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1 Chapter 2 Analyzing the Business Case. 2 Phase Description Systems planning is the 1 of 5 phases in the systems development life cycle (SDLC) Systems.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 2 Analyzing the Business Case. 2 Phase Description Systems planning is the 1 of 5 phases in the systems development life cycle (SDLC) Systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 2 Analyzing the Business Case

2 2 Phase Description Systems planning is the 1 of 5 phases in the systems development life cycle (SDLC) Systems planning is where IT projects get started and how a systems analyst evaluates a proposed project and determines its feasibility

3 3 Chapter Objectives Explain the concept of a business case and how a business case affects an IT project Describe the strategic planning process and why it is important to the IT team Explain the purpose of a mission statement Describe the SDLC, and explain how it serves as a framework for systems development and business modeling

4 4 Chapter Objectives List the reasons for information systems projects and the factors that affect such projects Explain the initial review of systems requests and the role of the systems review committee Define operational feasibility, technical feasibility, economic feasibility, and schedule feasibility

5 5 Chapter Objectives Describe the steps in a preliminary investigation and the end product of an investigation

6 6 Introduction The term business case refers to the reasons, or justification, for a proposal A strong business case suggests that the company should pursue the alternative, above other options, because it would be in the firm’s best interest to do so

7 7 Information Systems Projects Project Management Tools All IT projects must be managed and controlled Begins with a systems request, and continues until the project is completed or terminated Figure 2-11

8 8 Reasons for Systems Projects Other reasons: Government / customer compliance…

9 9 Drivers for Systems Projects User requests Management directive Legacy system - no longer supported IT department – stay up-to-date Economic demands Competition Customer Demand Suppliers

10 10 Evaluation of Systems Requests Systems Requests Forms Use a special form for systems requests A properly designed form streamlines the request process and ensures consistency Must be easy to understand and include clear instructions Should include enough space for all required information and should indicate what supporting documents are needed

11 11 Evaluation of Systems Requests Systems Review Committees Most large companies use a systems review committee to evaluate systems requests Many smaller companies rely on one person to evaluate system requests instead of a committee The goal is to evaluate the requests and set priorities

12 12 To do or not to do a project. 1 st – project to decide whether or not to pursue a project Decide if to do – ROI/feasibility Decide what to do Decide when to do Decide the approach Build in-house Buy turn-key Out-source to a contractor

13 13 Strategic Planning – if to do From Strategic Plans to Business Results A company develops a mission statement based on the firm’s purpose, vision, and values Figure 2-3

14 14 Overview of Feasibility – if to do Figure 2-13

15 15 Overview of Feasibility – if to do A systems request must pass several tests, called a feasibility study, to see whether it is worthwhile to proceed further Operational Feasibility A proposed system will be used effectively after it has been developed

16 16 Overview of Feasibility- if to do Technical Feasibility Refers to the technical resources needed Economic Feasibility Total cost of ownership (TCO) Tangible benefits Intangible benefits Schedule Feasibility Means that a project can be implemented in an acceptable time frame

17 17 Evaluating Feasibility – if to do The first step is to identify and weed out systems requests that are not feasible Even if the request is feasible, it might not be necessary Feasibility analysis is an ongoing task that must be performed throughout the systems development process

18 18 Strategic Planning – what to do Strategic Planning Overview SWOT Examines a companies strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats Figure 2-2

19 19 Setting Priorities – when to do Factors that Affect Priority Will the systems project result in more information or produce better results? How? Are the results measurable? Will the proposed system reduce costs? Where? When? How? How much? Will the system increase revenue for the company? Where? When? How? How much?

20 20 Setting Priorities – when to do Factors that Affect Priority Will the system serve customers better? Will the system serve the organization better? Can the project be implemented in a reasonable time period? How long will the results last? Are the necessary financial, human, and technical resources available?

21 21 Setting Priorities – when to do Factors that Affect Priority Whenever possible, the analyst should evaluate a proposed project based on tangible costs and benefits that represent actual (or approximate) dollar values

22 22 Project Charter Decision is made to proceed with a project, the project charter confirms and defines that decision. Set limits or scope Defines authority Set time limit Protects project manager by confirming CEO buy-in

23 23 Charter or contract Goal – objectives are steps for attaining the goal Recommended course of action – define what Scope – boundaries and configuration management Plan of Action and Milestones Roles and Responsibilities Success criteria Signatures

24 24 Preliminary Investigation Overview Interaction with Managers and Users Fact-Finding Figure 2-14

25 25 Preliminary Investigation Overview Planning the Preliminary Investigation A systems analyst typically follows a series of steps The exact procedure depends on the nature of the request, the size of the project and the degree of urgency

26 26 Preliminary Investigation Overview Step 1: Understand the Problem or Opportunity Determine which departments, users, and business processes are involved Understand how the project supports the mission statement

27 27 Preliminary Investigation Overview Step 2: Define the Project Scope and Constraints Project scope Project creep Constraint

28 28 Preliminary Investigation Overview Step 2: Define the Project Scope and Constraints Means to define the boundaries, or extent, of the project Being as specific as possible

29 29 Preliminary Investigation Overview Figure 2-18

30 30 Preliminary Investigation Overview Step 3: Perform Fact-Finding Fact-finding involves various techniques Depending on what information is needed to investigate the systems request, fact- finding might consume several hours, days, or weeks

31 31 Analyze Organization Charts

32 32 Preliminary Investigation Overview Step 3: Perform Fact-Finding Conduct interviews Figure 2-20

33 33 Preliminary Investigation Overview Step 3: Perform Fact-Finding Review documentation Observe operations Conduct a user survey

34 34 Preliminary Investigation Overview Step 4: Evaluate Feasibility Evaluate the project’s operational, technical, economic, and schedule feasibility

35 35 Preliminary Investigation Overview Step 5: Estimate Project Development Time and Cost What information must you obtain, and how will you gather and analyze the information? What sources of information will you use, and what difficulties will you encounter in obtaining information?

36 36 Preliminary Investigation Overview Step 5: Estimate Project Development Time and Cost Will you conduct interviews? How many people will you interview, and how much time will you need to meet with the people and summarize their responses? Will you conduct a survey? Who will be involved? How much time will it take people to complete it? How much time will it take to prepare it and tabulate the results?

37 37 Preliminary Investigation Overview Step 5: Estimate Project Development Time and Cost How much will it cost to analyze the information gathered and to prepare a report with findings and recommendations? You should provide an estimate for the overall project, so managers can understand the full cost impact and timetable

38 38 Preliminary Investigation Overview Step 6: Present Results and Recommendations to Management The final task in the preliminary investigation is to prepare a report to management The format of the preliminary investigation report varies from one company to another

39 39 Preliminary Investigation Overview Figure 2-21

40 40 Preliminary Investigation Overview Step 6: Present Results and Recommendations to Management Introduction Systems request summary Findings Recommendations Time & cost estimates Expected benefits Appendix

41 41 Chapter Summary Strategic planning allows a company to examine its purpose, vision, and values and develops a mission statement Systems projects are initiated to improve performance, provide more information, reduce costs, strengthen controls, or provide better service Various internal and external factors affect systems

42 42 Chapter Summary Analysts evaluate systems requests on the basis of their expected costs and benefits The steps in the preliminary investigation are to understand the problem or opportunity Report results and recommendations to management Chapter 2 Complete


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