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125 Years! The 1890 Universities Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow

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1 125 Years! The 1890 Universities Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
M. Ray McKinnie, Ph.D. Assoc. Dean: Special Initiatives and Facilities School of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences

2 The 125th Second Morrill Act Lecture
Significance of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890 to public higher education in the U.S. Understand the meaning, value and importance of “Land-grant Universities” and especially the “1890 Land-grant Universities.” Discuss the rich history, people and legends of North Carolina A&T State University and other 1890 Land-grant Universities.

3 The 1890 Land-grant Universities: Celebrating 125 Years of Providing access, enhancing opportunities

4 Early 19th Century Higher education was modeled after European institutions: Educate the male “leisure class” Educate “government and religious” leaders Educate members of the “professions” Offered the “classical and professional” curricula

5 Early 19th Century 1618 the first College, in Jamestown, but it burned down in 1622 16?? – Harvard University in Massachusetts 1693 – College of Wm and Mary in Virginia 1696 – St. John’s College in Maryland _______________________________________ 1701 – Yale University in Connecticut 1740 – University of Pennsylvania A few more Princeton University in New Jersey

6 History Pioneers for Public Higher Education
Jonathan Baldwin Turner – missionary, abolitionist Justin Smith Morrill, also an abolitionist and senator from Vermont Opened the doors of higher education to the American People!

7 Justin Smith Morrill Senator from Vermont – 43 years Abolitionist
Not college educated Sponsored two bills 1862 Morrill Act 1890 Morrill Act Promoted agriculture, military sciences and the mechanic arts.

8 Morrill Act of 1862 A protest against the dominance of the classics in higher education A desire to develop college-level instruction relating to practical realities of an agricultural and industrial society An attempt to offer to those belonging to the industrial classes preparation for the “professions of life” Provided “colleges accessible to all but especially the sons of toil”

9 Morrill Act of 1862 "This bill proposes to establish at least one college in every State upon a sure and perpetual foundation, accessible to all, but especially to the sons of toil, where all of needful science for the practical avocations of life shall be taught, where neither the higher graces of classical studies nor that military drill our country now so greatly appreciates will be entirely ignored, and where agriculture, the foundation of all present and future prosperity, may look for troops of earnest friends, studying its familiar and recondite economies, and at last elevating it to that higher level where it may fearlessly invoke comparison with the most advanced standards of the world."

10 Morrill Act of 1862 First introduced in 1859 – vetoed by President Buchanan. In 1861 bill introduced granting 30,000 acres to each state to raise funds to establish colleges. 1862 First Morrill Act signed by President Lincoln on July 2nd. 1862 – Emancipation Proclamation issued – effective January 1, 1863. 1865 – 13th Amendment abolished slavery; U.S. included 4 million hard working freed slaves.

11 Justin S. Morrill By 1865 there were ~31 million people in the United States and of those, there were ~4 million hard working but primarily illiterate freed slaves. Knowing of this situation, Justin S. Morrill stated “Having emancipated a whole race, shall it be said that there our duty ends, leaving the race as cumberers of the ground, to live or to wilt and perish, as the case may be? They are members of the American family, and their advancement concerns us all. While swiftly forgetting all they ever knew as slaves, shall they have no opportunity to learn anything as freemen?” Source:“The Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862 and the Changing of Higher Education in America” – T. Fretz, 2008

12 Morrill Act of 1890 Almost 30 years post Morrill Act of 1862 – “Southern states do not ratify until act after 1865; refuse admission of blacks and promote a segregated society.” The Second Morrill Act of 1890 provided that “no money shall be paid out under this Act to any State or Territory for the support and maintenance of a college where a distinction of race or color is made in the admission of students.” However, the Act was revised to say that in states that refused to admit colored students, they could establish separate colleges for white and colored students so long as the funds received would “be equitably divided.”

