Presentation on theme: "Developing and Assessing Teaching for the Common Core"— Presentation transcript:
1 Developing and Assessing Teaching for the Common Core Rethinking Instruction and Assessment
2 Changes in Societies are Creating Pressures for School Change
3 Percentile Change from 1960 DEMAND FOR skILLS is ChangingComplex Communications10Expert Thinking8642Percentile Change from 1960-2Routine ManualEquity agendaPerhaps most compelling to us was the research conducted by Harvard and MIT professors Richard Murnane and Frank Levy, who took a hard look at the labor market of the future. By carefully examining the kinds of jobs that are being displaced by computerization, their fundamental conclusion is that the economic faultline of the 21st century will fall along a skills based divide.“At greatest risk are jobs that can be expressed in programmable rules--blue collar, clerical, and similar work that requires moderate skills and used to pay middle-class wages. The loss of these jobs leaves a growing division between those who can and cannot earn a good living in the computerized economy. Left unchecked, the division threatens the nation's democratic institutions.”-4The dilemma of schools:The skills that are easiest to teach and test are also the ones that are easiest to digitize, automate, and outsource-6Routine Cognitive-8Non-routine Manual-1019601970198019901998Source: Murnane & Levy
4 Fortune 500 Most Valued Skills 1970199912345678910111213WritingTeamworkProblem SolvingInterpersonal SkillsComputational SkillsReading SkillsOrganizational EffectivenessGoal Setting/MotivationListening SkillsPersonal Career DevelopmentCreative ThinkingLeadershipOral CommunicationsWritingComputational SkillsReading SkillsOral CommunicationsListening SkillsPersonal Career DevelopmentCreative ThinkingLeadershipHere is one data point from that research: a survey of Fortune 500 companies who were asked to rank the most valued attributes of their new employees. As you can see these skills have long been important, ranking in the top 20 since But in the 21st century, they are at the top of their list.Goal Setting/MotivationTeamworkOrganizational EffectivenessProblem SolvingInterpersonal Skills
5 DEEPER learning …through mastery of rigorous academic content THINK critically & solve complex problemsCOMMUNICATE effectivelyWORK collaborativelyLEARNhow to learn…Based upon this evidence, and the feedback we received from many of you, we developed a philanthropic initiative to focus on a set of student outcomes which we are calling deeper learning.…through mastery of rigorous academic content
6 Measuring College- and Career- Readiness Students are not entering a multiple choice world. Genuine readiness for college and 21st century careers require abilities: To find, evaluate, synthesize and use knowledge To frame and solve non-routine problems To design and produce new products To communicate in many ways
7 20th Century Teaching will not Meet 21st Century Demands x
8 US Outcomes in International Perspective Reading Korea Finland Singapore Canada New Zealand Japan Australia US is #14Mathematics Singapore Korea Finland Lichtenstein Switzerland Japan Canada US is #27ScienceFinlandSingapore JapanKoreaNew ZealandCanadaEstoniaUS is #21
9 What are the Highest-Achieving Nations Doing? Universal health care, housing, preschool for childrenEquitable & adequate resources for schoolsEquitable access to a thinking curriculum supported by rich performance assessmentsSubstantial investments in initial teacher education and ongoing supportA well-paid and well-supported professionSchools designed to support teacher and student learning
10 What are these Nations Not Doing? Cutting funds to schoolsPrivatizing educationRanking and labeling schools and teachersAllocating rewards or sanctions based on test scoresDe-professionalizing teaching
11 Changes Pending in California Adoption of Common Core State Standards andNext Generation Science StandardsChanges in the Assessment System-- Shift to Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium-- Elimination of other CSTs-- Reconceptualization of Assessment System
12 A New Concept of Accountability Changes in the API-- Less Emphasis on Standardized Tests-- More Emphasis on Graduation, College and Career Readiness, and Healthy School FunctioningCommitment to Multiple MeasuresInvestment in Improvement, Not PunishmentDevelopment of StrongerProfessional Accountability
13 Goal of Common Core State Standards FewerHigherDeeper
14 Key Aspects of the CCSS Reading increasingly complex texts closely Communicating effectively in multiple media and across content areasUsing evidence; interpreting with justificationEngaging in inquiry and researchEngaging in mathematical practices that use mathematical reasoning in applicationUsing mathematical skills across content areas and contextsApplying literacy and numeracy across content areas
16 ENGLISH/ LANGUAGE ARTS Percentage of Deeper Learning Test ITEMS / TARGETS in State TestsMATHENGLISH/ LANGUAGE ARTSDOK3DOK4Current state assessments<2%0%20%2%New state tests under development (SBAC)49%21%43%25%Are the assessment consortia measuring up?Good news: Early indications are that the assessment consortia will produce significantly more rigorous deeper learning tests than the current state consortia.DOK = Depth of KnowledgeSource: Yuan & Le (2012); Herman & Linn (2013)
