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The History of Presbyterianism in the United States Part 7: Recovering Lost Ground B – “The Split Ps” and “The End of the Civil War”

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Presentation on theme: "The History of Presbyterianism in the United States Part 7: Recovering Lost Ground B – “The Split Ps” and “The End of the Civil War”"— Presentation transcript:

1 The History of Presbyterianism in the United States Part 7: Recovering Lost Ground B – “The Split Ps” and “The End of the Civil War”

2 Master Timeline United StatesEurope 1620 – Mayflower lands 1730s-1743 – 1 st Great Awakening – American Rev – 2 nd Great Awakening 1830 – Book of Mormon – 3 rd Great Awakening – American Civil War 1870 – Scottish Common Sense 1889 – Moody Bible Institute 1891 – Briggs’ address 1909 – Scofield Reference Bible 1910 – Pres. G.A.: 5 Fundamentals – World War I 1922 – “Shall Fund.s Win?” 1923 – The Auburn Affirmation 1925 – The Scopes Trial 1929 – Westminster Theo. Seminary 1936 – Orthodox Presbyterian Ch – John Mackay, Princeton Sem – Westminster Confession of Faith – Age of European Enlightenment & of Scottish Common Sense Philosophy 1770s-1900 – Rise of German Higher Criticism – French Revolution 1827 – Plymouth Brethren begin meeting 1833 – Slavery Abolition Act of England Charles Darwin – Origin of Species – Darby travels to the United States 1919 – Rise of Neo-Orthodoxy United States (cont.) 1937 – Death of J. Gresham Machen - Bible Presbyterian Ch. (McIntyre) 1955, 1960 – Inherit the Wind 1966 – RTS, Jackson, MI 1967 – Confession of ‘67, Book of Confessions 1973 – PCA

3 The Auburn Affirmation, 1923 The Foreign Missions Crisis, 1936 The Change Made at Princeton Seminary, 1929 last half of the 20 th century

4 Ernest Trice Thompson, Prof. of Church History Union Seminary, Richmond, VA The Changing South and the PCUS: Two key moments in southern history: 1) colonial period – met by the Baptists 2) 19 th c. – won by Methodists The 20 th c. should be the Presbyterian moment! H&M

5 The Auburn Affirmation, 1923 The Foreign Missions Crisis, 1936 The Change Made at Princeton Seminary, 1929 last half of the 20 th centuryWilliam Cameron Townsend Billy Graham

6 Meanwhile, … The Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP)

7 Meanwhile, … The Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP) ▫Its seminary, Erskine, was significantly affected by Neo-Orthodoxy in the ‘60s ▫The church gained control of the seminary board and ejected Neo-Orthodoxy later, reaffirming commitment to inerrancy and confessionalism.

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9 Meanwhile, … The Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP) Reformed Presbyterian Church, Evangelical Synod ▫A denomination with “Covenanter” roots as well as roots going through the formation of the OPC by way of the Bible Presbyterian Church. ▫Merged with the PCA in 1982, bringing with it:  Covenant College  Covenant Seminary ▫The original denominational affiliation of NCPC.

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11 Meanwhile, … The Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP) Reformed Presbyterian Church, Evangelical Synod Orthodox Presbyterian Church ▫Continues to focus on a clear distinction between Reformed doctrine and fundamentalism. ▫Maintains a commitment to Old School Presbyterianism. ▫Created Great Commission Publications, along with the PCA, which created the Trinity Hymnal, etc.

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13 Meanwhile, … The Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP) Reformed Presbyterian Church, Evangelical Synod Orthodox Presbyterian Church Reformed Presbyterian Church, North America ▫Holds forth its historic, “Covenanter” roots ▫Continues in worship with Psalms only & without instruments ▫Has seen slow but steady growth since 1980.

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15 Meanwhile, … The Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP) Reformed Presbyterian Church, Evangelical Synod Orthodox Presbyterian Church Reformed Presbyterian Church, North America Bible Presbyterian Church

16 ▫Split off from the OPC, 1937  Established original Covenant College & Seminary ▫Split again in 1957  led by Francis Schaeffer and Jay Adams  Eventually wound up merging with RPCES => PCA ▫Split again in 1979 ▫Split again in 2008

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18 The Bible Presbyterian Church PC of A => Orthodox Presbyterian Church Bible Presbyterian Church Bible Presbyterian Church, Collingswood Synod Bible Presbyterian Church, Columbus Synod Bible Presbyterian Church, => Columbus Synod Evangelical Presbyterian Church (1961) Evangelical Presbyterian Church (1961) Reformed Presbyterian Church General Synod Reformed Presbyterian Church Evangelical Synod 1979 Bible Presbyterian Church, Collingswood Synod American Presbyterian Church Bible Presbyterian Church, Collingswood Synod Faith Presbytery, Bible Presbyterian Church

19 Carl McIntire, McIntire was "a classic example of a brilliant and winsome man who chose his battles badly. Unyielding on petty issues, he divided where division was both unnecessary and costly to the very causes he championed. Too often, he seemed to love the fight more than the very valid issues over which the fights raged.” Joel Belz, World Magazine

20 Meanwhile, … The Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP) Reformed Presbyterian Church, Evangelical Synod Orthodox Presbyterian Church Reformed Presbyterian Church, North America Bible Presbyterian Church United Presbyterian Church, USA ▫Progression among Feminists

21 Walter Wynn Kenyon Expressed a conscientious objection to participation in services of ordination for women. Pittsburgh Presbytery narrowly approved his ordination. A complaint to the Permanent Judicial Commission of the G.A. overturned the ruling in “[I]t is the responsibility of our Church to deny ordination to one who has refused the ordination of women,” 1979 – G.A. ruled that all congregations must elect men and women to the office of ruling elder.

