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ARGUMENT PAPER. Common Problems (taken from AP CENTRAL) Problems that prevented students from earning a high score on Question Three included: Not taking.

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Presentation on theme: "ARGUMENT PAPER. Common Problems (taken from AP CENTRAL) Problems that prevented students from earning a high score on Question Three included: Not taking."— Presentation transcript:

1 ARGUMENT PAPER

2 Common Problems (taken from AP CENTRAL) Problems that prevented students from earning a high score on Question Three included: Not taking a clear position or wavering between positions/ Being reluctant to engage in verbal combat because "everyone's entitled to his or her own opinion," so there's nothing to argue about Substituting a thesis-oriented expository essay for an argumentative essay Trying to argue with irrelevant examples (EX: you would not argue about the nature of photography with evidence drawn from a literary reading list like Othello, The Scarlet Letter) Lacking clear connections between claims and the data Trying to analyze rhetorical strategies or authorial style instead of arguing a point

3 HOOKS Note that citations are done in APA, not MLA format because the topics are more related to social sciences than to literature.

4 INTRO 1: On a scale of 1-10, how would you rate this hook? The decision to hold the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China, was controversial. Many people protested, and some wanted to boycott the games because of China’s history of human-rights violations. Months after the Olympics ended, people still wondered if a country’s political and human-rights actions should affect its eligibility to host the Olympics. For many people, the Olympics is a symbol of world unity, and for this reason, they reject the idea of boycotting the event. They believe this act would be a rejection of the Olympic values of peace, understanding, and international cooperation. However, these ideals are undercut when the games are held in a country known to violate human rights. If we truly support the spirit of the Olympics, we should not hold the games in countries that do not share the games’ core values. To avoid this problem, we should consider creating permanent Olympic sites in countries that embody the basic values that are symbolized by the games. Taken from “Do the Olympic Games Need Permanent Host Sites?” by Christopher Chu, reprinted in Practical Argument

5 HOOK/INTRO/NARRATION College: even the word sounded wonderful when I was in high school. Everyone I knew told me it would be the best time of my life. They told me that I would take courses in exciting new subjects and that I’d make life-long friends. What they didn’t tell me was that I would be anxious, confused, and uncertain about my major and about my future. Although this is only my second year in college, I’ve already changed my major once, and, to be honest, I’m still not sure I’ve made the right decision. But during the process of changing majors, my adviser gave me some reading material that included information about a “gap year.” It has lead me to believe that I might be better focused today had I taken a year to live, experience, and grow. While some students may benefit from entering college immediately upon graduation, I think high schools should present the gap year as a legitimate alternative. Note that the student writer is trying to build ethos through personal experience and perhaps establish common ground with readers who were/are confused about direction. Adapted from “An Argument in Support of the ‘Gap Year’” by Chantee Steele, reprinted in Practical Argument

6 INTRO 2: On a scale of 1-10, how would you rate this hook? Back packing through Europe. Securing a job to save money. Committing to a service organization and helping those in need. These are just some of the reasons that more and more students are delaying their start to college in what’s been termed a “gap year.” A gap year is a year off between high school and college when students focus on work or community service and learn about themselves. Although it’s gaining popularity in the U.S., the gap year still suggests images of spoiled rich kids who want to play for a year before going to college. According to educator Christina Wood (2007), however, in the U.K. a gap year is common; it is seen as a time for personal growth that helps students mature (p. 36). In fact, 230,000 British students take a gap year before going to college (Griffiths qtd. in Wood, 2007, p. 4). With the trend crossing the pond, one wonders whether the American higher education system would benefit from a paradigm shift. It does seem that a well-planned gap year gives students time to mature, to explore potential careers, and to volunteer or travel. Adapted from “An Argument in Support of the ‘Gap Year’” by Chantee Steele, reprinted in Practical Argument

7 REVISED HOOK/INTRO/NARRATION “Sending a kid who’s not ready to college is like sending a kid who’s not feeling hungry to an all-you-can-eat buffet” (Wood, 2008, p. 2). While such a comparison seems silly, it does work to highlight the absurdity of force-feeding a student not yet seeking to digest a time-consuming, often costly education. Perhaps that explains why more students are delaying their start to college in what’s been termed a “gap year.” A gap year is a year off between high school and college when students focus on work or community service and learn about themselves. Although it’s gaining popularity in the U.S., the gap year still suggests images of spoiled rich kids who want to play for a year before going to college. According to educator Christina Wood, however, in the U.K. a gap year is common; it is seen as a time for personal growth that helps students mature (Wood, 2007, p. 36). In fact, 230,000 British students take a gap year before going to college (Griffiths qtd. In Wood, 2007, n.p.). With the trend crossing the pond, one wonders whether the American higher education system would benefit from a paradigm shift. It does seem that a well-planned gap year is a legitimate alternative to entering college because it gives students time to mature, to explore potential careers, and to volunteer or travel. Adapted from “An Argument in Support of the ‘Gap Year’” by Chantee Steele, reprinted in Practical Argument

8 HOOK 3: Topic: How dangerous are social- networking sites? On a scale of 1-10, how would you rate this hook On a scale of 1-10, how would you rate this hook? The popularity of social-networking sites such as MySpace and Facebook has exploded over the last several years, especially among college students and young professionals. These sites provide valuable opportunities for networking and for connecting socially. Another version of a hook on this topic 

9 REVISED HOOK 3: Topic: How dangerous are social-networking sites? On a scale of 1-10, how would you rate this hook? Brody likes to gamble online and has amassed $7300 in credit card debt at the age of 27. He has three piercings and is in the process of tattooing his arm. He earns about $41,000 a year, and he hasn’t spoken to his father since college graduation. His dog’s name is Nerf, and he has dreams of purchasing a Harley. I know all about Brody even though I have never met him and probably never will. Just five years ago, only his closest friends (or his psychiatrist) would have known such personal details about him. Yet thanks to his profile on the social networking website Facebook, I even know the first thing he thinks about in the morning. Adapted from “Things You Wouldn’t Tell Your Mother” by Alison George, reprinted in Practical Argument

10 MISCELLANEOUS TOPIC SENTENCES: Remember that topic sentences for a confirmation paragraph should intro the point of the paragraph while reinforcing your stance. In a refutation paragraph, make it clear that you are about to address (and refute) the opposition. TRANSITIONS FOR ARGUMENT Causal: because, as a result, for this reason Sequence: first, second, then, next, finally Additional points: also, another, in addition, furthermore Move from general to specific: for example, for instance, in short, in other words Identify an opposing argument: however, although, even though, on the other hand, in contrast Making concessions/granting validity to opposition: certainly, admittedly, granted, of course Intro a refutation: however, nevertheless, nonetheless, still, despite

11 MORE MISCELLANEOUS VERBS to HELP INTEGRATE QUOTES Noteswarns Acknowledgesreports Proposespoints out Suggestspredicts Believesimplies Observesconcludes Explainsclarifies Commentsdefends Justifiesconfirms Verifiesquestions Positsindicates CLINCHERS: Remember that a clincher is a one-sentence summary of the gist of the paragraph. It functions to wrap up the paragraph at hand, NOT introduce the next one.

12 Plagiarism Plagiarism This shouldn’t be an issue for this paper, as ideas are to come from YOU and YOUR knowledge and experience base. If you include something, though, in your hook that is not common knowledge, cite it and provide a works cited entry at the end of your paper.

13 Pop Culture Plagiarism? Melissa Molinaro has been accused of exploiting her resemblance to Kim Kardashian. Because she has appeared in ads posing as Kim K., Molinaro is being sued. Modern connection alert! Don’t take a chance in your paper; CITE!


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