Presentation on theme: "Learning Outcomes LOs Dr. Gregory J. Maffet NCAAA Consultant Dr. Naser M. Sarhan NCAAA Consultant KFUPM 29-30 January 2014."— Presentation transcript:
Learning Outcomes LOs Dr. Gregory J. Maffet NCAAA Consultant Dr. Naser M. Sarhan NCAAA Consultant KFUPM 29-30 January 2014
Workshop’s Learning Outcomes (LOs) Attendees at the end of this workshop will be able to: Comprehend 1. Comprehend the nature and role of Program and Course learning outcomes in instruction. Align 2. Align an understanding relationships between Teaching Methods, Assessments Methods and LOs, Write 3. Write learning outcomes using the correct format
Workshop’s LOs 4.Summarize 4.Summarize the role of learning outcomes in instruction and assessment. Why we are writing learning outcomes? The role of learning outcomes in assessment? (including Rubrics and KPIs) 5. Use 5. Use the five domains of learning specified in National Qualification Framework; including the selection of verbs that map to measurable instructional objectives, learning outcomes and assessment.
Workshop’s Los 6.Construct 6.Construct learning outcomes from learning objectives, in order to develop learning outcomes for Programs and Courses. 7.Mapping 7.Mapping learning outcomes
1 st Day Sessions First sessionSecond sessionThird Session KPIs for Profile Data, NCAAA KPIs KPIs for Profile Data, NCAAA KPIs Introduction to Learning Outcomes (LOs) Introduction to Learning Outcomes (LOs) The difference between Learning Outcomes The difference between Learning Outcomes and Learning Objectives and Learning Objectives Importance & Benefits of LOs Importance & Benefits of LOs Where do LOs come from? Where do LOs come from? Characteristics of LOs Characteristics of LOs LO Process and Levels LO Process and Levels NQF Learning Domains and LO – Verbs NQF Learning Domains and LO – Verbs General Guidelines General Guidelines Recommendations and Suggestions Recommendations and Suggestions
Example from your SSR SSRP – Profile, p.12 3. Key Performance Indicators The following KPI’s are adopted to monitor the achievement in accomplishing the Program objectives. 1.Graduation with a GPA acceptable by Industry 2.satisfaction at alumni/employer surveys 3.To build up an instrument park, corresponding to most world class universities 4. Field training of students must be continuously updated with latest techniques. 5.Industry-standard computer modeling and interpretation packages must be included in the curriculum 6.Average time for procuring equipment and instruments.
SSRP. p.9 KPI’sCurrentTarget Student / Faculty ratio0.25 Number of graduating students in the math Program215 Percentage of students completing the Program in 4 years0100 Percentage of students with Cumulative GPA 2.5 and above100 Percentage of courses being evaluated online by students100 Percentage of faculty earning 8.5 or above in online course evaluation 8090 Percentage of students being employed within one year of graduation 100 Percentage of our BS graduates admitted in the graduate Programs 050 Number of ISI publications per faculty1.52 Example from your SSR
SSRP – Standard 4, p.36 The learning outcomes taken together become the overall strategy for the degree plan. The department is currently looking into the possibility of setting a standard end-of- Program examination (exit exam) that will assess specific learning outcomes. Verification of learning outcomes comes in the form of feedback from potential employers from work placement SSRP – Standard 3, p.34 Periodically, feedback is sought from alumni and employers. In many occasions, the feedback is used for Program quality improvement almost immediately. The grades of graduating students are reviewed as a way to measure performance. Example from your SSR
The assessment of Program outcomes is done on continuous basis. SSRP, p.22 Since the Program outcomes are intrinsically related to Program objectives, achievement of Program outcomes is an essential prerequisite of student qualification at graduation..... Level of achievement of the Program outcomes is periodically measured to examine the extent to which they are met. SSRP, p.24 Example from your SSR
The intended student learning outcomes are periodically evaluated through various means like public presentations, exams, assignments, projects, etc. Appropriate Program evaluation mechanisms including graduating student surveys, employment outcome data, employer feedback and subsequent performance of graduates are used to provide evidence about the usefulness of intended learning outcomes and the extent to which they are achieved. SSRP – Standard 4., p.38 Example from your SSR
Students learning outcomes are evaluated based on HW, quizzes, and exams, and in some cases reports and presentations, are used to measure the student learning outcomes. SSRP, p.31 Faculty members make sure that students are tested in a manner that allows them to assess the extent to which learning outcomes are met. They maintain a check on their testing procedures. SSRP, p.35. Example from your SSR
KPIs for Profile Data, NCAAA KPIs
Key Performance Indicators: Why? Performance of a higher education institution & its Programs is complex (teaching, research, community…) KPIs summarize performance in key areas scientifically, rationally, and meaningfully for different stakeholders: 1. Faculty & Staff 2. Students NCAAA 3. External agencies (NCAAA, employers,…)
… KPIs = Key Performance Indicators …a measure of performance or achievement …a Key Success Indicator (KSI) resultsefficiency …a measure of results and efficiency Quantifiable performance measures used to define success and measure progress toward the achievement of goals. (maybe qualitative via rubrics) What are KPIs???
