2 Phase DescriptionSystems planning is the 1 of 5 phases in the systems development life cycle (SDLC)Systems planning is where IT projects get started and how a systems analyst evaluates a proposed project and determines its feasibility
3 Chapter ObjectivesExplain the concept of a business case and how a business case affects an IT projectDescribe the strategic planning process and why it is important to the IT teamExplain the purpose of a mission statementDescribe the SDLC, and explain how it serves as a framework for systems development and business modeling3
4 Chapter ObjectivesList the reasons for information systems projects and the factors that affect such projectsExplain the initial review of systems requests and the role of the systems review committeeDefine operational feasibility, technical feasibility, economic feasibility, and schedule feasibility3
5 Chapter ObjectivesDescribe the steps in a preliminary investigation and the end product of an investigation
6 IntroductionThe term business case refers to the reasons, or justification, for a proposalA strong business case suggests that the company should pursue the alternative, above other options, because it would be in the firm’s best interest to do so4
7 Information Systems Projects Project Management ToolsAll IT projects must be managed and controlledBegins with a systems request, and continues until the project is completed or terminatedFigure 2-11
8 Reasons for Systems Projects Other reasons: Government / customer compliance…
9 Drivers for Systems Projects User requestsManagement directiveLegacy system - no longer supportedIT department – stay up-to-dateEconomic demandsCompetitionCustomer DemandSuppliers
10 Evaluation of Systems Requests Systems Requests FormsUse a special form for systems requestsA properly designed form streamlines the request process and ensures consistencyMust be easy to understand and include clear instructionsShould include enough space for all required information and should indicate what supporting documents are needed
11 Evaluation of Systems Requests Systems Review CommitteesMost large companies use a systems review committee to evaluate systems requestsMany smaller companies rely on one person to evaluate system requests instead of a committeeThe goal is to evaluate the requests and set priorities
12 To do or not to do a project. 1st – project to decide whether or not to pursue a projectDecide if to do – ROI/feasibilityDecide what to doDecide when to doDecide the approachBuild in-houseBuy turn-keyOut-source to a contractor
13 Strategic Planning – if to do From Strategic Plans to Business ResultsA company develops a mission statement based on the firm’s purpose, vision, and valuesFigure 2-3
15 Overview of Feasibility – if to do A systems request must pass several tests, called a feasibility study, to see whether it is worthwhile to proceed furtherOperational FeasibilityA proposed system will be used effectively after it has been developed
16 Overview of Feasibility- if to do Technical FeasibilityRefers to the technical resources neededEconomic FeasibilityTotal cost of ownership (TCO)Tangible benefitsIntangible benefitsSchedule FeasibilityMeans that a project can be implemented in an acceptable time frame
17 Evaluating Feasibility – if to do The first step is to identify and weed out systems requests that are not feasibleEven if the request is feasible, it might not be necessaryFeasibility analysis is an ongoing task that must be performed throughout the systems development process
18 Strategic Planning – what to do Strategic Planning OverviewSWOTExamines a companiesstrengths,weaknesses,opportunities, andthreatsFigure 2-24
19 Setting Priorities – when to do Factors that Affect PriorityWill the systems project result in more information or produce better results? How? Are the results measurable?Will the proposed system reduce costs? Where? When? How? How much?Will the system increase revenue for the company? Where? When? How? How much?
20 Setting Priorities – when to do Factors that Affect PriorityWill the system serve customers better?Will the system serve the organization better?Can the project be implemented in a reasonable time period? How long will the results last?Are the necessary financial, human, and technical resources available?
21 Setting Priorities – when to do Factors that Affect PriorityWhenever possible, the analyst should evaluate a proposed project based on tangible costs and benefits that represent actual (or approximate) dollar values
22 Project CharterDecision is made to proceed with a project, the project charter confirms and defines that decision.Set limits or scopeDefines authoritySet time limitProtects project manager by confirming CEO buy-in
23 Charter or contract Goal – objectives are steps for attaining the goal Recommended course of action – define whatScope – boundaries and configuration managementPlan of Action and MilestonesRoles and ResponsibilitiesSuccess criteriaSignatures
24 Preliminary Investigation Overview Interaction with Managers and UsersFact-FindingFigure 2-14
25 Preliminary Investigation Overview Planning the Preliminary InvestigationA systems analyst typically follows a series of stepsThe exact procedure depends on the nature of the request, the size of the project and the degree of urgency
26 Preliminary Investigation Overview Step 1: Understand the Problem or OpportunityDetermine which departments, users, and business processes are involvedUnderstand how the project supports the mission statement
27 Preliminary Investigation Overview Step 2: Define the Project Scope and ConstraintsProject scopeProject creepConstraint
28 Preliminary Investigation Overview Step 2: Define the Project Scope and ConstraintsMeans to define the boundaries, or extent, of the projectBeing as specific as possible
30 Preliminary Investigation Overview Step 3: Perform Fact-FindingFact-finding involves various techniquesDepending on what information is needed to investigate the systems request, fact-finding might consume several hours, days, or weeks
33 Preliminary Investigation Overview Step 3: Perform Fact-FindingReview documentationObserve operationsConduct a user survey
34 Preliminary Investigation Overview Step 4: Evaluate FeasibilityEvaluate the project’s operational, technical, economic, and schedule feasibility
35 Preliminary Investigation Overview Step 5: Estimate Project Development Time and CostWhat information must you obtain, and how will you gather and analyze the information?What sources of information will you use, and what difficulties will you encounter in obtaining information?
36 Preliminary Investigation Overview Step 5: Estimate Project Development Time and CostWill you conduct interviews? How many people will you interview, and how much time will you need to meet with the people and summarize their responses?Will you conduct a survey? Who will be involved? How much time will it take people to complete it? How much time will it take to prepare it and tabulate the results?
37 Preliminary Investigation Overview Step 5: Estimate Project Development Time and CostHow much will it cost to analyze the information gathered and to prepare a report with findings and recommendations?You should provide an estimate for the overall project, so managers can understand the full cost impact and timetable
38 Preliminary Investigation Overview Step 6: Present Results and Recommendations to ManagementThe final task in the preliminary investigation is to prepare a report to managementThe format of the preliminary investigation report varies from one company to another
40 Preliminary Investigation Overview Step 6: Present Results and Recommendations to ManagementIntroductionSystems request summaryFindingsRecommendationsTime & cost estimatesExpected benefitsAppendix
41 Chapter SummaryStrategic planning allows a company to examine its purpose, vision, and values and develops a mission statementSystems projects are initiated to improve performance, provide more information, reduce costs, strengthen controls, or provide better serviceVarious internal and external factors affect systems49
42 Chapter SummaryAnalysts evaluate systems requests on the basis of their expected costs and benefitsThe steps in the preliminary investigation are to understand the problem or opportunityReport results and recommendations to managementChapter 2 Complete49
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