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Curriculum & Instruction Planning and Implementing Scaffolds in Mathematics to Support Struggling Students Including Students with Disabilities

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Introduction Kathleen R. Scholand Mattituck-Cutchogue UFSD Teacher, 7-12 Math Department Coordinator NYSED Common Core Institute Fellow Donna Kart Wappingers Central School District Teacher, Instructional Coach NYSED Common Core Institute Fellow 2

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Where We Live and Work 3

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4 Session Objectives Curriculum: Participants will learn strategies the presenter uses to create scaffolds for struggling learners when planning for instruction. Instruction: Participants will receive and share strategies used to assist struggling learners during instruction.

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Essential Question How do I use instructional scaffolding strategies to assist struggling learners? 5

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What is Scaffolding in Education? It is the creation of support features that help an individual student or a group of students transition from tasks at which they are successful due to sufficient procedural skill and conceptual development to tasks that are difficult for them to complete independently. Scaffolding is part of the lesson development stage. Scaffolding is also part of instructional practice. 6

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Curriculum Creating Scaffolds for Struggling Learners when Planning for Instruction “Struggling learners” includes not only students with disabilities, but also any student who struggles including English language learners. This is where your R.E.A.L.I.T.Y. as an educator influences the scaffold you create. 7

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Essential Understanding Every teacher has a different R.E.A.L.I.T.Y. (Scholand, K. R., 2015) 8

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R.E.A.L.I.T.Y. ✓ R eframe your thinking ✓ E valuate your students’ needs ✓ A nalyze the big picture ✓ L esson study ✓ I nstructional planning ✓ T each for learning ✓ Y our reflection (Scholand, K. R., 2015) 9

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R : Reframe Your Thinking Creating scaffolds begins with knowing where you are as a learner. ●What is new in the Standards than what I’ve taught before? ●What is new about this content than what I’ve taught before? ●What do I need to know from the previous grade-level to teach this lesson? ●What concepts do I need to relearn? 10

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R : Reframe Your Thinking Read the Module Table of Contents Analyze the teaching sequence Read the Module Overview Focus standards Foundational standards Practice standards Read the supporting documents Progressions Performance Level Descriptions (PLDs) 11

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E : Evaluate Your Students’ Needs Creating scaffolds also involves knowing the learning needs of your students. ●Who are the students in my class? ●What are the learning needs of individual students? ●Where do students usually struggle? ●What gaps might they have in their learning? ●Why might these gaps remain? 12

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E : Evaluate Your Students’ Needs Review available reports Look for trends and individual areas of concern. Talk with other educators Understand the collective needs of students. Understand the particular needs of students. Inquire about concepts or practices where students struggle. Foster a relationship with students Provide opportunities for students to share their interests and learning experiences. 13

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A : Analyze the Big Picture Now that you have framed where you are as a learner and who your students are as learners, know where the curriculum stands in the overall scheme of mathematics, know where the topics and lessons fit into this scheme, know the expectations for student understanding and performance as they relate to a student’s overall progress in the mathematics continuum. 14

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A : Analyze the Big Picture Reread the Progression document to understand the development of the mathematics. What is the Module Overview saying? What are the Focus Standards? What are the Foundational Standards? What are the Practice Standards? What is the Topic Overview saying? What are the Mid- and End-of-Module tasks? What is the progression of Exit Tickets in the Topic? 15

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L : Lesson Study It doesn’t matter whether you are using the EngageNY Module resources or other publishers’ resources. Lesson Study begins the work of creating scaffolds. 16

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L : Lesson Study Work through the Examples and Exercises. What is the purpose of each exercise or example? Where, in the development of the lesson, might gaps exist for my students? Do the exercises and examples get students to the Exit Ticket independently? Where would additions be helpful for concept development? For practice? What additions are need to bring students to the point of independent success? Work through the Problem Set tasks. What is the purpose of each problem? Where might gaps exist for students? Where would additions be helpful? Can students do these independently? 17

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G7 M1 L2: Is there a constant number such that the first quantity multiplied by this constant gives the second quantity? Example 1: Pay by the Ounce Frozen Yogurt Constant Multiplier: 0.40 Example 2: A Cooking Cheat SheetConstant Multiplier: 8 Exercise 1: Calories Burned while Jumping RopeConstant Multiplier: 11 Example 3: Summer JobConstant Multiplier: 28 Lesson Summary: ExampleConstant Multiplier: 10 Exit Ticket: Making JuiceConstant Multiplier: ¼ Problem Set #1: Cran-apple Juice MixtureConstant Multiplier: 5/3 or 3/5 Problem Set #2: Filling the BathtubConstant Multiplier: 1 ½ 18

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I : Instructional Planning This is where planning for and creating scaffolds occurs. Whenever possible, plan collegially, but customize based on your reality. Keep the design principles intact: focus, coherence, rigor. 19

