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Topics in Chinese Linguistics: Introduction to Chinese Topic 4: Vocabulary.

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Presentation on theme: "Topics in Chinese Linguistics: Introduction to Chinese Topic 4: Vocabulary."— Presentation transcript:

1 Topics in Chinese Linguistics: Introduction to Chinese Topic 4: Vocabulary

2 Basic concepts Morpheme: Morpheme: A morpheme is a smallest meaningful unit in a language. It may be lexical or rammatical: 女 n ǚ lexical ,子 z ǐ lexcical or grammtical ,

3 Bound vs. free morphemes: Bound vs. free morphemes: Free: morphemes that can be uttered independently and used freely. 人 rén person. Free: morphemes that can be uttered independently and used freely. 人 rén person. Bound: always occur in conjunction with another morpheme. 子 -z ǐ as in 兒子 érzi. Bound: always occur in conjunction with another morpheme. 子 -z ǐ as in 兒子 érzi.

4 Prefix: Prefix: Any affix that appears before a free morpheme. un-happy, 老師 l ǎ o-shī Any affix that appears before a free morpheme. un-happy, 老師 l ǎ o-shī Suffix: Suffix: Any affix that appears at the end of a word. work-s, 兒子 ér-zi Any affix that appears at the end of a word. work-s, 兒子 ér-zi

5 Derivational and inflectional affixes: Derivational and inflectional affixes: Derivational affixes produce a word; happy => un-happy, work=> work-er, Derivational affixes produce a word; happy => un-happy, work=> work-er, Inflectional affixes attach grammatical meanings to the word. work=>work-ing Inflectional affixes attach grammatical meanings to the word. work=>work-ing

6 Characters Characters A Chinese character is a morphemes (either free or bound) A Chinese character is a morphemes (either free or bound) A character is not necessarily a word. 我 w ǒ is a word 們 men is not a word, but a morpheme, a suffix. A character is not necessarily a word. 我 w ǒ is a word 們 men is not a word, but a morpheme, a suffix. Chinese words mostly are two-morpheme words. 中國 Zhōngguó 地圖 dìtú 學生 xuésheng Chinese words mostly are two-morpheme words. 中國 Zhōngguó 地圖 dìtú 學生 xuésheng

7 Words: has a specific meaning and can be used freely. Words: has a specific meaning and can be used freely. Monosyllabic words Monosyllabic words 人 rén person 人 rén person 吃 chī to eat 吃 chī to eat 我 w ǒ I M 我 w ǒ I M Disyllabic words Disyllabic words 鼻子 bízi nose 鼻子 bízi nose 桌子 zhuōzi table 桌子 zhuōzi table 官兒 guānr an official 官兒 guānr an official 老師 l ǎ oshī teacher 老師 l ǎ oshī teacher

8 老虎 l ǎ oh ǔ tiger 老虎 l ǎ oh ǔ tiger 第一 dìyī first 第一 dìyī first 人人 rénrén everybody 人人 rénrén everybody 黑板 hēib ǎ n blackboard 黑板 hēib ǎ n blackboard 圖書館 túshūgu ǎ n library 圖書館 túshūgu ǎ n library Note: Note: A Chinese word contains at least one morpheme. A Chinese word contains at least one morpheme. The word boundary is hard to detect in Chinese, not marked by spaces between the words like English. The word boundary is hard to detect in Chinese, not marked by spaces between the words like English.

9 Word classes Word classes Full words vs. empty (functional) words 實詞虛 詞 Full words vs. empty (functional) words 實詞虛 詞 All grammatical words are empty (functional) words. The rest words are full (lexical) words. All grammatical words are empty (functional) words. The rest words are full (lexical) words.

10 Full words Full words nouns 名詞 nouns 名詞 verbs 動詞 verbs 動詞 adjectives 形容詞 adjectives 形容詞 nemerals 數詞 nemerals 數詞 measures 量詞 measures 量詞 pronouns- personal and demonstratives 代詞 pronouns- personal and demonstratives 代詞

11 Empty words Empty words adverbs 副詞 只,漸漸,很,不,沒,最 adverbs 副詞 只,漸漸,很,不,沒,最 prepositions 介詞在,上 prepositions 介詞在,上 conjunctions 連詞和,而且 conjunctions 連詞和,而且 particles 助詞 的,嗎,吧,得 particles 助詞 的,嗎,吧,得 interjections 感嘆詞啊, interjections 感嘆詞啊, onomatopoeia 象聲詞嘩啦, onomatopoeia 象聲詞嘩啦,

