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Unpaid vs. Paid Work-Integrated- Learning: A Research Approach Presented by members of the CAFCE Research Committee: Ms. Judene Pretti, University of Waterloo.

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Presentation on theme: "Unpaid vs. Paid Work-Integrated- Learning: A Research Approach Presented by members of the CAFCE Research Committee: Ms. Judene Pretti, University of Waterloo."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unpaid vs. Paid Work-Integrated- Learning: A Research Approach Presented by members of the CAFCE Research Committee: Ms. Judene Pretti, University of Waterloo Ms. Christine Arsenault, University of Toronto Scarborough Dr. Rocco Fondacaro, University of Waterloo

2 Agenda Canadian Context Why look at paid vs. unpaid WIL? Factors affecting WIL compensation Current Research Gaps in Research Moving Forward

3 Canadian Context CAFCE Research Committee Mandate Co-op is dominate form of WIL Co-op defined Accreditation

4 Why look at paid vs unpaid WIL? In the news… Attention of policy makers Employment access: “[an unpaid internship] cuts out people who can’t afford to do unpaid internships; it can [favour] people based on their socioeconomic class. It erodes any notion of meritocracy. – Andrew Langille, Employment Lawyer Other reasons??

5 Factors Affecting WIL Compensation Remuneration Supply & Demand Industry Learning Outcomes Cultural Norms

6 What Literature Exists Very little on compensation as issue in WIL Many examine legal aspects Gardner, P. (2012). Other compensation related themes include: Quality of the work experience Learning impacts Access to WIL and Employment Prospects Areas are not mutually exclusive

7 A Word on Methodology: Paid vs. unpaid normally not primary issue of research When compensation is primary topic, types of WIL studied often excludes “co-op” model – Co-op requires pay, may skew results Findings primarily from survey data Majority of research from U.S.

8 What the Research Says: Paid internship/co-op employment affects: Realism and authenticity Employer/employee relationship Substantive work Accountability and evaluation Sanctions for Performance (Termination) Corporate competitive advantage

9 What the Research Says: Overall… Evidence on Paid vs. unpaid and the perceived quality of experiences is minimal and equivocal Gardner, P. (2011) Chatzsky, J., & McGrath, M., -- Summary NACE 2011 (2011) Paid or unpaid – both provide balance during student life, sense of community, connectedness Billett, S. & Ovens, C. (2007). Bounous, R. M. (1986).

10 What the Research Says: Overall… Employers who intend to hire students later provide higher quality experiences Paid interns/co-ops more likely to be hired post work terms Bailey, Hughes and Barr, (2000) More meaningful work for paid co-ops/interns – Paid do more professional work, unpaid do more clerical work Chatzsky, J., & McGrath, M. (2011, November 28 )

11 What the Research Says: Overall… 63.1 % of paid interns received at least one job offer, while only 37 % of unpaid interns received a job offer % with no internship received at least one job offer. $51,930 is median starting salary new grads with paid internship $35,721 is median salary for those with unpaid internship $37,087 is median salary for new grads with no internship NACE 2013 Student Survey (2013) responses from college students, 9215 earning bachelor degrees

12 What the Research Says: Overall… 51.3% of students not paid for their internship experience – up 3.6% from previous year 64.1% of students need second jobs when doing unpaid internship continued decline in paid opportunities working against companies’ long-term recruitment efforts and branding efforts Legal challenges to continue to increase, creating potential liabilities for companies who employ unpaid interns. Intern Bridge, National Internship Salary Survey (2012) students at 150 universities

13 What the Research Says: Overall Nearly half (49%) of unpaid in private sector Couture & Attfield (2014) More in Unpaid – Women; students with family incomes < $80K; Education, social sciences, health sciences, arts & humanities, communications major More in Paid – Engineering, computer & science majors Highest income students (>$120k) more likely in both paid and unpaid internships Gardner, P. (2011)

14 What the Research Says: Employer views… paid work Attracts better students, and can expect more of them Hurst, J. L. & Good, L. K. (2010) Exposure to demands, capacities and commitments required for working life beyond school – punctuality, working with others, time and personal management – working with others, imposition of sanctions (termination) – Claimed to be the most valued capacities for the workplace Billett, S. & Ovens, C. (2007) Employers have more positive views about paid interns – better attendance, reliability, attitudes – Why? …pay incents better performance, or more selective in hiring Bailey, Hughes and Barr, (2000)

15 What the Research Says: Student view… paid work Interns more satisfied with work experience – But unpaid interns are “not unsatisfied” Beebe, A., Blaylock, A. & Sweetser, K. D. (2009 ). – “I felt more like an ‘engineer’ when I was getting paid to do engineering work” Bounous, R. M. (1986). Qualifications needed to get better job and pay What I don’t want to do… for a living What I do want to do.. but not is this industry or job Billett, S. & Ovens, C. (2007) Priorities… “work for pay comes first, internship or career enhancement comes second, and school work comes last” Gardner, P. (2011)

16 Research Gaps: Replication of existing research Paid vs. unpaid… On quality of work experience On type of work given students On how seriously employers view the experience On how seriously students view the experience On attainment of learning outcomes Gardner, P. (2012) In the Canadian context

17 Moving Forward More definition among WIL models Understanding and engagement by stakeholders Legal, ethical, and policy evolution New and Emerging forms of WIL Changing face of work force… e.g., entrepreneurial Alternative forms of remuneration

18 Moving Forward Sattler, P. & Peters, J (2012). Work-Integrated Learning and Postsecondary Graduates: The Perspective of Ontario Employers. Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario.

19 Moving Forward …unpaid at uW Minimizing absolute number of unpaid opportunities – Active management of unpaid; Discussions with employers; Alternative remuneration

20 Questions?

21 Unpaid/Paid Reference List “In the News”: Literature/Research Articles: Bailey, T., Hughes, K. & Barr, T. (2000). Achieving scale and quality in school-to-work internships: Findings from two employer surveys. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 22(1), 41–64. SAGE Publications. Beebe, A., Blaylock, A. & Sweetser, K. D. (2009). Job satisfaction in public relations internships. Public Relations Review, 35(2), 156–158. Elsevier. Billett, S. & Ovens, C. (2007). Learning about work, working life and post-school options: guiding students’ reflections on paid part-time work. Journal of Education and Work, 20(2), 75–90. Taylor & Francis. Bounous, R. M. (1986). Experiential learning programs: An organizational schema. Journal of Career Development, 13(1), 61–67. Springer. Chatzsky, J., & McGrath, M. (2011, November 28). The great American internship swindle. Newsweek, p. 22. Retrieved from: Gardner, P. (2011). The debate over unpaid college internships. Intern Bridge. Gardner, P. (2012). Reaction on Campus to the Unpaid Internship Controversy. Intern Bridge. Hurst, J. L. & Good, L. K. (2010). A 20-year evolution of internships: Implications for retail interns, employers and educators. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 20(1), 175–186. Taylor & Francis. InternBridge (2012) Internship Salary Report. National Association of Colleges and Employers (2013), The Class of 2013 Student Survey Report. Sattler, P. & Peters, J (2012). Work-Integrated Learning and Postsecondary Graduates: The Perspective of Ontario Employers. Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario.


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