18 How Must Schools Change to Develop these Abilities?
19 Common Core Standards - Math Students should be able “understand,” “describe,” “explain,” “justify,” “prove,” “derive,” “assess,” “illustrate,” and “analyze.”They also need to be able to “model,” “construct,” “compare,” “investigate,” “build,” “interpret,” “estimate,” “summarize,” “represent,” “evaluate,” “extend,” and “apply” their learning to a wide range of real world problems – including uses in science, engineering, and technology problems
21 Testing Deeper Learning Math Depth of Knowledge Level 4 (Grade 7)Max bought two items that were on sale.One item was 10% offOne item was 20% offMax says he saved 15% all together.A. Could Max be right?B. Could Max be wrong?Justify your answers.Math Depth of Knowledge Level 1 (Grade 7)Roberto paid $43.08 for three CDs. All three were the same price.How much did each CD cost?A. $11.36B. $14.36C. $40.08D. $46.08What does this look like in practice?For example, here is DOK 1 Math item—typical of a current state standardized test. Here is a DOK 4 Math Item—an early prototype from the PARCC assessment.
22 Sample High School Task: Speeding Tickets Across States Stimulus/Information Source for TaskMassachusetts(http://www.sudbury.ma.us/services/individual_faq.asp?id=69)The initial 10MPH over the speed limit is assessed a $50 fine. In other words, there is a flat fee for the first 10MPH. Each MPH above the initial 10MPH is then calculated at $10 per MPH thereafter. In addition to the fines established relative to the speed traveled, there is a $50 assessment applied to the fine schedule which goes to a Head Injury Fund established by the state.Example: 46MPH in a 30MPH zone = 16MPH over the speed limit Fine = $50 Head Injury Fund assessment + $50 (first 10MPH over the speed limit) + $60 (next 6MPH) = $160Involving the teacher in the process allows for conversations about concepts that may be unclear to the reader. If our intention is to assess math, we do not want words (e.g., Head Injury Fund assessment or MPH) muddying the water. However, to keep the problem as true to life as possible, it does not make a lot of sense to remove these words, but rather, to help students understand what they mean in the context of the problem.
23 Sample Task Stimulus (cont.) Tasks that ask students to determine which information is relevant to problem solving and which is extraneous support the goals of Claim 4.
24 CCSS – ELA ReadingDraw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
25 CST ELA Item Testing Standard 9RC2.8 I’m not showing you the reading passage, but you don’t really need it. The evidence from the text appears in response option C, and the generalization appears in the question stem. [click]
26 CCSS-ELAProduce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
27 Common Core Standards - ELA Conduct short and sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose and audience.
28 Research Task: Nuclear Power You are chief-of-staff for your local congresswoman in the U.S. House of Representatives. She has called you into her office to outline an urgent project.“I have received advance warning,” she says as you sit down, “that a power company is proposing to build a nuclear plant in the southeastern corner of our state. The plan will be announced to the public tomorrow morning, and citizens and journalists will want to know what my position is on this controversial issue. To be honest, I am not sure how I feel about it. We currently don’t have any nuclear power plants in this state, so I haven’t taken time to consider the issue deeply.“I need you,” she continues, “to conduct a brief survey of the pros and cons of nuclear power. Summarize what you have learned and report back to me this afternoon.”Back in your office, you enter “nuclear power pros and cons” into a Google search engine, and it returns what looks like a promising mix of articles, videos, and data charts. You must review and evaluate these sources and summarize their arguments—both pro and con—before reporting back to the congresswoman.
29 Organize ArgumentsFrom the sources you have reviewed, summarize 3 major arguments that support, and 3 major arguments that oppose, the use of nuclear power for generating electricity. For each of the arguments, cite at least one source that supports this fact or point of view.Argument / Fact in Favor of Nuclear PowerSource Supporting this Argument1.2.3.Argument / Fact in Opposition to Nuclear PowerSource Supporting This Argument
30 Evaluate SourcesEvaluate the credibility of the arguments and evidence presented by these sources. Which of the sources are more trustworthy and why? Which of the sources warrant some skepticism because of bias or insufficient evidence?