13 Era of Black Higher Education
Similar to white institutions, higher education for blacks began at private institutions! Lincoln University (PA) – 1854 Shaw University (NC) – 1865 Fisk University (TN) – 1866 Lincoln University (MO) – 1866 Howard University (D.C.) and Morehouse College (GA) Hampton Institute (VA) – 1868 Tuskegee Institute (AL) and Spelman College (GA)

14 Second Morrill Act of 1890 Segregation in the South (17 states) prohibited black people from attending college. Southern states could establish one college for blacks and one for whites. The funds to support the schools would be divided equally. CSU

15 Four Alternatives to Establish 1890 Institutions
To meet the requirements of the 2nd Morrill Act, southern states could: Establish new black land-grant colleges Designate an existing private college for blacks as landgrant Name an existing state-supported black institution as a landgrant Take over a private black institution as a state college

16 The 1890 Land-grant Institutions
Date Institution Sponsor 1866 Lincoln University Civil War Negro Infantry 1871 Alcorn State University State Legislature 1872 South Carolina State University State Legislature 1873 University of Arkansas Pine Bluff State Legislature 1875 Alabama A&M University Group of Ex-Slaves 1876 Prairie View A&M University State Legislature 1880 Southern University State Legislature 1881 Tuskegee University State Legislature 1882 Virginia State University State Legislature 1886 Kentucky State University State Legislature 1886 University of Maryland Eastern Shore Methodist Episcopal Church 1887 Florida A&M University State Legislature 1891 Delaware State University State Legislature 1891 North Carolina A&T University State Legislature 1891 West Virginia State University State Legislature 1895 Fort Valley State University Citizens’ Group 1897 Langston University Territorial Legislature 1909 Tennessee State University State Legislature 1887 Central State University (Land-grant in 2014) State Legislation

17 Land-grant Education in North Carolina
University of North Carolina (UNC) is chartered and opens in (UNC is nation’s first public university) UNC is established as state’s land-grant university, but had established a professorship in agriculture and mechanical arts in 1795. North Carolina Agricultural and Mechanical College in Raleigh (now North Carolina State University) is established and land-grant status is transferred to it from UNC.

18 Land-grant Education in North Carolina
1890 – North Carolina legislature approaches Shaw University about teaching some agricultural classes for black students and instruction begins in Agriculture, English and Math. 1891 – On March 9th, NC General Assembly ratifies Morrill Act of 1890 and establishes “the A. and M. College for the Colored Race”. The act read in part: “That the leading objective of the college shall be to teach practical agriculture and the mechanic arts and such learning as related thereto, not excluding academic and classical instruction.” 1892 – On March 3rd , Board of Trustees vote to locate the college in Greensboro, NC. The citizens of Greensboro contributed 14 acres of land and $11,000. University opened operation in 1893.

19 In Furtherance of the Land-grant Mission
To further endow the establishment of land-grant universities: Congress passed the “Hatch Act ”, creating state agricultural experiment stations. In those state with two land-grant institutions, the funds were to be split equally, unless the legislature of a state directed otherwise. Per this clause, 1890’s were allowed to be treated unfairly and to be subsidiaries of 1862 experiment stations. Congress passes the “Smith-Lever Act ”, creating the Cooperative Extension System and system of agricultural instruction and services to the public. 1962 – Congress passes the “McIntire-Stennis Act”, making funds available to experiment stations and forestry schools for forestry research

20 In Furtherance of the Land-grant Mission
1965 – President Lyndon Johnson signs “Public Law ” which now allows 1890’s to receive funding for research. Collectively, the 1890’s received $283,000 for research from USDA. Funding per institution was meager but was the first step toward receipt of federal dollars for research. Washington, DC awarded land-grant status. 1971- Rep. Frank Evans (Colorado) presented a proposal that amended the ‘67 funding formula and gave $12.6 million to 1890’s, along with Tuskegee Institute, for research and extension. (FY’15 = $96.4 million)

21 In Furtherance of the Land-grant Mission
The ‘72 funding effort was championed by Presidents: Morrison (Alabama A&M ), Foster (Tuskegee), Davis (UAPB), Dowdy (NC A&T), Netterville, Jr. (Southern) and Thomas (PVAMU); along with B. D. Mayberry (Tuskegee) and C. A. Williams (USDA-Extension). 1972 – Farm Bill allows for 1890 Research funds to go directly to 1890’s. But, 1890 Extension funds had to pass through their 1862 counterpart. 1972 – Guam, Micronesia, American Samoa, Northern Marianas, and the Virgin Islands awarded land-grant status .

