Presentation on theme: "Gated Communities in Residential Areas in Different Institutional Frameworks. Israel and Poland Comparison Iris Frankel-Cohen Urban & Regional Planning."— Presentation transcript:
Gated Communities in Residential Areas in Different Institutional Frameworks. Israel and Poland Comparison Iris Frankel-Cohen Urban & Regional Planning The Technion, Israel Institute of Technology Magdalena Zaleczna Department of Investment and Real Estate; University of Lodz
The aim : A cross national analysis of GCs GCs are a global phenomenon GCs are local-oriented The analysis of GCs necessitates a framework of characteristics. A cross-national analysis entails a coherent concept of GC. A comparative analysis of GCs in Poland and Israel by general (global) traits and local characteristics
GCs’ definitions Different researchers suggest GCs a range of definitions. The definitions may be influenced by specific manifestations of GCs in specific countries. The definition may reflect the researchers' discipline and personal attitude toward this housing form There is no single general coherent GCs’ definition
GCs - a concept of three (Exclusionary) dimensions GCs is a concept of three dimensions: Physical, Social, Legal. Each dimension entail a range of characteristics. Each dimension implies exclusion in some form and to a certain extent. Different means in various combinations create a multiplicity of GCs of different exclusionary extents. GCs are exclusionary residential developments that use a range of physical and legal means to maintain physical and social separation from their surroundings.
The Evolution of GCs in Poland During the socialist era: -Housing, mostly unaesthetic blocks of flats, was financed by the government. -The government allocated residential units in accordance with public policy and socialist rules. -These policies included mixing different social classes in urban dwellings. -The Polish political elite enjoyed special, separated residential zones (similarly to the other socialist countries). Since the 1990s: –An evolution of GCs as residential areas for the upper classes (around Warsaw – 55 in 1999 and 200 in 2005). –Motives: desire for luxury, aesthetics and a sense of prestige (antithesis of the socialist housing), security (very often used by developers).
The Evolution of GCs in Israel Residential separation prior Israel constitution in 1948: -Separate residential neighborhoods and villages for Jews, Christians and Muslims. Jewish developments were gated for security reasons. Since constitution of Israel - residential separation of national, religious, ideological and cultural considerations. Since the 1990s (political, ideological, social and economic processes) - An evolution of “neo-liberal” GCs: Leisure-oriented compounds and retirement villages. Exurban localities of detached single-family housing. Urban high-rise exclusive residential complexes. Self sufficient neighborhoods in low demand areas.
The Physical Dimension of GC in Poland walls or fences of different forms: –The new built settlements: walls made of bricks or other material; a clear definition of the GC's space. –Residential areas that were converted into GCs: closed gates that were once open and new fences; “softer” boarders. Surveillance by electronic devices and guards Access restricted to residents and those that identify themselves and supply a good reason. The exclusive use of services and facilities to those who have membership card (or a secret code)
The Physical Dimension of GC in Israel Exurban GCs, mainly in frontier areas - Extensive enclosure: –gates, fences and walls; a few topped with barbed wire. –surveillance measures such as guarded entrances and patrols Urban GCs usually entail ” softer” means: –GCs in high demand areas entail explicit means such as walls, gates and guards. –GCs use "pseudo-gating" that create an image of privatized public space by topographic characteristics, a road that surrounds the neighborhood, a single entrance to the neighborhood or barricaded streets.
The Social Dimension of GC in Poland The post-socialist era is characterized by social restructuring and growing disparities in polish society. GCs are the residential solution for affluent residents who seek: aesthetic development and high standards of services. a sense of prestige, success and a "taste" of American lifestyle. security from ”others” (although in the context of the homogenous Polish society this may be miksofobia (Bauman 2003). The GCs are homogenous in terms of socio-economic status that is higher than that of their non-gated neighbors. GCs entail the lack of social interaction with the outsiders, retreat from public realm and increased fear of the other
Since the 90s the socio-economic status is a dominant characteristic of GCs. However, the social profile of GC is influenced also by religious, ideological and cultural considerations. The social profile of GCs in Israel depends on their specific type of characteristics (localisation, design, building standards, lifestyle, amenities). The Social Dimension of GC in Israel
The general rule and definition: There is no special legal regulation and definition for GC in Poland. The framework for establishing GC: There is no special planning regulation or policy. The membership restrictions: There is no special regulation. The relations among residents the form of condominium is used. The contracts of residents’ obligations and rights are signed, in case of disputes the court’s verdict solves the problems. The Legal Dimension of GC in Poland
Specific Polish problems: Uncontrolled proces of public space privatization. Lack of governmental policy or intervention. Polish cities usually do not have a municipal development plans or local planning policy. This situation entails serious problems for sustainable urban development. Developers can get permissions with little difficulty. Thus they are granted the permission to build whatever they want, including GC. Consequently, planning decisions accommodate mainly the developers' interests while ignoring possible affects on those of the public. The Legal Dimension of GC in Poland
The general rule and definition: There is no special legal regulation and definition for GC in Israel. The framework for establishing GC: There is no special planning regulation or policy. The membership restrictions: There is no special regulation, in accordance with the legal documents that set the relations among residents and ad-hoc decisions. The relations among residents usually set by article of association or other legal contract.The contracts of residents’ obligations and rights are signed, in case of disputes the court’s verdict solves the problems. The Legal Dimension of GC in Israel
Since the 90s Poland and Israel experienced neo-liberal trends. These trends affect the evolution of GC as residential area of the (relatively) better-off. The extend of the phenomenon and its manifestations are infuenced by different local context: Poland: public space privatization, lack of governmental intervention enable the evolution of US style GC. Israel: processes of privatization and growing social disparities influenced GCs. Due to a lack of governmental policy, local interest and the history of closure the hierarchic planning system does not prevent this evolution. Conclusions:
The different local context also affects the character of GC: - in Poland GC entails socio-economic disparities although GCs are not exclusive for the richest group. - in Israel the degree of exclusion is influenced also by considerations of security in certain locations and of cultural differences. Conclusions:
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