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Achieve’s American Diploma Project: Cross-State Initiatives to Prepare Students for College and Work Urban Mathematics Leadership Network Meeting April.

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Presentation on theme: "Achieve’s American Diploma Project: Cross-State Initiatives to Prepare Students for College and Work Urban Mathematics Leadership Network Meeting April."— Presentation transcript:

1 Achieve’s American Diploma Project: Cross-State Initiatives to Prepare Students for College and Work Urban Mathematics Leadership Network Meeting April 20-22, 2006

2 2 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Achieve, Inc. Created in 1996 by governors and concerned CEOs Bipartisan, independent, non-profit Work with states to improve the quality of standards, tests and accountability systems Organized 1999, 2001, and 2005 National Education Summits

3 3 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Achieve’s purpose is to: Prepare all young people for postsecondary education, work and citizenship by raising academic standards and achievement in America's schools.

4 4 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Achieve’s work: help states benchmark their standards, assessments and accountability systems against the best in the country and the world build partnerships that allow states to work together to improve teaching and learning and raise student achievement provide sustained public leadership and advocacy for the movement to raise standards and improve student performance

5 5 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project How well prepared are our students for the world after high school? What does it mean to be prepared for college and work? Do we expect all of our students to be prepared? Closing the expectations gap — what will it take?

6 6 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project How well prepared are our students?

7 7 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK U.S. high school graduation rates have dropped over past 20 years Source: Mortenson, T., “Chance for College by Age 19 by State in 2000,” Postsecondary Education Opportunity: The Environmental Scanning Research Letter of Opportunity for Postsecondary Education, No. 123, The Mortenson Research Center on Public Policy, September Public high school graduation rates, 1981–2000

8 8 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK High school graduation rate: United States trails most countries Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Education at a Glance 2004, 2004.

9 9 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK A high school diploma is not the last educational stop required Jobs that require at least some postsecondary education will make up more than two-thirds of new jobs. Share of new jobs, 2000–10 Source: Carnevale, Anthony P. and Donna M. Desrochers, Standards for What? The Economic Roots of K–16 Reform, Educational Testing Service, 2003.

10 10 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Change in the Distribution of Education in Jobs, 1973 v % -9% +16% Source: Carnevale, Anthony P. and Donna M. Desrochers, Standards for What? The Economic Roots of K–16 Reform, ETS, 2003.

11 11 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Too many U.S. students drop out of the education pipeline Source: National Center for Public Policy & Higher Education, Policy Alert, April Data are estimates of pipeline progress rather than actual cohort.

12 12 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Only about half of African American and Latino students graduate from high school in four years Source: Manhattan Institute, Public High School Graduation and College-Readiness Rates: 1991–2002, February 2005, On-time high school graduation, 2002

13 13 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK College bound does not necessarily mean college ready Nearly three in 10 first-year students are placed immediately into a remedial college course. Percentage of U.S. first-year students in two-year and four-year institutions requiring remediation Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Remedial Education at Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions in Fall 2000, 2003.

14 14 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Very few high school graduates are “college ready” Source: Manhattan Institute, Public High School Graduation and College-Readiness Rates: 1991–2002, February 2005,

15 15 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Too few minority students in U.S. graduate from high school “college ready” Source: Manhattan Institute, Public High School Graduation and College-Readiness Rates: 1991–2002, February 2005,

16 16 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Source: National Center for Education Statistics, The Condition of Education, Most U.S. college students who take remedial courses fail to earn degrees nMany college students who need remediation, especially in reading and math, do not earn either an associate’s or a bachelor’s degree. Percentage not earning degree by type of remedial coursework

17 17 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Clearly, we’ve got a problem Students are following all the rules; Meeting all of the requirements for a HS diploma; and still-- Falling through the cracks between high school and the expectations of postsecondary institutions.

18 18 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project What does it take to be prepared for postsecondary education and work?

19 19 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project Partnership of Achieve, Inc.; The Education Trust; and the Thomas B. Fordham Foundation. Partnered with Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Nevada and Texas. Involved wide variety of K–12, higher education and business representatives. Key finding: Unprecedented convergence of skills required for success in college and work. Created end-of-high-school benchmarks to convey the knowledge and skills graduates will need to be successful in college and the workplace.

