career Ready Career Ready – The knowledge and skills needed to gain further education and training in order to succeed and advance in chosen career Work Ready – The knowledge and skills needed to gain an entry level job

23 23 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Blue-collar jobs require high-level skills Requirements for draftsmen: l Recommended high school courses include Geometry and Trigonometry. l Draftsmen may wish to seek additional study in mathematics and computer-aided design to keep up with technological progress within the industry. Requirements for electricians: l Recommended high school courses include Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry and Physics. Sources: American Diploma Project, 2002; The Associated General Contractors of America (AGC)

24 24 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Blue-collar jobs require high-level skills Requirements for iron workers: l Recommended high school courses include Algebra, Geometry and Physics. Requirements for sheet metal workers: l Four or five years of apprenticeship l Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry and technical reading Requirements for tool and die makers l Four or five years of apprenticeship and/or postsecondary training l Algebra, geometry, trigonometry and statistics Sources: American Diploma Project, 2002; The Associated General Contractors of America (AGC)

25 25 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Recommended Math Courses for 16 CTE Career Clusters Algebra I, Geometry, & Algebra II Trigonometry, Pre-Calculus, or StatisticsTrigonometry, Pre- Calculus, or Calculus n Arts, A/V Technology & Communications n Architecture & Construction n Business, Management, & Administration n Finance n Government & Public Administration n Hospitality and Tourism n Human Services n Information Technology n Manufacturing n Marketing, Sales and Service n Transportation, Distribution & Logistics n Agriculture, Food & Natural Resources n Education & Training n Health Science n Law, Public Safety, Corrections& Security n Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics

26 26 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project What does all this mean? A high school diploma is necessary but not sufficient - - good jobs that pay well and lead to careers require high skills and further education or training beyond high school. There is a common core of English and math skills necessary for success in college and in the education and training that leads to careers. The job of high schools is to help every 9 th grader graduate with at least these core skills -- so that each student has choices and options after high school.

27 27 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project Methodology Coming from the workplace perspective: Defining workplace expectations Securing input from employers on preliminary workplace expectations

28 28 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK What does it take to succeed in “good” jobs? ADP research found that: 84 percent of highly paid professionals took Algebra II or higher in high school. Employees in vast majority of good jobs took four years of grade-level English. Employers emphasize importance of workers being able to think creatively and logically and to identify and solve problems. Fastest growing occupations require some education beyond high school (e.g., certificate, bachelor’s degree, associate degree, on-the-job training).

29 29 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project Methodology Coming from the postsecondary perspective: Defining postsecondary expectations for credit-bearing work l Test content analyses l Meetings with higher education faculty

30 30 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project Methodology Meetings with 2-year and 4-year college faculty: Define math content and skills needed for success in credit-bearing courses Articulate and prioritize these competencies Determine degree to which state standards contain these competencies Identify gaps

31 31 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project Convergence of workplace and postsecondary findings: Similar intellectual demands Some variation in relative emphasis Importance of reasoning and problem-solving skills

32 32 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK ADP Post-secondary Institution Study: Key findings In math, graduates need knowledge and skills typically taught in Algebra I, Algebra II and Geometry, as well as some Data Analysis and Statistics. In English, graduates need strong reading, writing and oral communication skills equal to four years of grade-level coursework, as well as research and logical reasoning skills often associated with honors courses.

33 33 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK To be college and work ready, students need to complete a rigorous sequence of courses In math: l Four years l Content equivalent to Algebra I and II, Geometry, and a fourth course such as Statistics or Precalculus In English: l Four years l Content equivalent to four years of grade-level English or higher (i.e., honors or AP English) To be college and work ready, high school graduates need:

34 34 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project The final steps: Synthesizing preliminary workplace and postsecondary expectations for review Convening content area expert/employer panels Gathering tasks and assignments from employers and postsecondary faculty

35 35 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK ADP Math Expectations ADP Math benchmarks cover: l Number sense and numerical operations l Algebra l Geometry l Data interpretations, statistics and probability l Math reasoning skills Typically taught in four courses with content equivalent to: l Algebra I l Geometry l Algebra II l Additional advanced course such as Statistics or Precalc

36 36 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project Mathematics Benchmarks Benchmarks, supported by examples Asterisks used to identify content recommended for all but required for students planning to take calculus Technology as an important tool in problem solving but not as a replacement for fluency and accuracy in computation

37 37 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project Mathematics Benchmarks How are they being used? Benchmarking state high school standards Comparative analyses in states embarking upon the development of college-readiness standards Basis of comparison in analysis of tests Backmapping to create a secondary progression and sequences of high school courses

38 38 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK K-12 progression and high school course descriptions ADP benchmarks are for all students. They are cumulative— “end-of-high school” (but not through calculus) In mathematics, we are currently “backmapping” from end of high school to create a K-12 progression (building on pre-existing K-8) Developing course descriptions as well

39 39 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project Mathematics Benchmarks So how are we “unpacking” the ADP benchmarks? Identifying prerequisite knowledge and skills Defining a “universe” of content and skills that “bleeds into” middle school Creating a progression of knowledge and skills “Evening out” the grain size

40 40 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project Backmapping Progression Where are we now? Draft strands of the universe of content Working to parse expectations into course sequences - traditional and integrated

41 41 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project What do we expect of our high school graduates? Standards Course-taking requirements Assessments

42 42 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK State high school standards not always anchored in real-world expectations In most states, standards reflect a consensus among discipline-based experts about what would be important for young people to learn – not a reflection of what would be essential to know to succeed at the next level. Few states’ postsecondary faculty and employers have verified that state high school standards reflect their expectations.