KPI KEY fundamentally important KEY is fundamentally important to gain advantage; a make-or-break component for success. Performance outcomes influenced Performance when outcomes can be clearly measured, quantified, and easily influenced by the institution or Program. Indicator Indicator provides leading information on future performance. E (ie., when the gas gauge is on “E” then the leading information tells us that the car’s future performance will be to stop; so the action plan is to get gas immediately)
NCAAA Learning & Teaching KPIs 5. Ratio of students to teaching staff (Based on full time equivalents) 6. Students overall rating on the quality of their courses. (Average rating of students on a five point scale on overall evaluation of courses.) 7. Proportion of teaching staff with verified doctoral qualifications. 8. Percentage of students entering Programs who successfully complete first year. 9. Proportion of students entering undergraduate Programs who complete those Programs in minimum time. 10. Proportion of students entering post graduate Programs who complete those Programs in specified time. 11. Proportion of graduates from undergraduate Programs who within six months of graduation are: employed, enrolled in further study, not seeking employment or further study
Goals and ObjectivesMajor StrategiesMeasurable IndicatorsAnalysis Strategic Goal 1: To enhance and expand Program facilities and infrastructure for research activities. Objective 1: (70 %) of the Program faculty conducting research or are involve in related by the end of 2014. Objective 2: ??? S1. Establish infrastructure for research. S2. Encourage collaborative research among faculty. S3. Provide appropriate funding for research and creative activities S4. Expand facilities for research KPI 1: Percentage of established research quality standards KPI 2: Number of publications (#/yr) in international reviewed journals KPI 3: Number of organized scientific/Research events (workshops / seminars & conferences) What do the findings mean? How are they applied?HOW? Strategic Goal 2: Objective 1: Objective 2: Strategic Goal 3: Objective 1: Objective 2: Quality Goal 1: Objective: Objective 2:
Standard 4 Teaching and Learning KPI for Ratio of Students to Teaching Staff KPI KPI TEMPLATE Target Benchmark KPI Actual (finding or value) Benchmark Internal Benchmarks HOW? External Benchmarks New Target Benchmark Analysis: How is this data interpreted? Strengths & Recommendations What is the improvement plan to reach the new goal? What is the improvement plan to reach the new goal? Analysis:
Internal Benchmark We looked previously at the internal KPIs We now think consistently about benchmarks for the same areas “year by year” to establish data trends and trend-analysis What are the strengths and weaknesses of using the internal average as a benchmark? (e.g. improve to 90% or improve by 10%)
Quantitative KPI Ratio of students to teaching staff Actual Benchmark 25 to 1 (current) Target Benchmark 20 to 1 (goal) Internal Benchmark 24 to 1 (past, 2012) External Benchmark 26 to 1 (KSA) (International) 16 to 1 (International) 16 to 1 Interpret this statistical data? (Meaning) Analyze the results? (SWOT? / other)
Standard 4 Teaching and Learning KPI for Ratio of Students to Teaching Staff KPI Ratio of students to teaching staff (NCAAA KPI) Target Benchmark 1 to 15 1 FTE teacher to every 15 students KPI Actual Benchmark 1 to 22 Based on 2014 data Internal Benchmark 1 to 28 Based on 2010 data External Benchmark 1 to 12 New Target Benchmark 1 to 18 CAEP data requirement Revised for 2015 Analysis: How is this data interpreted? Strengths & Recommendations What is the improvement plan to reach the new goal? What is the improvement plan to reach the new goal? Analysis:
Standard 4 Teaching and Learning KPIs For Percentage Of Students’ Completion Rates KPI Percentage of students entering undergraduate Programs who complete those Programs in minimum time; 4 years. (NCAAA KPI) Target Benchmark (2014) 85 % 100 students entered/ 85 graduated KPI Actual Benchmark 28% 100 students entered/ 28 graduated Internal Benchmark 36% 2009 actual finding External Benchmark 88% New Target Benchmark 50% Yale University 2012 Revised for 2016 Analysis: How is this data interpreted? Strengths & Recommendations What is the improvement plan to reach the new goal? What is the improvement plan to reach the new goal? Analysis:
Standard 4 Teaching and Learning Student Satisfaction Survey KPI Using the Student Survey Form # 2231 (a 4 point scale system), student satisfaction survey results for Program courses will average 3.00 out of 4.00. Target Benchmark 3.00 Goal for 2014 KPI Actual Benchmark 2.98 Actual finding score for 2014 Internal Benchmark 2.55 Actual finding score for 2012 External Benchmark 3.12 New Target Benchmark 3.25 Actual findings from MIT Target benchmark for 2015 Analysis: Describe and evaluate the data. How is this data interpreted? Strengths & Recommendations How is this data interpreted? Strengths & Recommendations What is the improvement plan to reach the new goal? What is the improvement plan to reach the new goal?