20 20 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Expectations are the same for both college & “good jobs” The knowledge & skills that high school graduates will need in order to be successful in college are the same as those they will need in order to be successful in a “good job” that l pays enough to support a family well above the poverty level, l provides benefits, & l offers clear pathways for career advancement through further education & training.

21 21 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project Methodology Coming from the workplace perspective: Defining workplace expectations Securing input from employers on preliminary workplace expectations

22 22 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK What does it take to succeed in “good” jobs? ADP research found that: 84 percent of highly paid professionals took Algebra II or higher in high school. Employees in vast majority of good jobs took four years of grade-level English. Employers emphasize importance of workers being able to think creatively and logically and to identify and solve problems. Fastest growing occupations require some education beyond high school (e.g., certificate, bachelor’s degree, associate degree, on-the-job training).

23 23 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project Methodology Coming from the postsecondary perspective: Defining postsecondary expectations for credit-bearing work l Test content analyses l Meetings with higher education faculty

24 24 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project Methodology Meetings with 2-year and 4-year college faculty: Define math content and skills needed for success in credit-bearing courses Articulate and prioritize these competencies Determine degree to which state standards contain these competencies Identify gaps

25 25 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project Convergence of workplace and postsecondary findings: Similar intellectual demands Some variation in relative emphasis Importance of reasoning and problem-solving skills

26 26 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK ADP Post-secondary Institution Study: Key findings In math, graduates need knowledge and skills typically taught in Algebra I, Algebra II and Geometry, as well as some Data Analysis and Statistics. In English, graduates need strong reading, writing and oral communication skills equal to four years of grade-level coursework, as well as research and logical reasoning skills often associated with honors courses.

27 27 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK To be college and work ready, students need to complete a rigorous sequence of courses In math: l Four years l Content equivalent to Algebra I and II, Geometry, and a fourth course such as Statistics or Precalculus In English: l Four years l Content equivalent to four years of grade-level English or higher (i.e., honors or AP English) To be college and work ready, high school graduates need:

28 28 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project The final steps: Synthesizing preliminary workplace and postsecondary expectations for review Convening content area expert/employer panels Gathering tasks and assignments from employers and postsecondary faculty

29 29 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK ADP expectations ensure high school graduates are prepared to succeed In English, the benchmarks cover: l Language l Communication l Writing l Research l Logic l Informational text l Media l Literature l Cross-cutting college/workplace tasks In math, the benchmarks cover: l Number sense and numerical operations l Algebra l Geometry l Data interpretations, statistics and probability l Math reasoning skills l Cross-cutting college/workplace tasks

30 30 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project Mathematics Benchmarks Benchmarks, supported by examples Asterisks used to identify content recommended for all but required for students planning to take calculus Technology as an important tool in problem solving but not as a replacement for fluency and accuracy in computation

31 31 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project Mathematics Benchmarks How are they being used? Benchmarking state high school standards Comparative analyses in states embarking upon the development of college-readiness standards Basis of comparison in analysis of tests Backmapping to create sequences of high school courses

32 32 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK K-12 progression and high school course descriptions ADP benchmarks are for all students. They are cumulative— “end-of-high school” (but not through calculus) In mathematics, we are currently “backmapping” from end of high school to create a K-12 progression (building on pre-existing K-8) Developing course descriptions as well

33 33 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project Mathematics Benchmarks So how are we “unpacking” the ADP benchmarks? Identifying assumed prerequisite knowledge and skills Defining a “universe” of content and skills that “bleeds into” middle school Creating a progression of knowledge and skills “Evening out” the grain size

34 34 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project Backmapping Progression Where are we now? Draft strands of the universe of content Working to parse expectations into course sequences - traditional and integrated

35 35 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project What do we expect of our high school graduates? Standards Course-taking requirements Assessments

36 36 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Do state graduation requirements reflect “college- and work-ready” content? To answer this question, Achieve: Reviewed minimum high school course requirements in all 50 states. Compared each state’s requirements to what students need to be successful in college and the workplace.