22 In Furtherance of the Land-grant Mission
1977 – The Farm Bill is amended, per a bill (Evans-Allen Act of 1977) sponsored by Rep. Frank Evans and Sen. James B. Allen. The 1890’s and Tuskegee Institute would now receive federal formula funding for research and extension. 1890 research funds were aptly named Evans-Allen funds. 1890 Extension funds were now sent directly to the respective campuses. 1890 NIFA funds (FY’15 direct lines) = $135.4 million or 10.5% of total $1.29 billion budget. Tribal Colleges Land Grant Institutions are established. 2014 – Central State University was awarded 1890 land-grant status and started to receive federal funds.

23 1890 Legislation (Summary)
1862 land-grant institutions in all of the 50 states. In 1890, institutions were established to provide access to black students, creating the 1890 land-grant colleges and universities. Due to its strong history relating to agricultural education, Tuskegee Institute (private) was included among the 1890’s for funding. Recognize the issues and concerns of underserved communities and make their issues a priority. Central State University received 1890 land-grant status under the 2014 Farm Bill.

24 Today’s Land-Grant Institutions
Yesterday Today Mechanic Arts Engineering technologies, textiles, architecture, ceramics, typing, printing, shop work, etc. Military Science Agriculture Horticulture, forestry, animal & poultry husbandry, veterinary medicine Home Economics (Nelson Amendment 1907) Engineering Technology ROTC Agriculture Family & Consumer Sciences Life Sciences Classical studies (Arts, Humanities, Philosophy, etc.)

25 Land Grant Universities are Unique
All land-grant universities are funded by the federal government for programs in the food and agricultural sciences. All 103 land-grant universities are organized into units within APLU. All are stakeholders and partners with USDA. (mostly because of formula funding) All serve a tripartite mission (instruction, research, Extension). All are affiliated with the Department of Defense to support ROTC programs.

26 Our Unique Mission Land-grant universities have a mission to help solve the problems and concerns plaguing communities and to share research-based information in a format that is easily understood by even the common man. These land-grant universities have a mission to conduct research and to extend that knowledge to the community. Cooperative Extension is the principle outreach component at each land-grant university.

27 1890s Yesterday & Today Class of 1894
From small colleges to major universities, the 1890s carry the distinction of being among some of the country’s elite universities. The 1890s inspire thinkers. The 1890s develop entrepreneurs. The 1890s create professionals. The 1890s are student empowering, real world, innovative, practical, creative, community economic engines. And 125 years later, the 1890s still maintain a close relationship with the federal government, a connection that provides a steady and continuous funding source. Class of 1894

28 1890 Institutions Assist with economic development within their regions, in terms of: poverty unemployment youth-at-risk illiteracy economic opportunities

29 1890’s Provide Comprehensive Instruction
Food & Agricultural Sciences Engineering & Technology Arts & Humanities Family & Consumer Sciences Business & Economics Health Sciences Life Sciences Social Sciences Education Physical Sciences

30 USDA Supported Research at the 1890’s
Improved nutrition and health, emphasis on obesity Economically competitive and sustainable small-scale agricultural systems Crop diversity and marketing strategies for farmers Food safety and improved nutritional quality Bio-based energy production Value-added plant and animal products Natural resource management and sustainability

31 1890 Extension Programs Alternative enterprises and new crops
Financial and Risk Management Sustainable Agriculture Rural Business and Community Development Nutrition and Health (EFNEP and SNAP-Ed) Food Safety Parenting Education Family Financial Management Youth Development Water Quality

32 Today’s1890 Institutions Continue to enroll a high percent of the African American in higher education; many still who are first generation college students. 7,308 of their undergraduates and graduates major in the food and agricultural sciences. More than half (51.6%) of all degrees awarded to African Americans in Agriculture are from the 1890’s.