12 Word formation Derivation: morpheme plus preffix or suffix Derivation: morpheme plus preffix or suffix prefixes: prefixes: 老 - l ǎ o 老 - l ǎ o 老師 l ǎ oshī teacher 老師 l ǎ oshī teacher 老鼠 l ǎ osh ǔ mouse 老鼠 l ǎ osh ǔ mouse 第 - dì 第 - dì 第一 dìyī first 第一 dìyī first 第二 dìèr second 第二 dìèr second 阿 - ā 阿 - ā 阿妹 āmèi sister 阿妹 āmèi sister 阿大 ādà first brother 阿大 ādà first brother

13 suffixes: suffixes: - 子 z ǐ - 子 z ǐ 桌子 zhuòzi table 桌子 zhuòzi table 椅子 y ǐ zi chair 椅子 y ǐ zi chair - 兒 ér - 兒 ér 花兒 huār flower 花兒 huār flower 飯館兒 fàngu ǎ r restaurant 飯館兒 fàngu ǎ r restaurant

14 - 家 jiā - 家 jiā 作家 zuòjiā writer 作家 zuòjiā writer 畫家 huàjiā painter 畫家 huàjiā painter - 主義 zh ǔ yì - 主義 zh ǔ yì 共產主義 gòngch ǎ nzh ǔ yì communism 共產主義 gòngch ǎ nzh ǔ yì communism 資本主義 zīběnzh ǔ yì capitalism 資本主義 zīběnzh ǔ yì capitalism - 學 xué - 學 xué 語言學 y ǔ yánxué linguistics 語言學 y ǔ yánxué linguistics 物理學 wùl ǐ xué physics 物理學 wùl ǐ xué physics

15 infixes: infixes: 胡里胡塗 húl ǐ -hútú 胡里胡塗 húl ǐ -hútú 古里古怪 g ǔ l ǐ -g ǔ guài 古里古怪 g ǔ l ǐ -g ǔ guài 吃不消 chī-bu-xiāo 吃不消 chī-bu-xiāo 來不及 lái-bu-jí 來不及 lái-bu-jí 對不起 duì-bu-q ǐ 對不起 duì-bu-q ǐ

16 Compounding Compounding Coordinating 並列: Coordinating 並列: 父母 聲音 大小 買賣 父母 聲音 大小 買賣 fù-m ǔ shēng-yīng dà-xi ǎ o m ǎ i-mài fù-m ǔ shēng-yīng dà-xi ǎ o m ǎ i-mài father-mother voice-sound big-small buy-sell father-mother voice-sound big-small buy-sell

17 Subordinating 偏正: Subordinating 偏正: modifier and modified 修飾與被修飾: modifier and modified 修飾與被修飾: 電話 火車 熱愛 晚會 電話 火車 熱愛 晚會 diàn-huà hu ǒ -chē rè-ài w ǎ n-huì diàn-huà hu ǒ -chē rè-ài w ǎ n-huì electric-speech fire-vehicle hot-love evening- meeting electric-speech fire-vehicle hot-love evening- meeting

18 Subordinating 偏正: Subordinating 偏正: subject-predicative 主謂: subject-predicative 主謂: 地震,頭疼,眼花, 地震,頭疼,眼花, dì-zhèn, tóu-téng, y ǎ n-huā dì-zhèn, tóu-téng, y ǎ n-huā earth-vibrate, head-hurt, eye-blur earth-vibrate, head-hurt, eye-blur

19 Subordinating 偏正: Subordinating 偏正: verb-object 動賓: verb-object 動賓: 吃飯,放心,傷心,吹牛 吃飯,放心,傷心,吹牛 chī-fàn, fàng-xīn, shāng-xīn, chuī-niú chī-fàn, fàng-xīn, shāng-xīn, chuī-niú eat-rice, put down-heart, hurt-heart, blow-cow eat-rice, put down-heart, hurt-heart, blow-cow