43 43 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Do state graduation requirements reflect “college- and work-ready” content? To answer this question, Achieve: Reviewed minimum high school course requirements in all 50 states. Compared each state’s requirements to what students need to be successful in college and the workplace.

44 44 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK 44 states require students to take certain courses to graduate from high school

45 45 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK 23 states require Algebra I

46 46 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK 16 states require Geometry

47 47 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Only 8 states require Algebra II

48 48 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Algebra II critical for college and work Source: Peter D. Hart Research Associates/Public Opinion Strategies, Rising to the Challenge: Are High School Graduates Prepared for College and Work? prepared for Achieve, Inc., High school graduates extremely or very well prepared for expectations of college/work

49 49 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK A strong high school curriculum* improves college completion and narrows gaps *Completing at least Algebra II plus other courses. Source: Adapted from Adelman, Clifford, U.S. Department of Education, Answers in the Toolbox, % 13%

50 50 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Only four in 10 high school students complete a college- and work-ready math curriculum *Trigonometry or Precalculus. Source: Council of Chief State School Officers, State Indicators of Science and Mathematics Education 2002, 2003, p. 27. Taking a math course beyond Algebra II* by graduation (2002)

51 51 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Do assessments measure “college-ready” skills? Half the states require students to pass one or more exams to earn a high school diploma. What does it take to pass these tests?

52 52 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK The tests Achieve analyzed Source: Achieve, Inc., Do Graduation Tests Measure Up? A Closer Look at State High School Exit Exams, 2004.

53 53 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Good news: States are measuring algebra and geometry Source: Achieve, Inc., Do Graduation Tests Measure Up? A Closer Look at State High School Exit Exams, 2004.

54 54 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Bad news: States tend to measure lower-level content Source: Achieve, Inc., Do Graduation Tests Measure Up? A Closer Look at State High School Exit Exams, 2004.

55 55 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Students can pass state math tests knowing content typically taught in 7th and 8th grade internationally FL MD MA NJ OH TX Source: Achieve, Inc., Do Graduation Tests Measure Up? A Closer Look at State High School Exit Exams, Grade when most international students cover content required to pass state math tests

56 56 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project What will it take to close the expectations gap?

57 57 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Closing the Expectations Gap: ADP Policy Agenda Align high school standards with college and work expectations. Require all students to take curriculum aligned with standards. Include “ college-ready ” test, aligned with state standards, in high school assessment system. Hold high schools accountable for graduating students college- and work-ready, and hold postsecondary institutions accountable for student success.

58 58 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK ADP Network: 25 states committed to improving student preparation

59 59 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK ADP Math Tools and Support: Standards K-12 Math Benchmarks High School Course Descriptions l Traditional math sequence l Integrated math sequence l Capstone Courses l Applied Sequence Alignment Institute and other technical support

60 60 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Achieve provides alignment support to 18 states

61 61 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK ADP Math Tools and Support: College-Ready Assessment Common Algebra II Test Do Graduation Tests Measure Up?: A Closer Look at High School Exit Exams Study of what commonly used college admissions and placement tests measure

62 62 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK ADP Algebra II End-of-Course Exam Nine states will issue RFP for development of Algebra II test in the Fall of Test content aligned with ADP math benchmarks Purposes of the test: l To ensure consistent content and rigor in Algebra II courses within and among states l To provide for comparisons in performance among the states l To be used for postsecondary placement purposes Test will be administered no later than Spring 2008 Additional states will be able to use this exam

63 63 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK States working together to develop a common Algebra II EOC test

64 64 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Math Tools and Support: Improving Instruction Urban Math Leadership Network in partnership with Charles A. Dana Center/UT Austin l Focus on developing tools and strategies to help urban districts increase success in Algebra I Aligned Instructional Systems l Formative assessments l Model Curriculum l Sample Lessons and Assignments l Professional Development l Supports for Students

65 65 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Math Tools and Support: Advocacy Making the case for Algebra II l Research that supports necessity of advanced math skills for 21 st Century work as well as for college l Examples of successful state, district and school initiatives

66 66 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK For more information, please visit Achieve, Inc., on the Web at

67 Achieve’s American Diploma Project: Cross State Initiatives Impacting Mathematics Expectations and Policy Florida Math Standards Conference September 18, 2006


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