33 1890 Little Known Facts Hampton University served as Virginia’s black land-grant institution for more than 45 years. The first black land-grant college was Alcorn University in Mississippi. The Nelson Amendment (1907) added home economics as a supported instructional program at the 1890s. Southern University is the only HBCU with a University System (five campuses/centers) in the nation.

34 1890 Little Known Facts Florida A&M University was the first HBCU to become a member of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS). Tuskegee University is the only HBCU with a fully accredited School of Veterinary Medicine that offers the DVM degree. Oprah Winfrey graduated from Tennessee State University and Arsenio Hall from Central State University. North Carolina A&T State University is both the nation’s largest HBCU and 1890 Land-grant.

35 NC A&T State University
North Carolina A&T State University proudly embodies its land-grant heritage, established by the Second Morrill Act of 1890, and is committed to being a ladder to opportunity for students seeking a superior education. Today, its commitment to individuals and communities incorporates a host of innovative educational opportunities, scientific research, and carefully developed extension programs that generate new knowledge and address solutions to regional, national and global challenges.

36 North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University
1891 2014 Four areas of Academic Instruction Agriculture English Horticulture Mathematics Four Teachers 37 Students Annex of Shaw University Seven Academic Colleges & Schools Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering Graduate School (M.S & Ph.D.) 663 Academic Staff 10,734 Students STEM Focused Carnegie Community Engagement Classification Charter member – North Carolina Research Campus #1-African American engineering graduates #2-African American agricultural graduates

37 NC A&T State University “Land-grant Facts”
John Oliver Crosby selected as first President! 1894 – Student newspaper , The Register, is first published! 1896 – Dr. James B. Dudley, principal of the Peabody School in Wilmington, NC selected as the second President! 1899 – First degrees are conferred to seven students (4 Bachelors of Agriculture)! First university farm is established! 1906 – Enrollment restricted to males only!

38 NC A&T State University “Land-grant Facts”
1910- Alexander Bailey hired as the first negro extension demonstration agent in N.C! H club work begins for African Americans in North Carolina in Sampson County! 1915 – Name changed to the “Negro Agricultural and Technical College of North Carolina”! 1919 – Junior Unit of Army ROTC is initiated and continues until Senior (4 year) Army ROTC is begun in 1942! Dazelle Foster Lowe hired as first black home demonstration agent in North Carolina! 1928- College granted co-educational status! 1939 – Master of Science in Education authorized and first Master’s degree conferred to Roy Elloy Hall!

39 NC A&T State University “Land-grant Facts”
1953- School of Nursing is established , with first class graduating in 1957! Warmoth T. Gibbs selected as fourth president! 1956 – Camp J. W. Mitchell opens as the first 4-H camp for blacks in North Carolina! 1957 – Name changed to “Agricultural and Technical College of North Carolina”! First white student, Rodney Jaye Miller of Greensboro, is admitted! 1959 – NC A&T is fully accredited by SACS! 1960 – Blair, McCain, McNeil and Richmond initiate “Woolworth Lunch Counter Sit-in.” Samuel D. Proctor is selected as fifth president!

40 NC A&T State University “Land-grant Facts”
1966 – NC A&T radio station, “WANT” is launched! 1967 – College name changed to “North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University” and receives first federal funds for agricultural research! 1970 – School of Business and Economics created by an action of the university of Board of Trustees! 1971 – NC A&T joins the Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference (MEAC)! 1972 – NC A&T becomes a constituent institution of the University of North Carolina and starts to receive formula funding for agricultural research and extension!