Standard 4 Teaching and Learning Faculty Satisfaction Survey KPI Target Benchmark KPI Finding Benchmark Internal Benchmark External Benchmark New Target Benchmark Analysis: Describe and evaluate the data. How is this data interpreted? Strengths & Recommendations How is this data interpreted? Strengths & Recommendations What is the improvement plan to reach the new goal? What is the improvement plan to reach the new goal? Complete KPI Template
KPI Trend Report KPI KPI Percentage of students entering undergraduate Programs who complete those Programs in minimum time; 4 years. (NCAAA KPI) 200520072009201120132015 100% 90% 80%78% 70%77% 60% 50%49% 40%36% 30%28% 20% 10% Analysis: discussion and evaluation: strengths, recommendations, predictions
Profile Trend Report Enrollment Trends and Predictions (Prediction/Actual) Students2005200720092011201320152017 800 700 600 500 400250/403 30090/288 200 10075/9075/90 5050/62 Analysis: Descriptions and Evaluation (What? and Why?) Strengths, Recommendations, & Predictions Based on previous years, what is predicted?
Profile Trend Report Enrollment Trends and Predictions (Prediction/Actual) Students2005200720092011201320152017 800 700701 600 500450 400388 300300 200200/200/200/200/200/ 10090 50 Analysis: Descriptions and Evaluation (What? and Why?) Strengths, Recommendations, & Predictions Make predications & analyze data
Quantitative KPI Ratio of students to teaching staff Actual Benchmark 25 to 1 (current) Target Benchmark 20 to 1 (goal) Internal Benchmark 24 to 1 (past) External Benchmark 26 to 1 (KSA) (International) 16 to 1 (International) 16 to 1 Interpret this statistical data? (Meaning) Analyze the results? (SWOT? / other)
KPI# List of Program KPIs Approved by the Institution/ Program KPITargetBenchmarkKPIActualBenchmarkKPIInternalBenchmarksKPIExternalBenchmarksKPIAnalysis KPI New TargetBenchmark 1 2 3 4 5 6 Analysis of KPIs and Benchmarks: (list strengths and recommendations) Program Specifications Program KPI and Assessment Table NOTE The following definitions are provided to guide the completion of the above table for Program KPI and Assessment. KPI refers to the key performance indicators the Programs used in the SSRP and are approved by the institution (if applicable at this time). This includes both the NCAAA suggested KPIs chosen and all additional KPIs determined by the Program (including 50% of the NCAAA suggested KPIs and all others). Target Benchmark refers to the anticipated or desired outcome (goal or aim) for each KPI. Actual Benchmark refers to the actual outcome determined when the KPI is measured or calculated. Internal Benchmarks refer to comparable benchmarks (actual benchmarks) from inside the Program (like data results from previous years or data results from other departments within the same college). External Benchmarks refer to comparable benchmarks (actual benchmarks) from similar Programs that are outside the Program (like from similar Programs that are national or international). KPI Analysis refers to a comparison and contrast of the benchmarks to determine strengths and recommendations for improvement. New Target Benchmark refers to the establishment of a new anticipated or desired outcome for the KPI that is based on the KPI analysis.
