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Debra Schleef (University of Mary Washington) and H. B. Cavalcanti (James Madison University)

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Presentation on theme: "Debra Schleef (University of Mary Washington) and H. B. Cavalcanti (James Madison University)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Debra Schleef (University of Mary Washington) and H. B. Cavalcanti (James Madison University)

2 Definition of Hispanic or Latino Origin 2010 Census: Hispanic origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person’s parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be any race. Latinos in Dixie: One or more of one’s grandparents born in Latin America

3 Table 2. Greater Latinos by City and County (Counts and Percentage) Counties1990%2000% Charles City 380.6450.6 Chesterfield 2,0991.07,6172.9 Dinwiddie1970.92370.9 Goochland430.31440.9 Hanover 3300.58471.0 Henrico2,2201.05,9462.3 New Kent910.91761.3 Powhatan37 0.21840.8 Prince George 9823.51,6254.9 Cities Colonial Heights 1991.02741.6 Hopewell 4352.06512.9 Petersburg 3730.94631.4 Richmond 1,7440.85,0742.6 Total8,7881.123,2832.3 Source: Bureau of the Census, 1990 and 2000.

4  Face to Face Interviews (~100 Questions) English, Spanish, and Portuguese Quantitative Sample of Hispanic Surnames  (N = 173)  Qualitative Snowball Sample (N = 130)  Overall N = 303



7  Conflation of race and ethnicity [U.S. Census Bureau: Latinos “confused”]  Race as biological, cultural, social context ◦ “la raza” ◦ [Rodriguez, Changing Race, 2000]


9  Hispanic:42%  Latino:13  Gave country of origin:31  American:14


11  Hispanic/Latino/a:25%  White: 39%  Black: 3%  Color descriptor 8%  Mestizo 7%  Ancestry term 9%

12 Fitting In


14  “I’m very happy with life in Richmond, satisfied with all aspects of my life. I have never experienced any discrimination, although I look Hispanic. People accept me, even though it may not be as an equal.”

15 “The Civil War consumes Richmond, and Richmond is a big backwards. Richmond is stuck in history. Richmonders are very proud, and don’t see the need to move on. It has a misunderstood sense of importance.” “The city itself is divided. Some revel in the Rebel flag. [I say], accept being American together with all other Americans, since the only ones that truly belong here are the American Indians. If bigger cities can accept that, why not Richmond?” “One horse town. The thinking is small and the prejudices are big.”

16 Emphasis on Symbolic Ethnicity (Mary Waters, 1990) Two Chambers of Commerce American Hispanics of Richmond Association (AHORA) La Asociacion de Hispano-Americanos de Richmond (AHAR) Pan-ethnic identity or “generic” label ?

17  “When you speak of Latin Americans, think of British / Australian / American. We speak the same language, but we’re all different! We will even talk about each other—we have internal pride, and our own ethnicities. Generalizing is tough.” [Colombian immigrant]

18  Anti-immigrant bias  Anti-Mexican bias  Social Class  “Many Hispanics come here and expect the U.S. to adapt to their wants and need. For example, [in terms of] learning English, some families teach only Spanish in their home. If they liked it that much, stay there.” (31year old Salvadoran immigrant)

19  Some concluding thoughts: ◦ Magnified role of class in ethnic integration ◦ Paths for traditional, minority-identified, and selective acculturation ◦ Class divisions prohibit a sense of pan-ethnic solidarity ◦ Symbolic ethnicity and emphasis on middle class cultural events actually is not costless

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