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Brewery Cogeneration A Cogeneration Solution For A Medium Size Brewery Presented by: Oliver McRae Professor: Xi Lin ME304 – Energy & Thermodynamics Wednesday, October 16 th, 2013

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Agenda Background Project Definition Data Acquisition, Interpretation & Equipment Selection Thermal Calculations Financials Questions & Feedback 2

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Background An Overview Of The Energy Sector In Jamaica 3

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The electricity sector in Jamaica is in dire straits. Equipment is aging and results in inefficient power generation. Fuel cost is high. Energy theft. Affects many industries: Healthcare. Education. Manufacturing. Almost all civil services. Stagnates economic growth. 4

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Project Definition Crafting An Engineering Solution For High Cost Energy 5

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Red Stripe suffers financially because of the cost of energy. Red Stripe Jamaica Limited is the Brewer of the world renowned lager, Red Stripe. Power comes from the Jamaica Public service Company. Number six heavy fuel oil (process steam) is purchased from the single local refinery PetroJam. High electricity and process steam requirements. 6

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Data Acquisition, Interpretation & Equipment Selection An Examination Of Electrical Demand Requirements & How To Meet It 7

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Data from the SCADA system was extracted and examined. 8 Red Stripe Energy Requirements Electricity HFO 1,466,282 kWh/MonthTotal Steam 24,069,189 kg/year 17,595,382 kWh/YearTotal Fuel 2,358,095 liters/year 7,266,076,727 Btu/month 87,192,920,720 Btu/year

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Two 1.131MW gensets are needed based on the energy requirements. 9 Electricity Mean Power Requirement2,007.2 kW Max Available2,262.0 kW Propane Air mixer60.0 kW Required17,595.4 MWh Required with mixer18,121.3 MWh Max Available19,828.7 MWh Capacity Factor95 % Max Available with cap18,837 MWh Average Genset load96.2 % Efficiency41.5 % Fuel required for electricity148,994,181,758 Btu/year

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The GE Jenbacher JMS 416 is selected because it meets the requirements. 10 Electrical output1131 kW Recoverable Thermal output 120C1155 kW Energy input2636 kW Fuel consumption277 m3/hr Electrical efficiency42.9 % Thermal efficiency43.8 % Total efficiency86.7 % Exhaust gas mass flow rate, wet5,993 kg/hr Exhaust gas volume, wet4,734 m3/hr

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Thermal Calculations The Determination Of The Amount Of Process Steam Available From The Engine 11

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Calculating steam enthalpy. 12 Steam Enthalpy Water Steam 95C175.4C, 9 bar Enthalpy398,102 J/kg2,773,900 J/kg Enthalpy Difference 2,375,798J/kg Enthalpy Change Required Btu/kg Boiler Efficiency 84% Btu/kg Yearly Steam Demand kg Mean Hourly Steam Demand kg/hr Actual Mean Hourly Steam Demand kg/hr

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Calculating enthalpy of incoming and outgoing exhaust gas. 13 Exhaust Gas Enthalpy Temperature (K)OxygenCO2Nitrogen 5%17%78%Composition 66319,97325,31419,476Molar Enthalpy ,75412,07410,709Molar Enthalpy Molar Mass Exhaust Enthalpy 1, Parts Exhaust Enthalpy 2, Parts Part Enthalpy Part Enthalpy kJ/kgExhaust Enthalpy kJ/kgExhaust Enthalpy 2

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Energy rate balance. 14 The following formula was used to calculate the available saturated steam at the required pressure of 9 bar.

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Allocating both engine available steam and additional steam. 15 Primary Heat Exchanger Process Streams Exhaust Gas Water/Steam Mass Flow RateTemperatureEnthalpy Mass Flow RateTemperatureEnthalpy Incoming Outgoing Process Steam Available from engine1503kg/hr Additional Fuel for Steam 84% efficiency3,331,476Btu/hr Additional Steam required1243kg/hr 29,203,718,954Btu/year Total fuel required178,197,900,712 Btu

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Financials The Confirmation Of The Quality Of This Investment 16

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Financial metrics validate the undertaking of the project. Year 0 ~$401,000,000 IRR Using Future Cash Flows = 83.8% Savings increase yearly. Payback happens within two years. 17

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Current charges in Jamaica. 18 Current Electricity per year17,595,382kWh Elec Cost per Kwh$34.88JMD Total Elec Cost613,814,481JMD HFO energy content36,976Btu/L Liters of HFO Liters HFO Cost per liter$76.34JMD HFO Cost$180,016,972JMD Total Energy Cost$793,831,453JMD

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Projected Project fuel costs in Jamaica. 19 Propane Energy content24,225Btu/L Fuel required7,355,950Liters Cost per Liter$48.00JMD Total Fuel Cost353,085,624JMD Total Energy Costs Prime Power398,909,361JMD

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Project experiences payback in 15 months with a strong IRR. 20 YearYear 0Year 1Year 2 Fuel $0$264,814,218$367,209,049 O&M $0$34,367,803$47,198,449 Expected Expenditure using current procurement $0$793,831,453$817,646,397 Capital Outlay $400,886,720$0 Money Paid to Utility $0$198,457,863$23,031,475 Operating Savings -$400,886,720$296,191,569$380,207,424 Total Cost for Year $400,886,720$497,639,884$437,438,973 Net Cash Flow -$400,886,720$296,191,569$380,207,424 Net Internal Rate of return 83.8 % Payback Period 15.3months *Abbreviated from 6 years

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Next Steps Acquire More Data From Red Stripe Get More Accurate Data From Manufacturers & Model System With Additional Equipment (eg. Steam Accumulator) Add More Variables To Increase Accuracy Investigate Grid Tie Solution Implementation 21

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Questions & Feedback 22

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