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After-School, Community Schools and Mentoring: Perspectives on Theory, Practice and Policy Jane Quinn Assistant Executive Director for Community Schools.

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Presentation on theme: "After-School, Community Schools and Mentoring: Perspectives on Theory, Practice and Policy Jane Quinn Assistant Executive Director for Community Schools."— Presentation transcript:

1 After-School, Community Schools and Mentoring: Perspectives on Theory, Practice and Policy Jane Quinn Assistant Executive Director for Community Schools The Children’s Aid Society

2 How Are They Connected? Strong theory under all three Share some of the same theory (especially resilience) All have good empirical studies that support their wider implementation All require quality implementation Secret ingredient = relationships

3 Key Delivery Differences Mentoring is generally offered on a one-to-one basis After-school is generally offered in small groups Community schools is generally offered on a school-wide basis

4 Mentoring: Some Perspectives Big Brothers Big Sisters program has the longest history (90+ years) and make-the-case research, conducted by Public/Private Ventures Other programs seek to learn from and emulate BBBS quality standards, which include volunteer recruitment, orientation, training and supervision

5 Mentoring: More Thoughts Variations on a theme include community-based and school-based programs Promising new results from P/PV study of school-based programs, using college and high school students as mentors to address volunteer recruitment challenges

6 Mentoring: Results to Date P/PV study (1995) found that mentored youth: Were less likely to start using drugs and alcohol Were less likely to hit someone Improved school attendance, performance and attitudes Improved peer and family relationships

7 Caveats from P/PV Study Did not show that mentoring as a generic idea is effective Quality implementation matters Dosage makes a difference (weekly, multi-hour meetings over a year) Did not show long-term effects Not cost-free

8 Other Lessons to Consider Marc Freedman warns about “fervor without infrastructure” Gary Walker (2000) warns that “its easy attractiveness belies the effort and structure that makes it work.” However…

9 Strong Support for Expansion Gary Walker notes: …”Mentoring is like finding a gusher or having invested in America Online at the beginning: we should applaud its success, and use it for all its worth. For mentoring is both a discrete program and a broader idea—that individual change and progress is fundamentally about having other individuals care, support, tend to and guide on a one-to-one basis. There is no substitute.”

10 Mentoring as a Broader Idea Mentoring can be incorporated into after-school and community school programs This approach is recommended by both Freedman, Walker and others Fully consistent with Positive Youth Development theory (adults, assets, agents)

11 Perspectives on After-School Amazing growth of a field over 15 years Equally amazing growth of knowledge base Theoretical studies—Reginald Clark, Chapin Hall, Carnegie Empirical studies on results—Vandell, Reisner, McLaughlin, Others

12 Quick Summary of Research Multiple benefits from young people’s participation in high quality programs Benefits include academic, social, emotional, physical, moral/character Dosage makes a difference Quality implementation makes a difference Importance of qualified staff

13 Other Key Ideas about AS Importance of voice and choice Voluntary participation Enrichment (exposure, experience, engagement) Don’t forget summer—think OST Twin pillars of quality—process (staff) and content (curricula)

14 National Movement 21 st Century CLC funding gave big boost ($1 M. to $1 B. over five years) After-School Alliance fostering national advocacy NIOST, NAA and Foundations fostering national excellence in practice (conferences, materials) C-BASS fostering systemic learning

15 Perspectives on Community Schools Three definitions: Coalition for Community Schools Cocktail party definition Developmental triangle

16 What is a Community School? A community school is both a place and a set of partnerships between the school and other community resources. Its integrated focus on academics, services, supports and opportunities leads to improved student learning, stronger families and healthier communities. (From Coalition for CS)

17 A Second Definition… A Community School is Characterized by: Extended Services Extended Hours Extended Relationships (“swinging door”)

18 Developmental Triangle core instructional program enrichment – educational & cultural removing barriers to learning & development health dental mental health social services

19 Several well-known models: Beacons Bridges to Success Children’s Aid Society Community Schools Communities in Schools Healthy Start Polk Brothers Full-Service Schools Schools of the 21 st Century (Yale) WEPIC (University of Pennsylvania)

20 Research Base Making the Most of Non- school Time Reginald Clark Milbrey McLaughin Deborah Vandell Enrichment & Developmental Domains Resiliency theory James Comer Parents’ Active Role Epstein & Henderson Epstein – middle school findings Coordinated Services Caring Adults in Child’s Life Fritz Ianni Jacquelyn Eccles

21 Key Ingredients of Many CS Education First Lead Agency as Partner, Not Tenant Full-Time Presence of Lead Agency Joint Planning (Particularly between Principal and CS Director) Integration of Partner Staff into Governance and Decision-Making Bodies (e.g., School Leadership Team)

22 Key Program Components After-School and Summer Enrichment Parent Involvement Adult Education Medical, Dental, Mental Health and Social Services Early Childhood Community and Economic Development

23 CCS Research Report ‘09 New report from Coalition for Community Schools summarizes latest research Key results include improved academic performance, improved attendance, higher graduation rates, improved behavior, positive youth development, greater parental involvement

24 National Movement National Coalition for Community Schools founded in 1998 21 st Century CLC program grows from $1 million to $1 billion over five years Rep. Steny Hoyer sponsoring full- service schools legislation Several cities/districts go “to scale” New Federal grants program (2008)

25 National Movement Part II ASCD Commission focuses on “whole child” Bolder, Broader Approach to Education statement supports CS components Community Agenda for America’s Public Schools gains 125 prominent endorsers AFT President Randi Weingarten speaks out in favor of Community Schools U.S. Secretary of Education publicly supports community schools in Education Daily (3/25) and on Charlie Rose Show (3/16)

26 Current Opportunities Arne Duncan to John Merrow: “If it’s good for kids, we’re going to do more of it…” New service funds can support expansion in all three arenas ARRA Innovations Fund and State Incentive grants also hold promise

27 In Conclusion… Great time to be working in this field One field or three? Importance of building on the best available knowledge Importance of identifying policy levers No substitute for quality implementation

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