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I : Instructional Planning ●What are the key concepts to be taught in this lesson? ●What are the non-negotiable understandings that students must take home? ●What suggestions might an instructional support person give? ●From what additional resources might understanding and inspiration be drawn? What scaffolds might I want to create? 20

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G7 M1 L2: Is there a constant number such that the first quantity multiplied by this constant gives the second quantity? Example 1: Pay by the Ounce Frozen Yogurt Constant Multiplier: 0.40 Example 2: A Cooking Cheat SheetConstant Multiplier: 8 Exercise 1: Calories Burned while Jumping RopeConstant Multiplier: 11 Example 3: Summer JobConstant Multiplier: 28 Lesson Summary: ExampleConstant Multiplier: 10 Exit Ticket: Making JuiceConstant Multiplier: ¼ Problem Set #1: Cran-apple Juice MixtureConstant Multiplier: 5/3 or 3/5 Problem Set #2: Filling the BathtubConstant Multiplier: 1 ½ 21

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Additional Problems Example 1: Pay by the Ounce Frozen Yogurt Constant Multiplier: 0.40 Example 2: A Cooking Cheat SheetConstant Multiplier: 8 or 1/8 Exercise 1: Calories Burned while Jumping RopeConstant Multiplier: 11 Example 3: Summer JobConstant Multiplier: 28 Lesson Summary: ExampleConstant Multiplier: 10 Exit Ticket: Making JuiceConstant Multiplier: ¼ Exit Ticket #2: Making JuiceConstant Multiplier: 4 Model Problem #1: Buying Hot Dogs Constant Multiplier: 2.50 Model Problem #2: Flowers Sold by the Music ClubConstant Multiplier: 0.8 or 5/4 Problem Set #1: Cran-apple Juice MixtureConstant Multiplier: 5/3 or 3/5 Problem Set #2: Filling the BathtubConstant Multiplier: 1 ½ Problem Set #3: Fabric Store Constant Multiplier: 12 22

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Scaffolding The creation of additional problems and their location in a lesson should be strategic. The last slide shows examples of problems that are Bridges and Links. They Bridge guided examples to independent tasks. They Link foundational conceptual understanding to more complex understanding. These are two of four scaffolding strategies to be shared. 23

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Scaffolding Strategies Build a Ladder Build a Bridge Harness learning Styles Build Links 24

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Build a Ladder This is a vertical scaffolding strategy. Look at the end-of-lesson expectations for student learning. Decide if the examples and exercises are sufficient for your struggling learners to progress (climb up the ladder). If not, create an additional task (rung on the ladder) to help the student climb to the end-of-lesson expectation(s). ie: simplify the context of the task, break the task into parts, add a preliminary step, change the vocabulary 25

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Build a Ladder October 2014 NTI The Number System: Crafting Teaching Sequences for Extended Interventions https://www.engageny.org/resource/october-2014-nti-grades-6-12-mathematics-turnkey-kit-teachers https://www.engageny.org/resource/december-2014-nti-grades-6-12-mathematics-turnkey-kit-teachers-session-2 December 2014 NTI Expressions and Equations: Crafting Teaching Sequences for Instant, Short-Term and Extended Interventions HARD EASY 26

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Example of a Rung on a Ladder Grade 7 Module 1 Lesson 4 27

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Build a Bridge This is a horizontal scaffolding strategy. Look at the progression of examples and exercises. Decide if your struggling learners will need a bridge between your instructional example and their independent work on an exercise or problem set. If so, create an additional task or plan for discussion that will connect their understanding gained from the guided example to the understanding needed to independently succeed on the exercise. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e7/Arch_bridge_icon.svg 28

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Example of a Bridge Grade 7 Module 1 Lesson 4 29

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Harness Learning Styles This is a strategy where you access students’ learning styles by creating an auditory, visual and/or kinesthetic component to the task. This is when you honor the concrete-pictoral-abstract transitions that are needed to facilitate learning. Attention Getters: songs, manipulatives, diagrams, pictures, graphic organizers Instructional Technology: personal white boards, Smart Boards, computer programs, response systems 30

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Example of a Harness Grade 7 Module 1 Lesson 7 31

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Build Links This is a scaffolding strategy that offers students something different while maintaining the conceptual development in the lesson. Things to consider: Differentiation Strategies : Think-Pair-Share, Jigsaw, Gallery Walk, Matchings Use the Practice Standards to create a different dimension to a problem : critique the reasoning of another student, model the result with a diagram, create a similar problem that demonstrates an understanding of the concept. Manipulate the Formatting. 32