41 NC A&T State University “Land-grant Facts”
1977 – University receives direct formula funding for Cooperative Extension! 1979 – School of Business and Economics’ undergrad business program accredited! 1981 – Dr. Edward B. Fort is selected as eighth president! 1984 – Dr. Ronald E. McNair, NCA&T alumnus and NASA astronaut, orbits the earth aboard the space shuttle “Challenger” and in 1986, perishes in an explosion of the same space shuttle! 1987 – School of Technology is established and Roy Robertson (Stokes Co.) receives first NCA&T “Small Farmer of the Year Award”!

42 NC A&T State University “Land-grant Facts”
1994 – First Ph.D. candidates enrolled in EE and ME! 2000 – School of Agriculture renamed “School of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences”! University appoints first “Provost (female) of the University” and the first female (Yaxi Shen) is awarded a Ph.D. (M.E.)! NCA&T and UNCG announce creation of the “Joint Millennial Campus”! 2004 – NCA&T and NRCS form partnership and announce relocation of technology center to “Gateway Research Campus” 2008 – NCA&T awarded $18 million NSF grant for Engineering Research Center .

43 NC A&T State University “Land-grant Facts”
2009 – Dr. Harold L. Martin, Sr. is selected as the twelfth Chancellor of the university and installed on April 23, 2010! 2010 – Joint School of Nanoscience and Nano-engineering (JSNN) opens with 17 students in the doctorial program in nanoscience! 2011 – JSNN receives approval for M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Nanoengineering! 2012 – First Lady, Michelle Obama, delivers NCA&T ‘s commencement address. 2013 – Emmanuel Johnson is first NCA&T Fulbright Scholar awardee.

44 NC A&T State University “Land-grant Facts”
2014 – Destinie Nock is first HBCU student to be awarded the George J. Mitchell Scholarship to study at Oueens University in Belfast, Northern Ireland! 2014 – North Carolina A&T State University becomes nation’s largest HBCU!, (also the largest 1890 land-grant university and largest 1890 agricultural program)! 2015 – North Carolina A&T State University receives Carnegie Community Engagement Classification!

45 North Carolina A&T State University “Presidents and Chancellors”
Dr. Cleon F. Thompson ( ) Dr. Edward B. Fort ( ) Dr. James C. Renick ( ) Dr. Lloyd V. Hackley Interim (May-November 2006) Dr. Stanley F. Battle ( ) Dr. Harold L. Martin, Sr. (2009-present) Mr. John O. Crosby ( ) Dr. James B. Dudley ( ) Dr. Ferdinand D. Bluford ( ) Dr. Warmoth T. Gibbs ( ) Dr. Samuel D. Proctor ( ) Dr. Lewis C. Dowdy ( )

46 Notable Alumni of NC A&T
Lou Donaldson Joe Louis Dudley, Sr. Clara Adams-Ender Gen. Charles Bussey Henry E. Frye Calvin Irvin Jesse L. Jackson, Sr. Ronald McNair Taraji P. Henson Terrence Jenkins (Terrence J) Maceo Parker Hugh Evans The list continues… A&T Four Joseph McNeil, Franklin McCain, Ezell Blair, Jr. (later known as Jibreel Khazan), and David Richmond Alma Adams Alvin Austin Attles, Jr. Elvin Lamont Bethea Dwaine “Peewee” Board Willie A. Deese Edolphus Towns

47 125th Anniversary Website
Visit for more information about the celebration.

48 Useful Links

49 Closing Pres. of New Mexico State University said “If the institutions specifically created to serve the common student do not do so….who will?” “Right now…. the 1890s still have that mission ….and hope to use the 125th Anniversary of the Second Morrill Act to educate the nation about what we do with great passion and commitment to keep Morrill’s vision alive”. Whether a students, faculty/staff, alumni or friend; let us all leave with a continued commitment to the sustained growth/ development of NC A&T and its fellow 1890 land-grants. Special thanks to Drs. Carolyn Brooks, Valerie Giddings and Antoine Alston for their assistance with tonight’s presentation.

50 The 125th Second Morrill Act Lecture

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