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Estadísticas de género sobre trabajo remunerado y no remunerado: Los desafíos para la OIT Sophia Lawrence ILO Department of Statistics

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Presentation on theme: "Estadísticas de género sobre trabajo remunerado y no remunerado: Los desafíos para la OIT Sophia Lawrence ILO Department of Statistics"— Presentation transcript:

1 Estadísticas de género sobre trabajo remunerado y no remunerado: Los desafíos para la OIT Sophia Lawrence ILO Department of Statistics

2 Times have changed… Pilar P.de Rivera, 1942: – “Las mujeres nunca descubren nada; les falta, desde luego, el talento creador, reservado por Dios para inteligencias varoniles...” Beijing Platform for Action 1995: – “ Women contribute to development not only through remunerated work but also through a great deal of unremunerated work.” 2 ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, October 2009

3 Gender roles change Sex: BIOLOGICAL differences do not change Gender: SOCIAL differences do change GENDER ROLES: roles assigned to men and women in a SOCIETY as « male » and « female » – Specificities of different groups – Dominant cultures, minorities, indigenous, racial, etc. 3

4 Conventional sex divisions Male and female roles and expectations – Affect women’s as well as men’s potentials and possibilities Must measure extent and differences – Create burdens for women, and also narrow men’s experience; cultural, social sciences, human service – Power-oriented masculinities --> associated with ethnocentrism, cultural rejection, inflexible barriers to change 4 ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, October 2009

5 ILO DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS Meaningful labour statistics Should reflect current reality In practice, they simplify it – Objectives, measurement methods They identify core situations, results in: – Partial coverage – Insufficient detail – Incomplete analytical topics

6 6 ILO Estimates An Indicator only shows partial reality MDG Indicator 3.2 Share of women’s wage employment, non-agricultural sector CIS (Europe) CIS (Asia) Developed Latin America & Caribbean Eastern Asia Oceania South-East Asia Sub-Saharan Africa Southern Asia Western Asia Northern Africa World

7 Status in employment reality Distribution of total employment by status in employment, developing regions 1997 and 2008, by sex (Percentage) %20%40%60%80%100% Men Women Men Women Wage and salaried workersEmployers Own-account workersContributing family workers

8 Fully “engendered” labour statistics International Conference of Labour Statisticians, 2003: Checklist of good practices for mainstreaming gender in labour statistics Aims to address gender concerns, to better understand how men and women contribute to labour market functioning ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, October

9 Gender analysis for labour statistics WOMENMEN DIVISION OF LABOUR combine employment with unpaid household service work mainly economic activities active in non-market activities and informal sector; carry out multiple activities, seasonal work mostly active in market activities; full-time work, may have a secondary job occupy general occupations with more routine and/or multiple, non-specific tasks specific tasks in occupations with less routine work work closer to home: for pay in the house, e.g., as homeworkers, or for family profit in a family enterprise work for pay or profit outside of the house RESOURCES AND BENEFITS activities are less rewarded or not rewarded at all and have lower status activities are better rewarded and have higher status access to different types of resources and less control over resources and benefits more control over resources and benefits NEEDS AND CON- STRAINTS participation in the labour force is constrained by marriage and presence of children and other persons requiring care labour force participation boosted by marriage and presence of children tend to be seen as housewives and dependents tend to be seen predominantly as breadwinners

10 Important gender role of men, boys Socialization and education process related to: – The workplace and the economy – Household (domestic) work and work/life balance – Sexuality, health, HIV/AIDS – Gender-based violence – Masculinities Male attitudes, aspirations, anxieties 10 ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, October 2009

11 Gender justice Intrinsic and instrumental value Increased gender justice in households, labour markets, society Increased women’s labor force participation, productivity and earnings Improved children’s, elder’s and other dependents’ well- being Future poverty reduction and economic growth Current poverty reduction and economic growth Differential savings rate Women have better education and health Mothers’ greater control over decision-making in households, Fathers‘ greater share in family life Better family health, educational attainment; greater adult productivity Income / consumption expenditure Men co-responsible for household tasks, women have better access to markets