20 Subordinating 偏正: Subordinating 偏正: verb-complement 動補: verb-complement 動補: 打破,放大,改正,說明 打破,放大,改正,說明 d ǎ -pò, fàng-dà, g ǎ i-zhèng, shuō-míng d ǎ -pò, fàng-dà, g ǎ i-zhèng, shuō-míng hit-break, make-large, change-correct, state-clear hit-break, make-large, change-correct, state-clear

21 Reduplication 重疊 Reduplication 重疊 Verbs 動詞: Verbs 動詞: 等等,看看,想想,說說 等等,看看,想想,說說 děng-děng, kàn-kàn, xi ǎ ng-xi ǎ ng, shuō-shuō děng-děng, kàn-kàn, xi ǎ ng-xi ǎ ng, shuō-shuō wait, look, think, say wait, look, think, say

22 Nounds 名詞: Nounds 名詞: 爸爸,媽媽,人人,天天,家家戶戶 爸爸,媽媽,人人,天天,家家戶戶 bà-ba, mā-ma, rén-rén, tiān-tiān, jiājiā-hùhù bà-ba, mā-ma, rén-rén, tiān-tiān, jiājiā-hùhù father, mother, person-person, day-day, family- family-household-houesehold father, mother, person-person, day-day, family- family-household-houesehold

23 Adjectives 形容詞: Adjectives 形容詞: AABB : AABB : 高高興興,干干淨淨 高高興興,干干淨淨 gāogāo-xìngxìng, gāngān-jìngjìng gāogāo-xìngxìng, gāngān-jìngjìng high-spirited, dry-clean high-spirited, dry-clean ABB : ABB : 紅通通,白茫茫,綠油油,黑乎乎,髒兮 兮 紅通通,白茫茫,綠油油,黑乎乎,髒兮 兮 hóng-tōngtōng, bái-mángmáng, l ǜ -yóuyóu, hēi- hūhū, zāng-xīxī hóng-tōngtōng, bái-mángmáng, l ǜ -yóuyóu, hēi- hūhū, zāng-xīxī red-thorough, white-vast expanse, green-lush, black-dusky, dirt-xixi red-thorough, white-vast expanse, green-lush, black-dusky, dirt-xixi

24 AAB : AAB : Adverbs 副詞: Adverbs 副詞: 慢慢地﹐快快地﹐好好地 慢慢地﹐快快地﹐好好地 mànmànde, kuàikuàide, h ǎ oh ǎ ode mànmànde, kuàikuàide, h ǎ oh ǎ ode slow-slow-de, fast-fast-de, good-good-de slow-slow-de, fast-fast-de, good-good-de

25 Synonyms and antonyms Synonyms – words with the exact same meaning Synonyms – words with the exact same meaning speech – speech – 演講,講演 演講,講演 yánji ǎ ng, ji ǎ ngy ǎ n yánji ǎ ng, ji ǎ ngy ǎ n perform-speak, speak-perform perform-speak, speak-perform bike – bike – 自行車,腳踏車 自行車,腳踏車 zìxíngchē, ji ǎ otàchē zìxíngchē, ji ǎ otàchē self-move-vehicle, foot-peddle-vehicle self-move-vehicle, foot-peddle-vehicle Vitamin – Vitamin – 維他命,維生素 維他命,維生素 wéitāmìng, wéishēngsù wéitāmìng, wéishēngsù maintain his life, maintain life elements maintain his life, maintain life elements

26 Synonyms – words with a similar meaning Synonyms – words with a similar meaning to take to take 拿-取 拿-取 ná-q ǔ ná-q ǔ to present (a gift) to present (a gift) 贈-送 贈-送 zèng, sòng zèng, sòng

27 to eat to eat 吃-食 吃-食 chī, shí chī, shí to attemp to attemp 打算-企圖 打算-企圖 d ǎ suàn, q ǐ tú d ǎ suàn, q ǐ tú to be proud of, to be arrogant to be proud of, to be arrogant 驕傲-自豪-自滿 驕傲-自豪-自滿 jiāo’ào, zìháo, zìm ǎ n jiāo’ào, zìháo, zìm ǎ n

