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THE ROARING 20S Red Scare Palmer Raids Sacco & Vanzetti Nativism The Great Migration Immigration Eugenics.

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Presentation on theme: "THE ROARING 20S Red Scare Palmer Raids Sacco & Vanzetti Nativism The Great Migration Immigration Eugenics."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE ROARING 20S Red Scare Palmer Raids Sacco & Vanzetti Nativism The Great Migration Immigration Eugenics

2 OVERVIEW Americans entered a new age of prosperity in the “ Roaring Twenties ” Automobiles, telephones, and electricity made life more comfortable than ever before Americans focused on making $ and enjoying themselves Birth of new values

3 RED SCARE  Grab a piece of paper!  Goal: Form the LARGEST group without anyone having a “Red Dot”  You cannot show ANYONE your paper.  If your paper has a red dot, do not show or tell anyone about your red dot. If you can infiltrate a group, you will get the bonus points.  Largest group gets bonus points!!!

4 RED SCARE  How did you feel about the “Dot Game”?  Why did we do this silly game?

5 RED SCARE  End of WWI = many Americans fearing Communists, anarchists and immigrants  Russia was not prepared for WWI and in 1917 the Tsar was overthrown and a year later Communist Revolutionaries (led by Vladimir Lenin) seized power  Communism threatened to spread to other countries throughout Europe  A wave of strikes hit the United States in 1919… many feared this would start a Communist Revolution here.  This Red Scare created an atmosphere of panic throughout the country

6 PALMER RAIDS

7  January 1919: Italian anarchist set off a bomb at the house of Attorney General Mitchell Palmer  1 in a series of attacks that day (judges, politicians, and law enforcement officials in 8 American cities)  Nation demanded that action be taken  Palmer was convinced that there was a radical plot to overthrow the U.S. government was officially underway

8 PALMER RAIDS  January 1920: Palmer ordered the round up of 4,000 suspects in several cities without warrants  His assistant, J. Edgar Hoover, directed the raids  Palmer arrested men he accused of plotting to overthrow the government  Most were later released, but 600 were eventually deported

9 elchannel.com/ video/sacco- and-vanzetti- innocent ut.com/history19 00s/Sacco-and- Vanzetti.htm SACCO & VANZETTI

10  Italian Immigrants convicted of committing murder during a robbery  Allegedly committed to obtain funds for an anarchist revolution  Pressure for their release came from around the world  Many Americans feared they would look weak if the two were let go  Evidence at the time was insufficient and circumstantial  Both were found guilty and executed in 1927  Supporters of the Immigrants feled their conviction was due to their anarchist views- though the jury denied the accusation  Ballistics tests ran in 1961 – same gun that Sacco had on him

11 NATIVISM = A DISLIKE OF FOREIGNERS  Red Scare, anarchist bombings, and the Sacco & Vanzetti trial contributed to the rise of Nativism  Nativists believed white Protestant Americans were superior to other people  Led to new restrictions on immigration

12 RACISM  Migration of African Americans from the South to Northern cities also led to increased racial tensions after the war  The Ku Klux Klan (dead for decades) found new life in 1915  Klan members were hostile to immigrants, Catholics, Jews, and African Americans  Major race riots broke out just after the war  Worst riot occurred in Chicago (38 died)  Lynching and segregation continued in the South

13 THE GREAT MIGRATION   From 1910 – 1930 witnessed the movement of about 2 million African Americans out of the South to the “Promised Land” of the Northeast and Midwest  Searching for jobs in the nation’s growing industrial cities (wanted to escape sharecropping, tenant farming, and the deep racism of the South)  Northern jobs offered significantly higher wages than the South  Letters from those that had already gone North inspired an increased African-American migration

14 THE GREAT MIGRATION  Chicago Population = Doubled, Cleveland Population = x 3, Detroit = x 6  African Americans still faced racism, housing shortages, and crime in the North but they also found organizations such as the National Urban League and the NAACP (dedicated to helping them adjust to their new lives)  African Americans created cities within cities  Largest = Harlem (in upper Manhattan of New York City)  200,000 African Americans lived together in Harlem (one of the most vibrant communities of the 1920s)

15 IMMIGRATION  1910: Eastern & Southern Europeans made up 70% of all immigrants entering the United States  WWI caused immigration to be reduced to a trickle  Nativists feelings against immigrants led Congress to restrict immigration from Europe for the 1 st time  Many Americans saw the influx of immigrants without skills, education, or knowledge of English as a threat to the nation’s economic stability

16 IMMIGRATION  The Immigration Acts of 1921, 1924, & 1929 were designated to keep out immigrants from Southern & Eastern Europe  Established quotas for each separate nationality, based on America’s existing ethnic composition  New system: Great Britain, Ireland, and Germany were allowed the greatest number of immigrants, while the number of “New Immigrants” (from Eastern & Southern Europe) was severely limited  Asian Immigration was barred altogether

17 EUGENICS   A pseudo-scientific belief that the human race could be improved by breeding  Superior parents would have even better children  Many believed that light-skinned, blonde haired, blue eyed people were superior to others  Such feelings contributed to immigration restrictions  Led to forced sterilizations, segregation laws & marriage restrictions

18 CHARLES DAVENPORT  Leading proponent of Eugenics  Thought preventing the mentally ill from having children would sharply reduce mental illness in the United States  Davenport and other eugenicists also wanted to reduce immigration to the U.S. by what they saw as “inferior races” from Eastern & Southern Europe

19 SOCIAL DARWINISM  $ came from groups such as the Carnegie Institution & Rockefeller Foundation  Belief in Eugenics later spread from the U.S. to Germany  Eugenics was also closely tied to Social Darwinism  Social Darwinists believed that different human races competed for survival just as different plants and animals did in the natural world  Survival of the fittest


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