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Analytical, Evaluative, & Speculative Language.  Language Conventions towards Academic Purposes and Connotation  Appropriate Use of Evaluation and Analysis.

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Presentation on theme: "Analytical, Evaluative, & Speculative Language.  Language Conventions towards Academic Purposes and Connotation  Appropriate Use of Evaluation and Analysis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Analytical, Evaluative, & Speculative Language

2  Language Conventions towards Academic Purposes and Connotation  Appropriate Use of Evaluation and Analysis

3  Unless the assignment somehow indicates otherwise:  Analyze means to break down and examine the argument or text  Evaluate means to judge the soundness of an argument  Speculate, though not as often used, refers to using evidence to posit theories about what the outcome/cause/reason

4  Because it focuses on what is there, the language should often be neutral and objective, and possibly “rule” like: Sets forth what is being discussed  Defining, participants, description of components Might provide several perspectives by different sources for this topic

5  Any language that provides a more subjective reflection of the evidence being discussed can be seen to judge: Adjectives such as “important, vital, crucial, insignificant, middling”  Academic language that indicates evaluation tries to reflect the evidence given, and the strength of it: Indicates, implies, requires, encourages, illustrates Probably, possibly, likely

6  While this form comes under many guises (determine, discuss, surmise), it generally refers to very weak propositions or ideas about future studies and relies more heavily on the author to make a clear connection for the reader than the sources.

7  Might Further studies might further illuminate this point.  Can Further studies can further illuminate this point.  Could Further studies could further illuminate this point.  Should Further studies should further illuminate this point.  Would Further studies would further illuminate this point.

8  The organization of the ideas should determine how the reader recognizes what is being done—yet language adds a dimension irrespective of section or intention: The witness stated that his name was John. The witness confidently stated that his name was John. The witness moaned that his name was John.

9  The section is determined by its purpose more than its name: What does the language reflect about the section’s attitude or approach to the information discussed?  What kind of exploration should each section usually entail: Introduction, Lit Review, Methods & Materials, Results, Discussion

10  The type of language that may be used is also restricted/inspired by the flexibility of the field: “Hard” science “Soft” science Humanities Applied sciences

11  YOUR choice of words and approach to the ideas encoded in your text tell the reader how you want them to be interpreted.  When reading, writing, or editing, ask yourself what the connotation is for the reader, and if that is accurate and appropriate to: Your purpose The source(s) or evidence provided The requirements of the assignment, section, &/or field

12 Call to make an appointment:  Us:  Check out the complete list of our workshops:  On Facebook:  Cal State Fullerton Graduate Students  Grad Studies Website:   ULC Website: 


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