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2005 History of the Cooperative Extension Service University of Missouri Extension Module 3 Volunteer Development: Making the Best Better Series.

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Presentation on theme: "2005 History of the Cooperative Extension Service University of Missouri Extension Module 3 Volunteer Development: Making the Best Better Series."— Presentation transcript:

1 2005 History of the Cooperative Extension Service University of Missouri Extension Module 3 Volunteer Development: Making the Best Better Series

2 2005 What Is the Cooperative Extension Service? Premiere non-formal education Premiere non-formal education Part of a national educational effort Part of a national educational effort Administered by the Land-Grant University system Administered by the Land-Grant University system Uniquely funded from federal, Uniquely funded from federal, state, and local governments

3 2005 Why Did We Need an Extension Service? Early universities in the U. S. taught classics / professionals Early universities in the U. S. taught classics / professionals –Harvard, Yale, William and Mary In the mid-1800s science was gaining importance In the mid-1800s science was gaining importance Efforts to provide a liberal, practical education to all citizens Efforts to provide a liberal, practical education to all citizens

4 2005 The Land Grant University System Is Created Justin Smith Morrill

5 2005 The Land Grant University System Is Created On July 2, 1862 the Morrill Act was signed into law by President Lincoln On July 2, 1862 the Morrill Act was signed into law by President Lincoln Known as the Land-Grant Act Known as the Land-Grant Act –Each state was given public land to be sold –Proceeds used to maintain a college

6 2005 The Land-Grant Mission Original mission was to teach Original mission was to teach –agriculture –military tactics –mechanical arts To promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes To promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes

7 2005 Research Linked to Land Grant Experimental farms focused science on the problems of agriculture Experimental farms focused science on the problems of agriculture Hatch Act passed in 1887 Hatch Act passed in 1887 Resulted in growth of experiment Resulted in growth of experiment stations and related research to agriculture

8 2005 The Land-Grant Mission Grows A 2nd Morrill Act in 1890 A 2nd Morrill Act in 1890 –Additional resources for the Land-Grants –Contributed to development of universities rather than colleges –Separate institutions for blacks were established in the south 1994 legislation gave Land-Grant status to the tribal colleges 1994 legislation gave Land-Grant status to the tribal colleges

9 2005 Extending the University to the People A way was needed to spread new ideas and practices A way was needed to spread new ideas and practices Early efforts included Farmers’ Institutes and Movable Schools Early efforts included Farmers’ Institutes and Movable Schools In 1898, USDA hired Seaman Knapp to “demonstrate” research results to local In 1898, USDA hired Seaman Knapp to “demonstrate” research results to local farmers in Louisiana farmers in Louisiana

10 2005 The Father of Extension Seaman A. Knapp

11 2005 An Early History Boys’ corn clubs formed at the turn of the century Boys’ corn clubs formed at the turn of the century Started payment of premium money as prizes Started payment of premium money as prizes First county agents appointed 1906 First county agents appointed 1906 First home demonstration agents appointed in 1910 First home demonstration agents appointed in 1910

12 2005 The System Grows

13 2005 The Official Beginning May 8, 1914 President Woodrow Wilson signed the Smith-Lever Act May 8, 1914 President Woodrow Wilson signed the Smith-Lever Act –Extension Service became the educational arm of the U.S. Department of Agriculture –Established activities within a unique nationwide system –Funded and guided by a national, state, and local government partnership

14 2005 Extension Through the Years

15 2005 Extension Through the Years Extension spearheaded the nation's food production effort During WW I, Extension spearheaded the nation's food production effort the emphasis changed from production to economic concerns During the depression of the 20’s, the emphasis changed from production to economic concerns Helped to organize farm cooperatives Helped to organize farm cooperatives

16 2005 Extension During the Depression USDA used Extension to acquaint farmers and rural people to new agencies USDA used Extension to acquaint farmers and rural people to new agencies Helped people understand emergency government action programs Helped people understand emergency government action programs Home demonstration agents taught home/money management Home demonstration agents taught home/money management

17 2005 Extension During the War Years Extension took on national defense role Extension took on national defense role – “Food and Feed for Family Living” –“Victory gardens” grown on farms and backyards backyards 4-H’ers conducted scrap metal drives 4-H’ers conducted scrap metal drives Home demonstration agents stressed food conservation Home demonstration agents stressed food conservation

18 2005 Extension After the War Program planning was re-emphasized Program planning was re-emphasized More involvement with local people and local situations More involvement with local people and local situations New areas of outreach New areas of outreach –Community and rural development –Family living

19 2005 Extension in the 60s & 70’s Initiated EFNEP Initiated EFNEP Continued expansion of Community Development Continued expansion of Community Development Missouri system moved to an Missouri system moved to an area approach in the 1960s

20 2005 Extension in the 80s & 90s “Farm crisis” redirected Extension to production/stress management “Farm crisis” redirected Extension to production/stress management System focused on issue programming System focused on issue programming Strong emphasis on accountability Strong emphasis on accountability New outreach efforts to collaborate with organizations with similar goals New outreach efforts to collaborate with organizations with similar goals

21 2005 The Old Image

22 2005 Land-Grants Today System of linking teaching, research and outreach took nearly 50 years System of linking teaching, research and outreach took nearly 50 years Land-Grants are: Land-Grants are: “Dedicated not only to teaching young people and the discovery of information, but also to applying that knowledge to the solutions of problems to help people live better lives and to have better livelihoods.” (V. Lechtenberg, 11/2000.)

23 2005 Extension Continues to “Take the University to the People” Extension’s philosophy has not changed but some of the subject matter has Extension’s philosophy has not changed but some of the subject matter has Demonstration method still relevant Demonstration method still relevant New technology changes information dissemination New technology changes information dissemination Organizational stress and resource Organizational stress and resource redirection is common

24 2005 The Cooperative Extension Service….. Is a proactive, responsive and collaborative organization Is a proactive, responsive and collaborative organization Committed to the growth and development of people through life- long learning Committed to the growth and development of people through life- long learning

25 2005 Our Vision Empower clientele to access information, sort through and process it Empower clientele to access information, sort through and process it Develop volunteers who share time and expertise Develop volunteers who share time and expertise

26 2005 References Printed with permission: Optimizing your Potential as a 4-H Volunteer, 2001, Purdue University Cooperative Extension, West Lafayette, IN


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