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TIME USE AND GENDER INEQUALITY IN KOREA: DIFFERENCES IN PAID, UNPAID AND NON-PRODUCTIVE ACTIVITIES Mi Young An Kookmin University International Seminar.

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Presentation on theme: "TIME USE AND GENDER INEQUALITY IN KOREA: DIFFERENCES IN PAID, UNPAID AND NON-PRODUCTIVE ACTIVITIES Mi Young An Kookmin University International Seminar."— Presentation transcript:

1 TIME USE AND GENDER INEQUALITY IN KOREA: DIFFERENCES IN PAID, UNPAID AND NON-PRODUCTIVE ACTIVITIES Mi Young An Kookmin University International Seminar on Gender Statistics Incheon, Republic of Korea November 2013

2 Demographic, social-economic changes

3 Changes in living arrangements One generation TwoThree & fourTotal Table 1. Distribution of households by number of generations in Korea (%)

4 Continued OneTwoThree/fourFive & overAverage Household Size Table 2. Distribution of households by number of household members in Korea (%)

5 Defining paid and unpaid work  Definitions for paid and unpaid work informed by the System of National Accounts (SNA). The SNA has established rules that countries must use in calculating Gross Domestic Product (GDP). More specifically, only those activities that fall within the production boundary of the SNA should be included when calculating GDP. This production boundary includes all production of goods and services for the market as well as the production of goods for personal consumption. As such, the boundary includes subsistence production, unpaid work in the family business, and even the collection of fuel and water. The SNA recognizes that the production boundary does not cover all forms of work or production. In particular, the boundary excludes unpaid production of services, which is normally referred to as household maintenance and family care.  Paid Work(SNA work): All activities classified under the employment category, including time spent for work-related travel.  Unpaid Care Work (extended SNA work): All activities related to household maintenance, family care, and voluntary service (e.g., help for others in the community). In addition, family care and help for others in the community has been combined into “personal care”. Therefore, extended SNA work includes household maintenance and personal care.  Non-productive work: All other activities

6 Identification of key determinants of time spent on care Coef.Std.ErrtP>t Male Married Employed Childed LowEd HighEd Age Age squared Constant Table 3. Regression outputs on duration of time spent on unpaid care work, 1999, 2004

7 Continued Coef.Std.ErrtP>t Male Married Employed Childed LowEd HighEd Age Age squared Constant Table 4. Regression outputs on duration of time spent on person care, 1999, 2004

8 Time spent on paid work and unpaid care work Table 5. Time on Paid and Unpaid Care Work by sex (%), 1999 and MPTPRMPTPR MaleSNA work Household maintenance Person care FemaleSNA work Household maintenance Person care340339

9 Continued Table 6. Time on Paid and Unpaid Care Work by Sex and Age Group (%), 1999 and MPTPRMPTPR Male SNA work0.10 Household maintenance Person care SNA work Household maintenance Person care SNA work Household maintenance Person care Female SNA work Household maintenance Person care SNA work Household maintenance Person care SNA work Household maintenance Person care1211

10 Continued Table 7. Time on Paid and Unpaid Care Work by Sex and Education (%), 1999 and MPTPRMPTPR Male Low SNA work Household maintenance2542 Person care1141 Middle SNA work Household maintenance Person care High SNA work Household maintenance Person care Female Low SNA work Household maintenance Person care2251 Middle SNA work Household maintenance Person care High SNA work Household maintenance Person care552551

11 Continued Table 8. Time on Paid and Unpaid Care Work by Sex and Marital Status (%), 1999 and MPTPRMPTPR Male Single SNA work Household maintenance Person care Married SNA work Household maintenance Person care Divorced/ Widowed SNA work Household maintenance Person care1141 Female Single SNA work Household maintenance Person care Married SNA work Household maintenance Person care Divorced/ Widowed SNA work Household maintenance Person care125123

12 Continued Table 9. Time on Paid and Unpaid Care Work by Sex and Children Status (%), 1999 and MPTPRMPTPR Male With preschool children SNA work Household maintenance Person care Without preschool children SNA work Household maintenance Person care19111 Female With preschool children SNA work Household maintenance Person care Without preschool children SNA work Household maintenance Person care128129

13 Continued Table 10. Time on Paid and Unpaid Care Work by Sex and Work Status (%), 1999 and MPTPRMPTPR Male Working SNA work Household maintenance Person care Not Working SNA work1718 Household maintenance2382 Person care Female Working SNA work Household maintenance Person care Not Working SNA work1516 Household maintenance Person care4424

14 Continued Table 11. Time on Work and Care by Household Type (%), 1999 and SNA Work Household maintenance Person care SNA Work Household maintenance Person care Male Ch+Ad Ch+Ad+O ld Ad Ad+Old Old Ch+Old Female Ch+Ad Ch+Ad+O ld Ad Ad+Old Old Ch+Old

15 Valuation and comparison of unpaid care work Table 12. Unpaid Care Work and Person Care as Percentage of GDP: Different Approaches Unpaid care workPerson care MaleFemaleTotalMaleFemaleTotal Average earnings for all employed Average waged of all employees Average generalist wage Average domestic worker wage

16 Continued Table 13. Total Value of Unpaid Care Work and Person by Year (Thousand Million Won): Different Approaches Unpaid care workPerson care MaleFemaleTotalMaleFemaleTotal Average earnings for all employed 46,530183,659225,12518,68443,24059,335 Average waged of all employees 41,297185,944222,68516,58343,77758,692 Average generalist wage--138, ,395 Average domestic worker wage --144, ,180

17 Thank you very much


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