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Z-phase, inaccurate data
Thermodynamics Cannot win, can only break even Cannot reach absolute zero Can only break even at absolute zero
Goal Increase as far as is possible, the maximum temperature in the cycle i.e. better materials & engineering
Taylor & Thornton, ALSTOM Power, Rugby
time = t time = t+∆t
Yamasaki & Bhadeshia, 2003
diffusion flux distance concentration c r c r 1 2 r 1 r 2 Coarsening
Time / s Mean radius / m 1/3 1/ Number density 10 m Fujita & Bhadeshia, 2000 Time / s
Time at 600 °C / h M_23C_6 size / µm 0W 1W 2W 4W Data from Abe, 1999 Fe-9Cr-W alloys
Tungsten / wt% Mole fraction of phase Laves phase M_23 C_6
Multicomponent coarsening Venugopalan & Kirkaldy, 1978
e e e e-19 Tungsten / wt% Effective diffusivity / m s multicomponent chromium alone 2 Coarsening accelerated by tungsten
distance concentration in ferrite Laves Multiphase coarsening ?
Cole & Bhadeshia, o C
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