Presentation on theme: "Paraprofessional Support START-MMAN Universal Supports Team Process Para-professional Support Functional Communication Systems Visual Supports Educational."— Presentation transcript:
Universal Supports Team Process Para-professional Support Functional Communication Systems Visual Supports Educational Strategies and Supports Peer Supports Behavior Support Parent and Family Support Guiding Principles
Paraprofessionals in the Classroom Are trained, caring adults who support students individually or in small groups Participate in regularly-scheduled team planning meetings
PARAPROFESSIONAL SUPPORT Having a paraprofessional automatically assigned to a student simply because of eligibility is not a universal support Considering the need for a paraprofessional is a universal support
Goals for students with ASD: Socialization skill development Independent functioning Paraprofessionals are only assigned when the student needs direct support for: Academics Behavior Social Interaction
Advantages of Having a Para-Pro Assigned to a Student Opportunities for increased learning Assist students in learning systems which can be self-sustaining/self-supporting For example, using a visual schedule rather than prompting Increase in communication between school and families
Disadvantages of Having a Para-Pro Assigned to a Student Interference with peer relations Creates dependency Integrity of daily communication Meeting the needs of families and staff can be a challenge Often times one person is communicating for the entire team (ex. daily notebook) The information given doesn’t always match the information requested
Typical ROLES for Paraprofessionals: 1. Support the student in interacting effectively with the environment 2. Provide additional learning opportunities 3. Foster the use of learning systems or tools that allow for independence and optimal participation in the school environment
Typical ROLES for a Paraprofessional: 1. Support the student in interacting effectively with the environment: Interpret Environmental / Educational Expectations Assist in Material and Desk Top Organization Implement Academic Accommodations / Modifications Support Student Output Support /Facilitate Socialization Support/Facilitate Communication
Highlight steps for doing Read Naturally program independently Color-coding matches color on supplies needed for each step Interpret Educational Expectations
Interpret Environmental Expectations Sometimes I want to eat other peoples food. My friends DO NOT like it if I take food off their lunch tray. I will only eat food on my lunch tray. Social Story Videotape students not taking food from each other DO NOT eat other people’s food Small Cue Card
Support Communication Utilizing a communication system Stand 18 inches away from the person with which you are talking. You can ask things like: “Did you go to watch the game last night?” “How was lunch?” (or class) “Have you seen the movie _____?” “What is your favorite band?” Example of a cue card
2. Provide additional learning opportunities: Pre-teach or re-teach skills and concepts needed for success Prompt appropriate behavior / work completion, etc. Run Behavior Intervention Plan if one has been developed by the team Ex. Token system Typical ROLES for a Paraprofessional:
Re-teach concepts student didn’t “get” Break down tasks into manageable “chunks” Pre-teach or re-teach concepts
3. Foster the use of learning systems or tools that allow for independence and optimal participation in the school environment: Visual Schedules Visual Prompts Set Up and Support Peer Interaction Typical ROLES for a Paraprofessional:
Foster independent use of visuals Small cue card hooks on belt-loop Three-ring binder with Velcro schedule Daily schedule with expectations
Mrs. O. takes us to lunch. I like it when she stays with me during lunch. Mrs. O. will stay with me for 5 minutes each day. When the timer says 5 minutes is up, I will say good-bye to Mrs. O. and she will go somewhere else to eat her lunch. I might be sad but I will try to stay calm and eat my lunch. I will see Mrs. O again after lunch. Everybody Makes Mistakes! When you make a mistake: Say to yourself, “Everyone makes mistakes. This is OK.” Think about ways you can fix the problem. Ask friends or adults for help if you need it. Social Stories and Power Cards
“If you’ve told a child a thousand times and he still does not understand, then it is not the child who is a slow learner.” Attributed to Walter Barbee