31 Write and Revise an Evidence-Based Essay Back in the congresswoman’s office, you start to hand her your notes on the pros and cons of nuclear energy, but she waves away your papers.“Some emergency meetings have come up and I don’t have time to review your research notes,” she says. “Instead, go ahead and make a recommendation for our position on this nuclear power plant. Should we support the building of this nuclear plant in our state, or should we oppose the power company’s plan? Be sure that your recommendation acknowledges both sides of the issue so that people know that we have considered the issue carefully. I’ll review your memo tonight and use it for the press conference tomorrow morning.”Write an argumentative essay that recommends the position that your congresswoman should take on the plan to build a nuclear power plant in your state. Support your claim with evidence from the Internet sources you have read and viewed. You do not need to use all the sources, only the ones that most effectively and credibly support your position and your consideration of the opposing point of view.
33 Professional Learning Opportunities that Impact Practice: Focused on specific curriculum contentOrganized around real problems of practiceLinked to analysis of teaching and student learningIntensive, sustained and continuous over timeSupported by coaching, modeling, observation, and feedbackConnected to teachers’ collaborative work in professional learning communitiesIntegrated into school and classroom planning around curriculum, instruction, and assessment
34 Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation Combine Evidence of Practice and Outcomes in an Integrated Evaluation System that looks at21st Century teaching practice in relation to standards, curriculum goals, and student needsContributions to colleagues and the school,Student learning in relation to teaching practices, curriculum goals, and student needs, andAccomplishment of individual and group goals
35 Approach Test-Based Evaluation with Caution VAM estimates of teacher effectiveness … should not used to make operational decisions because such estimates are far too unstable to be considered fair or reliable.– National Research CouncilBoard on Testing and Assessment,2009In 2009, the NRC’s Board on Testing and Assessment issued a letter report directed to Education Secretary Arne Duncan, commenting on the Department’s proposal on the Race to the Top Fund. That letter included strong cautions concerning value-added models, and strongly urged further research and pilot studies before mandating any operational use of these models. Since then, the evidence has continued to accumulate that these models have serious problems.
36 Many teachers indicated as effective or ineffective in one year are not for others Value-added estimates are highly unstable.Consider classification of teachers into 5 categories (A-F) in two consecutive years.Grade in first year:Grade in second year:AABCDFFABCDFGrades A-F correspond to quintiles Source: Tim Sass (2008).36
37 A Teacher’s Measured “Effectiveness” Can Vary Widely YEAR 110YEAR 2Same high schoolSame course (English I)Not a beginning teacherModel controls for:Prior achievementDemographicsSchool fixed effects1
38 Recent findings from TX, LA, NY, CA, FL The same teachers receive lower value-added ratings when:-- they have large numbers of new English Learners-- they have larger numbers of special education students-- they have larger numbers of highly at-risk students (with poor attendance, sickly, abused, homeless)-- they are teaching high-achieving students who have already reached the highest score levels on the testsBullet 1: One teacher noted: “I’m scared to teach in the 4th grade. I’m scared I might lose my job if I teach in an [ELL] transition grade level, because I’m scared my scores are going to drop, and I’m going to get fired because there’s probably going to be no growth.” Another teacher noted: “When they say nobody wants to do 4th grade – nobody wants to do 4th grade! Nobody.”Bullet 3: A teacher noted: “I found out that I [have been] competing with myself.”Bullet 4: A gifted teacher noted: “Every year I have the highest test scores, I have fellow teachers that come up to me when they get their bonuses…One recently came up to me [and] literally cried - ‘I’m so sorry.’… I’m like, don’t be sorry…It’s not your fault. Here I am…with the highest test scores and I’m getting $0 in bonuses. It makes no sense year to year how this works…. How do I, how do I… you know… I don’t know what to do. I don’t know how to get higher than a 100%.” Another gifted teacher noted, “I have students [in a 5th grade gifted reading class] who score at the 6th 7th 8th-grade levels in reading. But I’m like please babies, score at the 9th grade level, cause if you don’t score at the 9th or 10th grade or higher in 5th grade with me, I’m going to show negative growth. Even though you, you’re gifted and you’re talented, and you’re high! I can only push you so much higher when you are already so high. I’m scared.”3838
39 Create an Integrated System Link the implementation of common core standards to educator support and evaluationTrain and assess prospective and current principals for teacher evaluation and supportLink professional development policies to the assessment standards and practicesInvolve senior teachers, mentors, principals as assessors and policy advisorsUse every opportunity to enable sharing of expertiseEqualize access to high-quality curriculum & teaching
40 21st Century Learning for All “What the best and wisest parent wants for his or her child, that must the community want for all of its children. Any other goal is narrow and unlovely. Acted upon, it destroys our democracy.”-- John Dewey