Presentation on theme: "Ground-probers Bill longer than typical insectivore, decurved, sharply pointed. Ground-probers typically have plain backs that match substrate. Mimidae:"— Presentation transcript:
Ground-probers Bill longer than typical insectivore, decurved, sharply pointed. Ground-probers typically have plain backs that match substrate. Mimidae: Toxostoma: 7 species Furnariidae: Upucerthia, Ochetorhynchus: 8 species Alaudidae: Alaemon: 2 species Upupidae: 1 species Two orders, at least 4 families; at least 18 species
Bark-probers Like Ground-probers, but back typically with some streaks. Toes and tail often show climbing adaptations, as in these specialized climbers. Dendrocolaptidae: woodcreepers ;ca. 50 species Certhiidae: 8 species
Bark-probers Like Ground-probers, but back typically with some streaks. This set of birds are not as specialized for climbing as the Dendrocolaptidae and Certhiidae – their toes have extra-dtrong and curved toenails, but their tails are not specilaized for bracing against a branch. Phoeniculidae: wood- hoopoes, 8 species Fringillidae: Hemignathus; ca. 4 species Paradisaeidae: Epimachus, 2 species Vangidae: Falculea, 1 species Two orders, at least 6 families; at least 70 species
Mud-probers Bill very long, typically rather blunt at tip. Legs long for wading. Ibidorhynchidae: Ibisbill, 1 species Scolopacidae:, ca. 85 species
Mud-probers Bill very long, typically rather blunt at tip. Legs long for wading. Rostratulidae: painted-snipes, 2 species Rallidae: ca. 50 species Threskiornithidae: 30 species Apterygidae: kiwis, 3 species Aramidae: Limpkin, 1 species Four orders, at least 7 families; at least 170 species
Flower-probers Philepittidae: Neodrepanis, 2 species Meliphagidae: honeyeaters, ca. 30 species Nectariniidae: sunbirds, ca. 125 species Fringillidae: Vestiaria, 1 species Although most flower- probers are brightly colored, some that are not territorial are dull – you won’t be tested on a dull one. 8 families, ca. 500 species
Flower-probers Thraupidae: Cyanerpes, Chlorophanes, 4 species Trochilidae: ca. 330 species Promeropidae: sugarbirds, 2 species Mohoidae: O’os, 5 species (Hawaii; extinct)
Fish-eaters – dagger shape Alcidae: murres and guillemots, 5 species Anhingidae: 3 species Podicipedidae: 20 species Gaviidae: 5 species The species in these 4 groups catch fish using underwater, mostly by pursuit.
Fish-eaters – dagger shape Ardeidae: 65 species Alcedinidae: ca. 25 species Ciconiidae: ca. 15 species Phaethontidae: tropicbirds, 3 species Laridae: terns, ca. 40 species Herons and storks ambush fish by stalking from shore; kingfishers dive-bomb them from perches (although a couple of species also do it while hovering in flight). Terns and tropicbirds dive-bomb fish from the air. Note: there are a number of fish-eaters that you will not be tested on that have bills that are basically dagger-shaped but are slightly decurved at the tip, but not really hooked: boobies, gannets, some storks, some terns, some penguins. Most kingfishers don’t eat fish but instead are landbirds that eat large insect and small vertebrates; these species are all in the Afrotropics, Indomalayan, and Australasian (e.g., Kookabura) regions, and their bills differ subtly from those of fish-eating kingfishers. 8 orders, 9 families, ca. 180 species
Fish-eaters – hooked Anatidae: mergansers, 5 species Phalacrocoracidae: 36 species Fregatidae: 5 species Procellariidae: ca. 20 speciesDiomedeidae: albatrosses, 15 species 3 orders, 4 families, ca. 80 species
Bark-drillers Picidae: 210 species Although they don’t drill bark the way woodpeckers do, note that there are several other groups that have similar bill shapes for pecking at hard substrates, e.g., nuthatches (Sittidae) and turnstones (Arenaria). Bark-driller bills superficially look like dagger-shaped fish-eating bills, but in cross-section they are diamond-shaped, not laterally compressed (like a knife blade), and are often blunt at the tip.