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Kathy Jones Cindy Sheets Motivation for the Uphill Climb:

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Presentation on theme: "Kathy Jones Cindy Sheets Motivation for the Uphill Climb:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Kathy Jones Cindy Sheets Motivation for the Uphill Climb: Praise and Success

2 Why do... Some bright students give up or avoid challenges? Why do some persist even in the face of failure?

3 What Are Mindsets? Based on the research of Dr. Carol S. Dweck, Stanford University A personal belief about one’s own intelligence. Fixed or Growth

4 Why Are Mindsets Important? Positive emotions facilitate learning Negative emotions hinder learning A growth mindset is associated with more positive emotions and motivation Especially under conditions of challenge Portions Copyright © Mindset Works, Inc. Used with permission

5 What do Mindsets Predict? Students’ desire to learn Their belief in the power of effort Their resilience in the face of setbacks Their achievement over difficult transitions Portions Copyright © Mindset Works, Inc. Used with permission

6 Mindsets Fixed Mindset Intelligence is a fixed trait that cannot be changed. Growth Mindset Intelligence is a malleable quality, a potential that can be developed. Portions Copyright © Mindset Works, Inc. Used with permission.

7 Research Study 1990’s + /

8 RESEARCH Each student worked on a non-verbal IQ test & was given one kind of praise Intelligence Praise “Wow, that’s a really good score. You must have tried really hard.” Effort Praise “Wow, that’s a really good score. You must be smart at this.” Control Group “Wow, that’s a really good score.” Portions Copyright © Mindset Works, Inc. Used with permission.

9 Challenge Seeking after Feedback Portions Copyright © Mindset Works, Inc. Used with permission

10 Who Showed the Greatest Decline in Performance? Students who had performed the best initially

11 % Identified as Increasing in Motivation Portions Copyright © Mindset Works, Inc. Used with permission

12 Effects of Intelligence vs. Effort Praise Growth Mindset Learning High Increased Fixed Mindset Looking Smart Low Decreased Goals Confidence Motivation Performance After difficult trial Portions Copyright © Mindset Works, Inc. Used with permission

13 What Mindsets Do Goals Fixed Mindset Students Say Learning is Most Important “It’s much more important for me to learn things in my classes than it is to get the best grades.” Growth Mindset Students Say Looking Smart is Most Important “The main thing I want when I do my school work is to show how good I am at it.” Portions Copyright © Mindset Works, Inc. Used with permission

14 What Mindsets Do Effort Beliefs Fixed Mindset Students Say Effort is positive “The harder you work at something, the better you’ll be at it.” Growth Mindset Students Say Effort is negative “To tell the truth, when I work hard at my school work it makes me feel like I’m not very smart.” Portions Copyright © Mindset Works, Inc. Used with permission

15 What Mindsets Do Strategies After Failure Fixed Mindset Students Say Resilient “I would work harder in this class from now on.” “I would spend more time studying for the tests.” Growth Mindset Students Say Helpless “I would spend less time on this subject from now on.” “I would try not to take this subject ever again.” “I would try to cheat on the next test.” Portions Copyright © Mindset Works, Inc. Used with permission

16 Lying: Students who misrepresented their scores Proportion of Children 38% lied about the scores when reporting anonymously Portions Copyright © Mindset Works, Inc. Used with permission

17 # of problems solved on the IQ test Trial 1 (before failure) and Trial 3 (after failure) # of Problems Solved Portions Copyright © Mindset Works, Inc. Used with permission

18 Impact of Praising Intelligence/Ability You learned that so quickly! You are so smart! What a great story! You must be the best writer in your class! Wow! You got an A without even studying! You’re brilliant! If I can’t learn something else quickly, I’m not smart. That was pretty good. I shouldn’t try writing anything more difficult or I may no longer be the best in the school. That was a very easy test for me. No reason to study any more. I am brilliant! When We Say:They Hear: Portions Copyright © Mindset Works, Inc. Used with permission

19 Fixed Mindset Challenge Anxiety, Sadness, Shame, Anger Self-Doubt Helplessness Risk-Avoidance Withdrawal Lying Defensiveness Portions Copyright © Mindset Works, Inc. Used with permission

20 Growth Mindset Challenge Engagement Excitement Pride Self- Confidence High Effort Challenge-seeking Persistence Portions Copyright © Mindset Works, Inc. Used with permission

21 Higher Achievement Learning is my goal I take on challenges, work hard, use good strategies, don’t give up Effort makes me stronger I can get smarter Portions Copyright © Mindset Works, Inc. Used with permission

22 Social Cues from Environment Bad news: Everything you do can influence a child’s mindset Good news: Everything you do can influence a child’s mindset Portions Copyright © Mindset Works, Inc. Used with permission

