Presentation on theme: "WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE RED RIVER BASIN."— Presentation transcript:
WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE RED RIVER BASIN
Purposes: Presenting concepts of integrated watershed management; integrated water resources management The status quo of water resources in Red River basin, challenges and research orientation
i. CONCEPTs OF RIVER BASIN MANAGEMENT and water resources River BASIN MANGEMENT strategy Resources managementEcosystem management Watershed management Water management Quality Quantity Sedimentation Tropic Pollution Flora Surface water Ground water Water distribution Environment flow
a. CONCEPT OF RIVER BASIN MANAGEMENT Integrated river basin management is a process that people develop and manage water, land and other resources to achieve the optimum efficiency in fair economy and society equally without sacrificing sustainability of ecosystems. GWP
OBJECTIVES OF RIVER BASIN MANAGEMENT Protecting functions of rivers and river basin Management and sustainable use of water resources in relationship among land, ecology and other resources. Limited degradation and maintain sustainable environment of river and river basin for the current and future generation. The concept of integrated water resources management: Integrated water resources management is a framework that is created for the planning, organizing and controlling water system in order to balance all the perspective and goal of those affected. Grig-1999
CONTENTS OF WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Water and related factors: 1. Integrated water source management sector: surface water, groundwater, estuaries and sea. 2. Integrated water use management: irrigation, power generation, industry, domestic and navigation. 3. Management both in terms of quantity and quality 4. Management in water supply and water demand 5. Management in water use in the relationship between land use and other ecological factors of the basin 6. Integrated water use management in the upstream and downstream
In terms of management 1. Combining economy, society and environment in water management 2. Unified management according to the administrative boundaries, coordination at all levels. 3. Integrated management of geographic, consider hydrological boundaries as base units, integrated protection to ensure the sustainable of renewable water resources. 4. Ensure benefits for all stakeholders, especially the water users through water rights and justice in water use
II.WATER RESOURCES OF RED – THAI BINH RIVER SYSTEM Total area is 169.020 km², in which the area of basin in Viet Nam is 86.720 km², accounting for 51%. Particularly of the Red River basin (to Son Tay) is 143,700 km². Thai Binh river basin is 12,680 km². In river delta are Tich river, Boi river is 12,640 km².The total flow of the Red River about 126 km3, in which the flow was born on the territory of China accounted for over 35%.
The Red River and Thai Binh River Basin is composed by the following watersheds: Thao River originate in China, the area of basin is 51,800 km², 843 km in length. Da river, also originate from the Nguy Son mountain. The area is 52.900 km2, in Viet Nam is 26.919 km2, accounting for 50,9% the basin. Lo river originate from Van Quy – China, enter Red River near Viet Tri, 464 km length, the area is 39.000 km2, the territory of Viet Nam is 22.630 km2, accounting for 58% the basin. Thai Binh river has the area of 12.680 km2, in which, Cau river accounting 6.030km2, Thuong river – 3.580km2, Luc Nam river – 3070 km2. The whole of Thai Binh river basin is located on the territory of Vietnam on low hills in the Northeast. Day river include Tich and Boi river, the catchment area of 2,800 km² flows from the Western low mountains to the West of the Red River Delta region, enter Day river as a part of the Red River basin.
The delta region has an area of 9840 km² with distributary system density including Duong, Luoc, Tra Ly, Dao Nam Dinh, Ninh Co, Kinh Thay, Kinh Mon, Van Uc river, etc. Duong river has 64 km length, Luoc river is 72 km, transfer water from Red river to Thai Binh river. Tra Ly river has 64 km length, distribution at the left bank of the Red River, flow to the sea Dao river has 31.5 km length, put water from Red river to Day river Ninh Co river has 51,8 kim in length, flow to the sea Kinh Thay river has 97 km length, put water from Thai Binh river to Cam and Da Bach river. Kinh Mon river has 42,3 km length, flow through distribution of Kinh Thay river, enter Cam river Van Uc has 71 km length, flow through distribution of Kinh Thay river to the sea
In Red River basin, surface water resources are plentiful with a the long-term mean annual flow at Son Tay is 118 billion m3, corresponding to the flow of 3740 m/s. If plus the Thai Binh river, Day river and other delta rivers, the total flow is about 135.3 million m3, of which 61% total flow (78.56 billion m3) was born on the territory of Vietnam. In the three tributaries, the Red- Da river has the largest flow, accounting for 39.8%, 17.4% Thao river and 23.4% of Lo river.