22 40 churches leave including Tenth Presbyterian Church, Phil., PA Dr. James Boice Dr. Don Barnhouse

23 Meanwhile, … The Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP) Reformed Presbyterian Church, Evangelical Synod Orthodox Presbyterian Church Reformed Presbyterian Church, North America Bible Presbyterian Church United Presbyterian Church, USA ▫Progression among Feminists ▫Test of the Confession of 1967

24 Mansfield Kaseman National Capital Union Presbytery determines to receive a UCC minister who denied the deity of Christ, his sinless nature and bodily resurrection. Question: “Is Jesus God?” Answer: “No, God is God.”

25 Local Churches in that Conflict: Wallace Memorial Presbyterian Church ▫Hyattsville, MD, Pastor Glen Knecht Church of the Atonement ▫Silver Spring, MD Babcock Presbyterian Church ▫Towson, MD Dr. John Gerstner Prof., Pittsburgh Seminary

26 Mansfield Kaseman National Capital Union Presbytery determines to receive a UCC minister who denied the deity of Christ, his sinless nature and bodily resurrection. The complaint to the Permanent Judicial Commission was denied. Kaseman’s beliefs were within the “acceptable range of interpretation” of the church’s confessions. Question: “Is Jesus God?” Answer: “No, God is God.”

27 Local Churches in that Conflict: Wallace Memorial Presbyterian Church ▫Hyattsville, MD, Pastor Glen Knecht Church of the Atonement ▫Silver Spring, MD Babcock Presbyterian Church ▫Towson, MD Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all they that put their trust in him. (Ps. 2:12) Dr. John Gerstner Prof., Pittsburgh Seminary

28 Meanwhile, … The Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP) Reformed Presbyterian Church, Evangelical Synod Orthodox Presbyterian Church Reformed Presbyterian Church, North America Bible Presbyterian Church United Presbyterian Church, USA ▫Progression among Feminists ▫Test of the Confession of 1967 ▫Homosexual Agenda

29 New York Presbytery 1976 – Petition made to G.A. for guidance re: ordaining a “person who is an avowed homosexual, and is well qualified in every other part of the trials for ordination.” 1978 – G.A. voted overwhelmingly that “unrepentant homosexual practice does not accord with the requirements of ordination as set forth in the Book of Order.”

30 Meanwhile, … The Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP) Reformed Presbyterian Church, Evangelical Synod Orthodox Presbyterian Church Reformed Presbyterian Church, North America Bible Presbyterian Church United Presbyterian Church, USA ▫Progression among Feminists ▫Test of the Confession of 1967 ▫Homosexual Agenda ▫Church Property rights – both northern and southern churches amend a “loophole” in their constitutions to secure ownership of individual church property.

31 Meanwhile, … The Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP) Reformed Presbyterian Church, Evangelical Synod Orthodox Presbyterian Church Reformed Presbyterian Church, North America Bible Presbyterian Church United Presbyterian Church, USA Evangelical Presbyterian Church, 1981

32 Evangelical Presbyterian Church 75 ministers representing 12 churches leave PCUSA Adopted a modern-language version of the Westminster Standards as well as a list of “Essentials to Our Faith”. Individual congregations are free: ▫to elect women elders ▫to determine worship style, ▫to exercise charismatic gifts. It has become the “preferred” denomination for continuing individual “refugee” Presbyterian congregations.

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34 Meanwhile, … The Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (ARP) Reformed Presbyterian Church, Evangelical Synod Orthodox Presbyterian Church Reformed Presbyterian Church, North America Bible Presbyterian Church United Presbyterian Church, USA Evangelical Presbyterian Church, – Union with the UPCUSA to form the PCUSA

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36 The Union of the “Mainline” Presbyterians “For mainline American Presbyterians, the Civil War finally ended on June 10, The reunion was held in Atlanta, GA, where the division began in 1861.” “The first Assembly affirmed the rights of minorities and women in the church, … and the moderator … stressed the need for the united church to be ‘affirming’ homosexuals.” H&M

37 Decades of Serious Decline in the PCUSA from : from 4.2 million members to 3.2 million. from : from 3.2 million to 2.45 million. In 2012: million “Cynics predicted that if the rate of decline continued, the mainline Presbyterian Church would disappear before its 350 th anniversary.” H&M

38 New Covenant Presbyterian Church Preaching God’s Sovereign Grace to a World of Need 128 St. Mary’s Church Rd., Abingdon, MD


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