28 Antonyms – words with opposite meanings Antonyms – words with opposite meanings 大-小,長-短,高-低,好-壞 大-小,長-短,高-低,好-壞 dà-xi ǎ o, cháng-du ǎ n, gāo-dī, h ǎ o-huài dà-xi ǎ o, cháng-du ǎ n, gāo-dī, h ǎ o-huài big-small, long-short, high-low, good-bad big-small, long-short, high-low, good-bad 浪費-節約,吝嗇-慷慨,痛苦-快樂, 謙虛-驕傲 浪費-節約,吝嗇-慷慨,痛苦-快樂, 謙虛-驕傲 làngfèi-jiéyuē, lìnsè-kāngk ǎ i, tòngk ǔ -kuàilè, qiānxū-jiāo’ào làngfèi-jiéyuē, lìnsè-kāngk ǎ i, tòngk ǔ -kuàilè, qiānxū-jiāo’ào waste-save, stingy-generous, pain and suffer- happy, modest-arrogant waste-save, stingy-generous, pain and suffer- happy, modest-arrogant

29 春-秋,黑-白,黑-紅? 春-秋,黑-白,黑-紅? chūn-qiū, hēi-bái, hēi-hóng chūn-qiū, hēi-bái, hēi-hóng spring-fall, black-white, black-red? spring-fall, black-white, black-red?

30 Words that form a continuum Words that form a continuum 冰-寒-冷-涼-溫-暖-熱-燙 冰-寒-冷-涼-溫-暖-熱-燙 bīng-hán-lěng-liáng-wēn-nu ǎ n-rè-tàng bīng-hán-lěng-liáng-wēn-nu ǎ n-rè-tàng icy-cold-cool-warm-hot icy-cold-cool-warm-hot

31 Hyponyms Hyponyms Words within a same category, with a hierarchy. The words within a category under another word are hyponyms of the word at the upper level. Words within a same category, with a hierarchy. The words within a category under another word are hyponyms of the word at the upper level. Animal Animal dog cat pig... dog cat pig...

32 Idioms Four character idioms chéngy ǔ 四字成語 Four character idioms chéngy ǔ 四字成語 狐假虎威 hú-jià-h ǔ -wēi 狐假虎威 hú-jià-h ǔ -wēi the fox assuming the majesty of tiger – borrowing the power to do evil the fox assuming the majesty of tiger – borrowing the power to do evil 一鳴驚人 yì-míng-jīng-rén 一鳴驚人 yì-míng-jīng-rén to make one’s mark at the first shot, to amaze the world with a single brilliant feat to make one’s mark at the first shot, to amaze the world with a single brilliant feat 南轅北轍 nán-yuán-běi-zhè 南轅北轍 nán-yuán-běi-zhè to go south by driving the chariot north, means and ends opposed, practice diametrically opposed to preaching. to go south by driving the chariot north, means and ends opposed, practice diametrically opposed to preaching. *Chinese chéngy ǔ may function as nouns or verbs. *Chinese chéngy ǔ may function as nouns or verbs.

33 Proverbs yàny ǔ 諺語 Proverbs yàny ǔ 諺語 Proverbs are sentences with classical origin or a special philosophical meaning or implications. Proverbs are sentences with classical origin or a special philosophical meaning or implications. 活到老﹐學到老。 活到老﹐學到老。 Huó dào l ǎ o, xué dào l ǎ o. Huó dào l ǎ o, xué dào l ǎ o. Learn as long as you live. Learn as long as you live.

34 Xiòuy ǔ 歇後語 Xiòuy ǔ 歇後語 A special expression composed by two parts. The first part is a statement or a description. The second part is the essence of the expression. A special expression composed by two parts. The first part is a statement or a description. The second part is the essence of the expression. 老鼠過街﹐人人喊打。 老鼠過街﹐人人喊打。 L ǎ osh ǔ guō jiē, rénrén h ǎ n d ǎ. L ǎ osh ǔ guō jiē, rénrén h ǎ n d ǎ. When rats are running across the street, every body yells: “Kill them!” (to be chased by all like a rat running across the street.) When rats are running across the street, every body yells: “Kill them!” (to be chased by all like a rat running across the street.)

35 和尚打傘 - 無法無天。 和尚打傘 - 無法無天。 Héshang d ǎ s ǎ n – wú f ǎ wú tiān. Héshang d ǎ s ǎ n – wú f ǎ wú tiān. A monk holds an umbrella – there is no hair (rhymed with ‘law’) and sky. A monk holds an umbrella – there is no hair (rhymed with ‘law’) and sky.

36 Assignment Unit 4 homework due 10/28 Unit 4 homework due 10/28 See course page Assignment See course page Assignment k4.doc k4.doc


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