37 37 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK 44 states require students to take certain courses to graduate from high school

38 38 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK 23 states require Algebra I

39 39 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK 16 states require Geometry

40 40 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Only 8 states require Algebra II

41 41 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK A strong high school curriculum* improves college completion and narrows gaps *Completing at least Algebra II plus other courses. Source: Adapted from Adelman, Clifford, U.S. Department of Education, Answers in the Toolbox, % 13%

42 42 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Only four in 10 high school students complete a college- and work-ready math curriculum *Trigonometry or Precalculus. Source: Council of Chief State School Officers, State Indicators of Science and Mathematics Education 2002, 2003, p. 27. Taking a math course beyond Algebra II* by graduation (2002)

43 43 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Do assessments measure “college-ready” skills? Half the states require students to pass one or more exams to earn a high school diploma. What does it take to pass these tests?

44 44 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK The tests Achieve analyzed Source: Achieve, Inc., Do Graduation Tests Measure Up? A Closer Look at State High School Exit Exams, 2004.

45 45 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Good news: States are measuring algebra and geometry Source: Achieve, Inc., Do Graduation Tests Measure Up? A Closer Look at State High School Exit Exams, 2004.

46 46 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Bad news: States tend to measure lower-level content Source: Achieve, Inc., Do Graduation Tests Measure Up? A Closer Look at State High School Exit Exams, 2004.

47 47 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Students can pass state math tests knowing content typically taught in 7th and 8th grade internationally FL MD MA NJ OH TX Source: Achieve, Inc., Do Graduation Tests Measure Up? A Closer Look at State High School Exit Exams, Grade when most international students cover content required to pass state math tests

48 48 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK American Diploma Project What will it take to close the expectations gap?

49 49 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK ADP Network: 22 states committed to improving student achievement

50 50 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Closing the expectations gap requires states to take action Align high school standards and assessments with the knowledge and skills required for success in postsecondary education and work. Administer a college- and work-ready assessment, aligned to state standards, to high school students so they get clear and timely information and are able to address critical skill deficiencies while still in high school. Require all students to take a college- and work-ready curriculum to earn a high school diploma. Hold high schools accountable for graduating students who are college ready, and hold postsecondary institutions accountable for their success once enrolled.

51 51 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Postsecondary must be involved A clear, consistent definition of “college ready” from state postsecondary institutions. What does it take to align high school standards with “college-ready” standards?

52 52 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Some states are using high school assessments for postsecondary purposes California State University system augmented the state’s high school test and now uses it for placement purposes. City University of New York uses scores on the state’s Regents exam for admissions and placement purposes. Texas students who earn a certain score on the state TAKS exam can be placed in college-level courses. Some states are considering incorporating the SAT or ACT into their high school assessment systems.

53 53 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK High schools must be held accountable for student preparation A data system based on individual student unit records that permits an honest count of graduation and dropout rates Measures of college and work readiness aligned to state standards To ensure high schools are graduating students who are “college and work ready,” states need:

54 54 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK ADP Algebra II Assessment Partnership of States Collaborating on a Common Algebra II Test l Mathematics Content – defining a common core of content and identifying other optional add-on modules l Assessment Specifications – defining parameters for test development, format, administration guidelines, etc.

55 55 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Postsecondary institutions must be held accountable for student success Focused goals for each institution, including persistence and graduation rates Data systems linked to K–12 Appropriate incentives Holding postsecondary institutions accountable for the success of the students they admit requires:

56 56 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK Achieve’s Study of College Placement Tests n Uses same methodology as exit exam study, with refinements/extensions of content taxonomy n Includes analysis of national tests (SAT, ACT, Accuplacer, Compass) and state/institution-specific tests

57 57 AMERICAN DIPLOMA PROJECT NETWORK For more information, please visit Achieve, Inc., on the Web at

58 Achieve’s American Diploma Project: Cross-State Initiatives to Prepare Students for College and Work Urban Mathematics Leadership Network Meeting April 20-22, 2006


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