Presentation on theme: "Drug appropriateness criteria: potential for indications creep Amy Lodolce, PharmD, BCPS Mike Koronkowski, PharmD."— Presentation transcript:
Drug appropriateness criteria: potential for indications creep Amy Lodolce, PharmD, BCPS Mike Koronkowski, PharmD
Learning Objectives Describe off-label drug use and populations where it is most prevalent Explain the key components of appropriate use criteria for drugs Judge the appropriateness of a given drug for an off-label use Justify whether or not the formulary should restrict drugs based on indications
Issues surrounding off-label prescribing Legality Prevalence Level of evidence Potential risks to patients Cost to healthcare system
How common is this? 21% (150 million) of 725 million prescriptions 73% (109 million) little or no scientific support 27% (41 million) strong scientific evidence Ann Intern Med 2006;166:1021-6.
Which patients? Children Patients with HIV Patients with psychiatric disorders Pregnant women Ann Intern Med 2006;166:1021-6.
Which drugs? Anticonvulsants (notably gabapentin) Antiasthmatic medications Cardiac drugs Antibiotics Ann Intern Med 2006;166:1021-6.
Examples Gabapentin Botulinum toxin type A (Botox)
Level of evidence Tertiary: Drugdex on Micromedex AHFS (the formulary service) Secondary: Medline Primary: Critically evaluate a trial
Potential harms Adverse drug reactions Potential for polypharmacy Cost to healthcare system
Role of the pharmacist As defined by ASHP: Patient advocate, drug info specialist Evaluate orders (policies and procedures) Proactive approaches to promote informed decisions by third-party payers (http://www.ashp.org/s_ashp/bin.asp?CID=1276&DID=5393&DOC=FILE.PDF)
Medication use policy Evaluate medications (MUE) formally and report to P&T committee P&T can restrict or limit use, but this is difficult for certain classes of drugs State of Illinois Department of Healthcare and Family Services criteria
Medication Use Evaluation MUE Goal – provide pts. with safe and effective drug therapy Accomplished through assessment and improvement of medication use process Focus can be single drug or therapeutic class OR component of medication use process/outcomes
Medication Use Evaluation Objectives of MUE Improve medication use process Reduce medication-related problems Reduce cost through appropriate use criteria Provide education to staff
Medication Use Evaluation Step 1 Form the committee Multidisciplinary Can be a sub-committee of P&T Assign responsibility
Medication Use Evaluation Step 2 Choose a topic Focus on high volume, high risk, problem-prone medications Can also focus on aspect of medication use process Overall, topics should be selected to cover the scope of the institution
Medication Use Evaluation Step 3 Develop criteria (methods) Standards that define performance expectations Phrase explicitly (yes/no) Evidence based Define outcomes Indicators
Medication Use Evaluation Steps 4 and 5 Develop data collection form User friendly Many boxes to check vs. free response Collect data Prospective Concurrent Retrospective
Medication Use Evaluation Step 6 Data analysis Step 7 Corrective action Education Guidelines/clinical pathway Restrictive approach