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Additional Problems Example 1: Pay by the Ounce Frozen Yogurt Constant Multiplier: 0.40 Example 2: A Cooking Cheat SheetConstant Multiplier: 8 or 1/8 Exercise 1: Calories Burned while Jumping RopeConstant Multiplier: 11 Example 3: Summer JobConstant Multiplier: 28 Lesson Summary: ExampleConstant Multiplier: 10 Exit Ticket: Making JuiceConstant Multiplier: ¼ Exit Ticket #2: Making JuiceConstant Multiplier: 4 Model Problem #1: Buying Hot Dogs Constant Multiplier: 2.50 Model Problem #2: Flowers Sold by the Music ClubConstant Multiplier: 0.8 or 5/4 Problem Set #1: Cran-apple Juice Mixture Constant Multiplier: 5/3 or 3/5 Problem Set #2: Filling the Bathtub Constant Multiplier: 1 ½ Problem Set #3: Fabric Store Constant Multiplier: 12 33

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Example of a Link Exit Ticket Susan and John are buying cold drinks for a neighborhood picnic. Each person is expected to drink one can of soda. Susan says that if you multiply the unit price for a can of soda by the number of people attending the picnic, you will be able to determine the total cost of the soda. John says that if you divide the cost of a -pack of soda by the number of sodas, you will determine the total cost of the sodas. Who is right and why? Exit Ticket #2 Susan and John are buying cold drinks for a neighborhood picnic. Each person is expected to drink one can of soda. ● Susan says that if you multiply the unit price for a can of soda by the number of people attending the picnic, you will be able to determine the total cost of the soda. ● John says that if you divide the cost of a -pack of soda by the number of sodas, you will determine the total cost of the sodas. Who is right and why? 34

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T : Teach for Learning So, let’s get back to your R.E.A.L.I…. This is where implementing scaffolds and in-the-moment adjustments occur; when on-the-spot scaffolding is needed. This is when planning to teach will give you the advantage! 35

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Our role as Math Common Core Fellows Some of our responsibilities to assist teachers: ●Create additional scaffolds for struggling learners. ●Add vocabulary for English Language Learners. ●Model Problems that teachers can refer parents to so they can assist their child in doing the homework. 36

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Instruction Instruction is the of the lesson! This is where we engage, communicate, discuss, question, give immediate and precise feedback and assess while still being flexible and responsive to the needs of all students. 37

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What strategies or scaffolds have been successful in your classroom? ●This room is filled with experienced practitioners! ●What works for me might or might not work for you! ●A strategy is successful if it has worked for you and your student has progressed in his learning! 38

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Time to TALK! For the next several minutes, please share in your table group a successful strategy or scaffold that you have used during a lesson that has helped you to implement the math modules. We will share out! 39

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Dale’s Cone of Experience 40 Source: Adapted from E. Dale, Audiovisual Methods in Teaching, 1969, NY: Dryden Press.

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Scaffolding vs. Differentiating Scaffolding versus Differentiating Breaking it down PROActive Response Show and Tell Adapting examples Tapping into prior knowledge Adapting an assignment Time to talk Alternative projects Pre-teach vocab More accessible text Visual aides And lots more of each too! 41

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Some Interesting Articles and Links Instructional Scaffolding to Improve Learning http://www.niu.edu/taconnections/2008/fall/scaffolding.shtml 6 Scaffolding Strategies to Use With Your Students http://www.edutopia.org/blog/scaffolding-lessons-six-strategies-rebecca-alber Instructional Strategies in Math including Differentiation http://www.mathwire.com/strategies/is.html 9 Strategies for Motivating Students in Mathematics http://www.edutopia.org/blog/9-strategies-motivating-students-mathematics-alfred- posamentier 42

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Y : Your reflectio n Your reflection informs the decisions you will make tomorrow and in the future. ●Your reflection gives you the opportunity to build onto your strengths. ●It positions you to support others as they are building scaffolds for their struggling learners. ●Respectful, collegial sharing is vital for building our capacity as learners. Consider Peer Review of your experience. 43

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R.E.A.L.I.T.Y. ✓ R eframe your thinking ✓ E valuate your students’ needs ✓ A nalyze the big picture ✓ L esson study ✓ I nstructional planning ✓ T each for learning ✓ Y our reflection (Scholand, K. R., 2015) 44

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Wrap-Up We have discussed how we make curricular and instructional decisions that relate to when, where, and what scaffolds are needed. We have shared strategies we use when planning scaffolds for instruction. We have shared strategies for strategies and scaffolds that occur during instruction. 45

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Summary Ladder Bridge Harness Link Model Question Prior Knowledge Differentiate Instructional Strategies:Curricular Strategies: 46

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Closing It is your R.E.A.L.I.T.Y. that will best inform the decisions you make regarding the creation of scaffolds for struggling learners. 47

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Thank You Kathleen R. Scholand Mattituck-Cutchogue UFSD kscholand@mufsd.com Donna Kart Wappingers Central School District Donna.Kart@wcsdny.org 48

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