III. WATER DEMAND Water supply for irrigation Agriculture is the biggest water users in the Red River Delta. There are 27 large irrigation systems as Bac Hung Hai Bac Ha Nam, Kim Hai, etc and 3 systems in Quang Ninh province has guaranteed 75% irrigation water demand for spring rice, accounting for 767,800 ha of spring crop, 908,408 ha of winter crop and 2,000 ha of over-winter crop.. Water demand for whole the Red River Delta in the spring crop is 7,641 million m3 in 2012, and 7,860 million m3 in 2020. Water demand by 2020 tended to increase slightly over in the current period Water demand in January and February accounted for 50% of total water demand. Agricultural sector still is the largest percentage of the total water amount requested. The current period, agricultural sector accounted for 70% of total water demand and reduced to about 5% by 2020
- Water supply for industrial and urban area: The Red River Delta has 70 cities, communes and towns. The industrial park is mainly concentrated in big cities such as Hanoi, Hai Phong, Viet Tri, Thai Nguyen, etc. Water used for industrial and urban area is approximately 2,600 billion m3. - Water supply for hydropower: There are four large reservoirs - Hoa Binh reservoir: Installed generating capacity 1920 MW; Flow through an e-factory: 2400 m3/s; Reservoir capacity: 9862 million m3 - Son La reservoir: Installed generating capacity : 2400 MW; Flow through an e- factory : 2460 m3/s; Reservoir capacity: 9260 million m3 - Thac Ba reservoir: Installed generating capacity : 108 MW; Reservoir capacity: 2260. million m3 - Tuyen Quang: reservoir: Installed generating capacity : 342 MW; Flow through an e-factory: 750 m3/s; Reservoir capacity: 2940. million m3 - Besides that, there are many small and medium hydropower - ater supply for aquaculture: 682 million m3
IV. CHALLENGES 1. Drought In the Midlands and Mountains: drought-stressed area is 10,000 - 60,000ha and the total area of drought-damaged from 1,000 - 9,000 ha. Delta region: Drought usually occurs 2 or 3 years consecutively, the period of 9 to 10 years. The drought area is 30,000 - 140,000 hectares and lost area is 1,000 - 2,000 ha. 2. Salinity intrusion In recent year, salinity intrusion tend to encroach into the land : salinity intrusion in the Red river is encroached from 26 to 35km (1% ); Day river 35 – 40km, Tra Ly river 22 – 25km, Ninh Co river 30 – 37 km, Thai Binh river 27 – 36 km, etc.
3. Declining quality of water: On the large-irrigation system such as Bac Hung Hai of Nhue river, water quality declines seriously. On some river parts, the water quality do not ensure for irrigation. 4. Climate change: - The rainfall in rainy season (May - Oct) tends to increase from 5 to over 10%, the rainfall in dry season (Nov - Apr) decreases from 0 to 6%. The rainy season tends to end early, the rainwater goes down in comparison with average years, dry season will come earlier, the amount of water flows to reservoirs is less. According to the medium emissions scenario, spring rainfall (Mar-May) decreased 6% in the mid-21st century; summer rainfall increases approximately 6% and autumn increases 4% - Sea levels tend to increase in whole country about 2.8 mm/year. In the period of 1993-2010, sea level rose sharply, 4.7 mm / year. According to the medium emission scenarios, to the middle of the 21st century, sea level rise 24-27 cm.
5. The impact of reservoirs operation to water sources in downstream In addition to four large-reservoirs in the basin, there are 2,499 reservoirs, 5,813 spillways and 2,078 pump stations. Under the impact of storage–discharge of the reservoir, the minimum flow at the downstream gauging station upon the Red River in the dry season decreased rapidly: At the Son Tay gauging station in the period of reservoirs operation reaches 460m3/s, down 178m3/s compared to the period before 1988; Hanoi gauging station in the operation periods reaches 118m3/s, down 452 m3/s compared to the period before 1988; Thuong Cat gauging station in the operation periods reaches 103 m3/s, up 57 m3/s compared to the period before 1988.
6. Impact of constructions on the mainstream of China region at the branch stream and 18 dams in upstream of Da river, 8 factories in upstream of Lo - Gam river, 1 factory in upstream of Thao river and 29 dams in upstream of the Red river. Compare the largest and minimum flow occured in the dry season from January to March in Lai Chau gauging stations show that: In the years from 2005-2007 the gap was only from 120-340m3/s, but the gap in 2008-2009 period ranged from 400-770m3/s, in 2012 has the largest deviation from 700-1200 m3/s. The difference between the maximum and minimum daily flow tend to increase.
7. The trend for water flows is low river levels and distributary from Hong river to Duong river In 2004, the water level in Hanoi is 2.2 m corresponds to the average daily volume was 860 m3/s, but 2005-2010 period, to maintain this water level need to corresponding values are 920m3/s, 935m3/s, 1.130m3/s, 1.140m3/s, 1.280m3/s and 1.450m3/s. Increasing trend in distributary from Hong river to Duong river In 1957-1980 period, volume flow in Hanoi accounts for 80-88% and at Thuong Cat station uppon the Duong river accounts for 12- 20% of the total flow. In 1980-2000 period accounted for 20-30%. In 2001-2012 period, the rate of distributary to Duong river continues to rise, accounting for 30-45%.
V. RESEARCH ORIENTATION 1. Building law, bylaw documents, organization system to ensure unified management river basin and water resources 2. Investigating and using water resources suitably, combines certain benefits of water use in different sectors. 3. Using water-saving (rational land use, crops with high economic value, use less water; Application of water- saving irrigation technology, prevents water loss, etc). 4. Protecting water sources, against degradation due to pollution and depletion. Especially, mitigate pollution on the irrigation system and internal river; monitor salinity intrusion, etc
5. Building solutions to cope with climate change, sea level rise, especially in the coastal areas. 6. Preventing degradation of the rivers. 7. Application of science and technology in the management and operation of irrigation system.