1. Define target behavior Define the behavior to be prompted.
2. Identify suitable prompts Choose a prompt that will reliably produce this behavior.
3. Implement Sequence Prompt Wait Wait, wait, wait – a minimum of 10 seconds Reinforce Fade
4. Monitor results This is essential to know you are progressing satisfactorily. Collect data Chart/graph progress
Type of PromptDescriptionExample Full Physical Assistance (Full), also known as Hand-Over-Hand or HOH Child requires physical assistance to complete a task. The Para will "hand- over-hand" the child to ensure a correct response. When teaching the child to hand in a paper, the Para will take the child’s hand and guide them to pick it up, and navigate them to the bin. Partial Physical Assistance (Part)Child requires partial physical assistance to complete a task. When teaching the child to hand in the paper, the Para guides the child’s hand to the paper by the elbow, in order to gently ‘nudge’ the child into executing the skill correctly, and then assists them in the same manor to the bin. Full Model (FM)Para models what the desired response of the child is. When teaching the receptive instruction "put your paper in the bin” the Para demonstrates so while he/she is telling the child what they are doing. Partial Model (PM)Para models only part of the response that is desired from the child. When teaching the receptive instruction the mediator may point to the areas or direct the child to the desired bin rather than actually going through all motions. Full Verbal Model (FVM)Para verbally models what the desired response of the child is. When teaching the expressive label "put your paper away" the Para asks, "What do you need to do? Put your paper in the bin." Partial Verbal Model (PVM)Para verbally models only part of the desired response of the child. When teaching the expressive label the Para asks, "What do you need to do? Gesture (G)Para makes some kind of gesture to prompt the desired response of the child. Similar to “partial model” but only involves a gesture. PositionalPara places a stimulus in a particular location. When teaching the receptive label the Para places the paper, or a picture of the bin next to the child to direct him/her what is next. EnvironmentalArrangements of the physical environment that induce the desired behavior. An example of this might be a communication board or a PECS binder.
Keep in Mind… Verbal prompts can easily become a habit. Easy to give. Less verbal prompting allows students time to give their own responses. Remember: Wait, wait, wait!
Helpful Tools: Paraprofessional Role Development Name: _________________________________________________Date: ______________________________ Student ScheduleStudent Goal / OutcomeParaprofessional Role / Responsibilities / Strategies
Helpful Tools: Accommodations and Modifications Accommodation: Supports and services provided to help a student access the general education curriculum and validly demonstrate learning. AccommodationsDescriptionStudent Specific Plan TimeAdapt the time allotted and allowed for learning, task completion, or testing. Level of SupportIncrease the amount of personal assistance. InputAdapt the way instruction is delivered. OutputAdapt how the student can respond to the instruction. Reduced Response Effort Reduce complexity of the task (ex. dictate responses rather than write) ParticipationAdapt the extent to which a learner is actively involved in the task
Helpful Tools: Accommodations and Modifications Modification: Individualized changes made to the content being taught ModificationDescriptionStudent Specific Plan SizeAdapt the number of items the learner is expected to master. DifficultyAdapt the skill level, problem type, or rules on how the learner can approach the work. Alternate GoalsAdapt the goals or output expectations. Supplemental Curriculum Provide different instructional materials to meet the student’s specific goals.
Where to go for help… General Education Teacher – Can tell you the educational priorities of each lesson and provide direction regarding your role. Special Education Teacher – Can help you with accommodations and modifications to the curriculum. Teacher Consultant – Can help you with resources, as well as additional training, and information about accommodations and modifications. Itinerant Service Providers (Speech Pathologist, Occupational Therapist, Social Workers, etc.) – Can help with specific communication, motor/sensory or behavior issues Principal – Can help with scheduling and behavior issues.
Solve problems Teach Love kids Keep track of schedules Fix Boo-Boo’s Give Ideas Help kids make friends Teach Make activities Go on fieldtrips Read to children Keep families informed Keep learning themselves Teach Make adaptations for students Correct papers Help kids meet IEP goals and objectives Care for sick kids Attend meetings Teach Wipe noses Listen to lame jokes Teach Clean up messes Smile when they’re tired Give suggestions Teach Pitch in when help is needed Foster independence Make phone calls Supervise playgrounds and bus areas Zip coats Find lost items Teach Lend a helping hand Come to school each day because they care