12 18th ICLS: Important breakthrough for gender and labour statistics * New international standards of Working Time and of Child Labour (2008) Recommends SNA recognize that, to portray the world of work adequately: – All paid and unpaid work activities, and the relationships between them, need to be acknowledged, quantified and understood * International Labour Conference, 98th Session, ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, October 2009

13 SNA scope of new standards PRINCIPLE of “production of all goods and services” time spent and performed by all, young and old Within SNA Production boundary Employment, labour input for national production accounts, GDP measures Beyond SNA General Production boundary Enlarged measures, in “unpaid household service + volunteer work” 13

14 ILO DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS SNA PRODUCTION PERSPECTIVE Things with economic value… A way of counting money, but not human and environmental cost, not unpaid work, not time, not health or happiness Things without economic value…  Trees when cut down  Tobacco, Arms, Missile industry  Crime, Prostitution  Illness, clinics, hospitals  Death, War  Women's bodies for advertising  Rivers, forests (when not harnessed for economic gain)  Good health, mother’s milk  Protecting the earth  Giving birth, Beauty (except art for sale)  Doing own dishes, laundry Based on Waring,1988

15 Measurement of Working Time Resolution Context: Where --> location – lab., office, shop, home; fields, street, construction site With whom --> co-workers, family members, dependents… For what purpose --> pay, self, family, fun 15 ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, October 2009

16 Hours actually worked Key Concept: Time spent on tasks + duties necessary to enable, facilitate or enhance productive activity of a job – Waiting, standing-by, transporting goods and household members – Short rest breaks (not lunch) – Work at home, attending meetings, travel for work – Professional training for economic unit 16

17 ILO DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS 17 Concept also defines  Hours actually worked in “Unpaid household service and volunteer work”  Typical productive activities: – Household accounts, management – Prepare meals, Care for household members – Maintain house, grounds, clothes, equipment – Purchase or transport goods or persons – Travelling, waiting for persons in one’s charge – Training for household jobs

18 ”Unpaid vs Paid Work” Clarify the terms Unpaid work as “contributing family member” in family enterprise (E) Unpaid subsistence production in rural areas (E or I) Unpaid care work within the family (I) Unpaid work with the public health-care sector (I), etc. 18 ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, October 2009

19 Paid work - optimistic view Procures: Own resources Increased autonomy Bargaining power... But most jobs created are not: Secure – Casual, temporary, contract or precarious work – Seasonal migrants, home workers, etc. 19 ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, October 2009

20 Allocation of time, not money In the household as women’s market working time increases Non-market work has not declined commensurately Participation in paid employment is purchased often at the expense of: – time once devoted to personal care, sleep, leisure Many women work ‘‘second shift’’ or ‘‘double day’’ 20 ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, October 2009

21 Challenges go beyond paid/unpaid Existing gender inequalities repeated, reinforced Women’s paid jobs concentrated: – in lower segments of supply chains Global production systems in current financial downturn Must demonstrate significance of gender justice for economic + social development 21 ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, October 2009

22 Future work Working to identify how to incorporate employment and unpaid household service work and volunteer work in: – Statistical measurements – Indicators – Economic modelling – Impact assessment tools, etc 22 ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, October 2009

23 ILO decent work concept Encompasses all forms of work, all who perform work: – Young and old, women and men Work includes unpaid work in the family and in the community Economic productivity is subsidized by social productivity – Unpaid (mainly) female household service work, done often alongside paid work 23 ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, October 2009

24 Many dimensions of decent work A. Employment Opportunities B. Adequate Earnings, Productive Work C. Decent Working Time » D. Work that should be Abolished » E. Work Stability and Security » F. Equal Opportunity and Treatment in All Work G. Social Security H. Social Dialogue, Worker-Employer Representation I. Economic and social context 24 ILO Department of Statistics, Aguascalientes, October 2009

25 New Challenges: work statistics Measurement of total « WORK » Need to go beyond current concepts applied in labour statistics Provide a fully engendered perspective Enable us to fully describe and analyze total social production Muchas gracias ILO DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS25


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