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BIOGAS DEVELOPMENTS IN FINLAND Ari Lampinen Vice chairman Finnish Biogas Association BALTIC STATES.

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Presentation on theme: "BIOGAS DEVELOPMENTS IN FINLAND Ari Lampinen Vice chairman Finnish Biogas Association BALTIC STATES."— Presentation transcript:

1 BIOGAS DEVELOPMENTS IN FINLAND Ari Lampinen Vice chairman Finnish Biogas Association BALTIC STATES SEMINAR ON BIOENERGY Laulasmaa, Estonia 28 June 2007

2 Renewable energy in Finland Share of RE of TPES = 24,1 % (in 2006) Share of RE of TPES = 24,1 % (in 2006) Share of hydropower + industrial wood waste + domestic firewood = 23,4 % Share of hydropower + industrial wood waste + domestic firewood = 23,4 % Share of all other RE = 0,7 % Share of all other RE = 0,7 % Share of biogas = 0,1 % (0,97 PJ) Share of biogas = 0,1 % (0,97 PJ) Government biogas target 2025: 8 fold increase to 8 PJ (0,5 % of TPES)

3 Biogas potential in Finland Source: Lampinen & Jokinen (2006) Study on energy production potentials in Finnish farms, POTENTIAL OF WASTE BASED BIOGAS = 3 % of TPES (current use 3 % of the potential) POTENTIAL OF ENERGY CROP BASED BIOGAS ( / Mha) = 7 % of TPES (current use 0 % of the potential) Current biogas use 1 % of total potential

4 Biogas plants in Finland Source: Biogas plant register 2005 by Finnish Biogas Association and University of Joensuu, available at Amount of plants (and diffusion) Landfill gas plants: 33 (diffusion 100 % in active landfills, 0 % in old landfills) Landfill gas plants: 33 (diffusion 100 % in active landfills, 0 % in old landfills) Municipal wastewater treatment plants: 15 (3.6 % of 416 municipalities) Municipal wastewater treatment plants: 15 (3.6 % of 416 municipalities) Farm plants: 7 (0.01 % of farms) Farm plants: 7 (0.01 % of farms) Industrial wastewater treatment plants: 3 (< 1 %) Industrial wastewater treatment plants: 3 (< 1 %) Co-digestion plants: 4 Co-digestion plants: 4 TOTAL: 61 TOTAL: 61

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6 EU Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC) Finnish government Decision on landfills (861/1997) Finnish waste management Law (1072/1993)

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10 TRAFFIC 19 MWh TRAFFIC FUEL PRODUCTION STARTED

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13 The extent of waste at Ämmässuo landfill Total production 63.9 Mm 3 biogas = 32.6 Mm 3 methane = 100 million bus km = fuel for 1000 buses Total production 63.9 Mm 3 biogas = 32.6 Mm 3 methane = 100 million bus km = fuel for 1000 buses Flared 27.9 Mm 3 biogas = 14.2 Mm 3 methane = 43 million bus km = fuel for 430 buses = 140 % of Helsinki city bus fuel needs Flared 27.9 Mm 3 biogas = 14.2 Mm 3 methane = 43 million bus km = fuel for 430 buses = 140 % of Helsinki city bus fuel needs Not used in buses or waste trucks, not even in the existing fleet of over 70 methane buses (that use natural gas pipelined from Siberia) Not used in buses or waste trucks, not even in the existing fleet of over 70 methane buses (that use natural gas pipelined from Siberia)

14 Efficient use of energy and exergy of wastes at Kalmari farm Co-digestion of cattle dung, agricultural waste, kitchen waste, industrial waste and energy crops Co-digestion of cattle dung, agricultural waste, kitchen waste, industrial waste and energy crops Article of the farm: Refocus 5/2004, available at ScienceDirect and

15 Kalmari farm … Co-production of electricity, heat, traffic fuels and fertilizers (polygeneration, biorefinary) Co-production of electricity, heat, traffic fuels and fertilizers (polygeneration, biorefinary) Payback time a few years without subsidies Payback time a few years without subsidies Micro-CHP: 30 kWe + 60 kWt (modified Valtra tractor engine) Vehicle refueling facility

16 Priorities in Finland Current policy based on interests of government companies: A) Composting preferable biowaste management technology (losing energy content of the waste + losing energy and nutrients in the process) B) Biogas usage priorities: 1. Flaring 2. Heat only 3. Electricity + heat (CHP) 4. Traffic Policy based on environmental and economical considerations: A) Anaerobic digestion preferable biowaste management technology B) Biogas usage priorities: 1. Traffic 2. Electricity + heat (CHP) 3. Heat only 4. Flaring

17 CO 2 emissions in the EU Petri Tapio/TuKKK

18 Waste based biogas has the lowest lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of all traffic biofuels, incl. all the so called 2nd generation biofuels

19 CO 2 emissions: One Toyota Prius hybrid emits as much as 10 large biogas Volvos

20 Source: German Ministry of Agriculture

21 Biogas traffic use potential in EU15 Source: Lampinen et al (2004) biogas_potential.pdf Table 5. Amount of cars that could be powered by biogas from BMW, SS and agricultural waste in the EU-15. Source of biogas Amount of cars Biodegradable municipal solid waste 5.2 million 5.2 million Sewage sludge 0.8 million 0.8 million Agricultural waste 28 million TOTAL 34 million* 34 million*

22 Conclusions Large (100-fold) potential to increase biogas production Large (100-fold) potential to increase biogas production Main success landfills due to environmental legislation Main success landfills due to environmental legislation Very low diffusion of biogas technology in all other sectors, where legislation does not favour the biogas option Very low diffusion of biogas technology in all other sectors, where legislation does not favour the biogas option New EU waste directive, draft COM(2005)667, enables changes in this aspect; a proposal in Finnish is available at New EU waste directive, draft COM(2005)667, enables changes in this aspect; a proposal in Finnish is available at Most advanced technology available from Finland (BAT and BEP for dissemination to other countries) = farm scale polygeneration of traffic fuels, electricity, heat and fertilizers Most advanced technology available from Finland (BAT and BEP for dissemination to other countries) = farm scale polygeneration of traffic fuels, electricity, heat and fertilizers Also possible as Kyoto JI projects like the Paldiski/Pakri 18.4 MW wind farm: Also possible as Kyoto JI projects like the Paldiski/Pakri 18.4 MW wind farm:

23 Thank You! Author with his biogas car, one of only 7 biogas vehicles in Finland


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