23 Risk-averse Lack autonomy (Is this right?) Always seeking outside praise Image maintenance becomes main concern May lie or cheat to maintain image Praise Junkies? Portions Copyright © Mindset Works, Inc. Used with permission

24 Change in Math Grades Math Grades Portions Copyright © Mindset Works, Inc. Used with permission

25 “praise for intelligence rather than effort creates vulnerability in high-ability students that does not show up until they experience setbacks and failure” Dweck’s Conclusions:

26 Effort “Emphasizing effort gives a child a variable that they can control; they come to see themselves as in control of their success. Emphasizing natural intelligence takes it out of the child’s control, and it provides no good recipe for responding to a failure.” Dr. Carol Dweck

27 What are the benefits of effort? Learning from mistakes Accepting constructive criticism Applying new strategies Perseverance Asking questions Taking reasonable risks

28 “The surest path to high self-esteem is to be successful at something one perceived would be difficult! Each time we steal a student’s struggle, we steal the opportunity for them to build self- confidence. They must learn to do difficult things to feel good about themselves.” Sylvia Rimm

29 Framing the Praise or Situation Approach new material or tasks as an opportunity Take risks in a safe way Set high expectations (with support) Establish learning goals

30 Ways to encourage growth mindset: When children succeed with little effort: It’s great that you have that down. Now we need to find something a bit more challenging so you can grow. It looks like your skills weren’t really challenged by this assignment. Sorry for wasting your time. When children succeed as a result of effort: I am so proud of the effort you put forth in order to... Congratulations – you really used great strategies for... When children face disappointment or failure: OK, so you didn’t do as well as you wanted to. Let’s look at this as an opportunity to learn. What parts did you do well in? What parts were difficult? What did you do to prepare for this. Is there anything that you could have done differently? Portions Copyright © Mindset Works, Inc. Used with permission

31 Don’t confuse praise with encouragement Manipulation is not effective praise

32 Only children under age 7 take praise at face-value

33 Mistakes Expected and valuable “I’m so glad I made that mistake because now I learned...” Share and model the mistakes you’ve made and how you analyzed them to improve

34 Failure to live up to one’s potential may be associated with an inability to take realistic risks. Maureen Neihart

35 Increases confidence Increases self-efficacy Develops skills for managing fears Provides practice in decision making Opportunity for growth and leadership Benefits of Risk Taking

36 Mistakes are viewed as opportunities Goals are stressed over procedures We are actively seeking change We are playful We expect individuals to set their own goals We allow people to choose their own risks Risk Taking

37 Actual evidence of brain changes with effort and persistence Dr. Robert Cloninger’s Brain Research

38 “Parents should not shield or try to protect children from risks or hard work. Parents also need to allow children to experience the tensions and stress that rise from challenging ideas and high expectations.” Olszewski-Kubilius, 2000

39 Failure Michael Jordan: Nike Commercial

40 Be specific Be sincere Praise the process not the person ○ Strategies, decisions, work accomplished Praise Primer Praise Primer

41 Praise: C hallenge E ffort L earning S trategies CELSCELS

42 Reward effort – not perfection Reward risk and progress Applaud persistence Break tasks down into small steps Acknowledge ‘learning’ not ‘work’ Honor time invested Help them learn to prioritize What Can We Do?

43 Key Takeaways: Providing Feedback: Process not person Focus on things they can control Avoid praising talent, intelligence, and easy success Individual Progress Emphasize the individual progress they make De-emphasize how they compare to others Focus on learning goals The purpose is not to perform well, but to learn Mistakes are useful and appreciated Taking risks is a way to grow

44 Contact Information Facebook: Advocates for High Ability Learners

45 Livebinder Resource

46

47 Ho w Not To Talk To Your Kids: The Inverse Power of Praise, by Po Bronson The Effort Effect Stanford Magazine, March/April eatures/dweck.html A Motivational Approach to Reasoning, Resilience and Responsibility (chapter of book) Stanford University Research Report html html Nuture Shock online Brainology An interactive program for middle school students ($) Also contains videos and resources for parents.www.brainology.us

48 Research Works by Carol S. Dweck Mueller, C. M. & Dweck, C. S. (1998). Intelligence praise can undermine motivation and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,75, Dweck, C.S. (1998). The development of early self-conceptions: Their relevance for motivational processes. In J. Heckhausen & C.S. Dweck (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulation across the life span. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Some Photos courtesy of

49 Some Photos courtesy of diehl/videos/video/5-parents-teaching-growth-mindsets Additional Resources and Videos

50 Growth Mindset Material Used the growth mindset training used a 4-page article developed for the study you can read this article at: ebsitemedia/youcangrowy ourintelligence.pdf ebsitemedia/youcangrowy ourintelligence.pdf

51 Recent Research in Cognitive Psychology & Neuroscience is Supporting the Growth Mindset a Scientific American article summarizing this research can be found at


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