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ICU Psychosis / Delirium Dawn Oddie. Session Contents  Psychosis or delirium?  Different types  Contributing factors – pre-existing and in ICU  Symptoms.

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Presentation on theme: "ICU Psychosis / Delirium Dawn Oddie. Session Contents  Psychosis or delirium?  Different types  Contributing factors – pre-existing and in ICU  Symptoms."— Presentation transcript:

1 ICU Psychosis / Delirium Dawn Oddie

2 Session Contents  Psychosis or delirium?  Different types  Contributing factors – pre-existing and in ICU  Symptoms  Causes  Management strategies – medical / nursing  Summary

3 What is it?  Recognised in the literature since the 1960’s  Poorly recognised in practice  Recognised that a significant proportion of critically ill patients will suffer from it (15 – 80%)  Associated with poor patient outcomes – increased length of stay and impacts on morbidity and mortality

4 Typical patient scenario Patient wakes to an abnormal situation, environment. Deprived of all normality. Experience multiple physical, mental insults and alien stimuli. Exposed to numerous medications, procedures, monitoring devices. Surprise, surprise some patients do not cope well!

5 ICU Psychosis?  Psychosis ‘a severe mental derangement esp. when resulting in delusions and lack of contact with external reality.  The term ICU psychosis implies that the signs and symptoms are associated with a psychiatric disorder, which is the origin of a true psychosis.  Assumed that behavioural signs and symptoms are associated with psychiatric disorder. Rarely are the indications of delirium related to a psychiatric disorder.

6 ICU Delirium?  Delirium ‘is an acute reversible organic mental syndrome with disorder of cognitive function, increased or decreased psychomotor activity and a disorder of sleep wake cycle.’ Greek word de-lira means ‘off the track’  Rarely are the indications of delirium related to actual psychiatric disorders (Justic, 2000)

7 ICU psychosis Term is old fashioned, inaccurate and not appropriate (Borthwick et al 2006)

8 Sub types of delirium 1 – Hypoactive delirium  Global and non specific cerebral dysfunction  Characteristics – withdrawal, lethargy, lack of responsiveness, disorientation  Often related to processes such as infection, hypoxia, hypothermia, hypothyroidism, hyperglycaemia, hepatic & renal insufficiencies (Type often mistaken for depression – note disorientation is common with delirium, but is not a feature of depression)

9 Sub types of delirium 2 – Hyperactive delirium  More specific causes, affecting only certain neurotransmitters in the brain – associated with adverse effects of drug intoxication, chemical withdrawal, and anticholinergic agents  Characteristics – extreme agitation, emotional lability, continual movement, disorientation, unable to follow commands, unintelligible / inappropriate verbal responses, pain is exaggerated (Which type is the most harmful for the patient?)

10 Mixed Delirium – 2 types  Patients can fluctuate between both types. A number of cerebral mechanisms are being affected because two or more causal factors are occurring almost simultaneously

11 Pathophysiology  Exact mechanisms unknown  Thought to be related to neurotransmitter imbalances – dopamine, y-aminobutyric acid & acetylcholine  May involve – Seritonin imbalance, endorphin hyperactivity, increased central noradrenergic activity, damaged interneuronal enzyme system

12 Components of Delirium  4 Components –Disordered attention or arousal –Cognitive dysfunction (perception, thinking & memory) –Development of acute signs and symptoms –A medical not psychiatric cause (Hartwick, 2003)

13 Existing predisposing risk factors  Multi-system illnesses – haemodynamic instability  Patient-ventilator desynchrony  Alcohol / drug abuse  Disrupted sleep – wake cycle  Advancing age  Medications – drug side effects / withdrawal  Acidosis  Hypoxaemia  Pain  Severe infection  Frustration  Immobilisation  Cerebral illnesses – dementia, stroke (Borthwick etal, 2006)

14 Presenting symptoms  Lack of awareness of surroundings  Disorientation  Distractibility  Memory impairment  Inability to follow commands  Disturbance of sleep-wake cycle

15 Presenting symptoms  Speech may be limited, rambling or incoherent  Perceptual disturbances – illusions, hallucinations, delusions  Mood instability – anxiety, fear, anger, depression through to euphoria

16 ICU Staff  Staff are accustomed to the sights, sounds and technology – easy to not appreciate the negative impact on the patient  Accept the fact that patients are restless, sleep fitfully and intermittently and are deprived of the everyday comforts of home Should we think differently??

17 What can we do to help?  Recognise the signs  Minimise the contributing factors  Consider psychiatric consultation  Patient safety – mittons, lap belts / cot sides  Management care plan

18 Detection of delirium Validated scoring systems to monitor sedation and agitation  Sedation Agitation Scale (SAS)  Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS)  Motor Activity Assessment Scale (MAAS) Delirium screening tools  Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC)  Delirium Detection Score (DDS)  Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU)

19 Environmental factors Noise Strip lighting Invasive lines Beds Medical terminology Drugs Strange environment Physical restraint Malnutrition Abnormal routines Loss of dignity

20 Drugs Drugs that exhibit antimuscarinic or dopaminergic activity are particularly associated with the development of delirium. Drugs commonly used that have been shown to be deliriogenic,  Analgesics – codiene, fentanyl, morphine, pethidine  Antidepressants – amitriptyline, paroxetine  Anticonvulsants – phenytoin, phenobarbital  Antihistamines – chlorphenamine, promethazine  Antiemetics – prochlorperazine  Antipsychotics – Chlorpromazine  Antimuscarinics – atropine, hyoscine  Cardiovascular agents – Atenalol, digoxin, dopamine, lidocaine  Corticosteroids – Hydrocortisone, dexamethasone, prednisolone  Hypnotic agents – diazepam, thiopental  Misc – Furosemide, ranitidine (Litton, 2003)

21 Contributing factors  Often develops in those individuals who are not well managed in terms of pain, sedation and analgesia  Sleep and sensory deprivation, insomnia, pain, continuous stimulation, isolation, and fear set in motion the process of delirium Dipex

22 Management strategies - care  1. Reorientation  2. Distraction  3. Reduction in stimuli  4. Maintenance of a normal sleep – wake cycle  5. Therapeutic stimulation

23 1. Reorientation  Informal conversational approach –Patients normal daily activities –Time of day –Weather Repetition of explanations and information is necessary Involve the family

24 2. Distraction  Fixated by a topic leading to agitation and hyperactive behaviour Limited attention span Introduce an alternative topic of conversation / visual stimuli / music Involve the family

25 3. Reduction in stimuli  Decrease lighting that creates a shadow  Decrease conversations held in earshot of patient  Decrease unnecessary noise (alarm limits)  Cluster care  Avoid putting suffers next to each other

26 4. Sleep – wake cycle  Reduce sleep disturbances and sleep interruptions  REM sleep (occurs 70 – 90mins into sleep cycle)  Circadian rhythms  Limit interventions at night  Rest periods during day (Honkus, 2003)

27 5. Therapeutic stimulation  Reality based stimulation  Use of vision, hearing & mobility aids  Orientating cues – clocks, calendar, personal items, use of windows Involve the family

28 Medical management  Behavioural changes dismissed as ICU psychosis – treated with sedatives and antipsychotic medications –Neuroleptic agents eg haloperidol, droperidol  Sedation holds  Sedation / pain scores  Rationalising drug regimes  Rationalising monitoring  Rationalising invasive lines

29 Summary  ICU Delirium - causes multifactorial  Causes - some not preventable, some are preventable  Early recognition of signs and symptoms  Active early management strategies using multiple tactics

30 Questions?


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