KPI# List of Program KPIs Approved by the Institution/ Program KPITargetBenchmarkKPIActualBenchmarkKPIInternalBenchmarksKPIExternalBenchmarksKPIAnalysis KPI New TargetBenchmark 1 2 Student: Faculty 5 Stars S4.2 Code number 3 Stars (20:1) 2 Stars (28:1) 1 Star (MIT) 0 Stars 4 Stars (16:1) 30 stars 4 5 6 Analysis of KPIs and Benchmarks: (list strengths and recommendations)
Institution Student satisfaction Research quality Entry standards Student- staff ratio Services & facilities spendCompletion Good honours Graduate prospectsScore Max scores1003n/a 100 1000 Oxford871.357411.1£3,29898.190.979.81000 Cambridge871.459611.8£2,99498.887.484.4990 London School of Economics791.252711.8£2,62596.580.987.8911 Imperial College781.055611.6£3,58895.981.787.1835 Durham830.950315.3£2,28196.281.878.5834 St Andrews830.851913.6£2,30897.482.974.1814 University College London791.049810.1£2,19793.981.079.9811 Warwick810.949614.5£2,05396.580.877.6789 Bath840.746117.1£1,74296.481.179.1767 Exeter820.845918.5£2,01796.182.873.0764 University Comparison Matrix Analysis (Strengths and Recommendations)
Introduction The Design phaseThe Design phase of a typical curriculum development process (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation) is largely concerned with developing clear learning objectives and learning outcomes. to recognizeIt is important to recognize during this phase that there is a direct relationship between objectives, learning outcomes, teaching strategy / methods & students assessments (Rubrics – KPIs with benchmarking and analysis).
Theory Into Practice 5 Questions for Instructional Design 1.What do you want the student to be able to do? (Outcome) 2.What does the student need to know in order to do this well? (Curriculum) 3.What activity will facilitate the learning? (Pedagogy—learning & teaching) 4.How will the student demonstrate the learning? (Assessment) 5.How will the teacher know the student has done this well? (Criteria)
Learning Outcome are: what knowunderstandare able to doLearning outcomes: describe what learners are supposed to know, understand, or are able to do at the end of the Program or course. LOs are based upon:LOs are based upon: the needs of the learner (individual & personal). the needs of society (mission statements). perform what the learner should know about a particular subject in order to perform successfully (career and personal lifestyle).
LOs are: WhatSTUDENT should learn as a result of a period of specified and supported study.What a STUDENT should learn as a result of a period of specified and supported study. The of the learner rather then theintentions of the teacher.The ACHIEVEMENTS of the learner rather then the intentions of the teacher. Focus is directly on Student Performance.Focus is directly on Student Performance.
LOs are: Formal statements that articulate Formal statements that articulate: What students know and are able to do after instruction Why students need to do this -- relevancy
LOs are: learning Are concerned with the learning of the student: STUDENT… PERFORMANCEACHIEVEMENT PERFORMANCE and ACHIEVEMENT CAN DO What the student CAN DO AND CAN DO What the student KNOWS AND CAN DO What the student UNDERSTANDS OR and CAN DO COMPREHENDS and CAN DO Must be measurable or observable Must be measurable or observable
Objectives vs. LOs The distinction between learning outcomes and learning objectives is not universally recognized. “learning outcomes”Many instructors may find that the term “learning outcomes” describes what they have already understood by the term “learning objectives.” What is the difference?
For NCAAA the difference between course LOs and objectives… areLearning objectives are statements of what the teacher intends for the students to learn and are generally part of a teacher-centered approach [are Mission, traditional, teacher or content driven]. areLearning outcomes are statements of what the student will KNOW and be able to DO or demonstrate as a result of their learning and are part of a student-centered approach.
Objectives vs. LOs Learning objectives INSTRUCTORLearning objectives, for example, may outline the material the INSTRUCTOR intends to cover in the course / Program or the disciplinary questions the class will address. Known as IN-PUTS. learning outcomes STUDENTSBy contrast, learning outcomes focus on what the STUDENTS know, comprehend and realistically are able to do… [skill performance] by the end of an assignment, activity, class, or course [achievement]. Known as OUT-PUTS.
Objectives vs. LOs learning outcomes, mean focusing on the application and integration of the course content from the perspective of the student. learning outcomes can more explicitly and directly address expectations for student learning.
Writing Writing Objectives & LOs Learning objectives learning outcomes Learning objectives can be written as teacher or curriculum centered content or they can be re- written as student-centered learning outcomes. The teacher will The teacher will... OR the student will the student will …. Both learning objectives and outcomes must be measurable or observable. One assessment is for teaching and another assessment is for a student’s learning.
Examples Example of a Learning Objective: Students will be taught the basic principles of database searching. [teacher will teach basic principles … ] Example of a Learning Outcome: Students will be able to apply the principles of database searching in a review of literature. [student will KNOW and APPLY…]
Objectives or Outcomes? Dentist Which Dentist do you want working on your teeth? Student A : The teacher will instruct the student to know how to successfully drill cavities and repair teeth… Student B: The student earns 100% on the exam for drilling cavities and repairing teeth…. Student C: The student knows how and successfully drills out cavities and repairs teeth… Student D: The teacher successfully taught the student to drill out cavities and repair teeth.
Objectives or Outcomes? Pharmacist Which Pharmacist do you want filling your meds? Student A : The teacher will instruct the students to know how to successfully fill medical prescriptions… Student B: The student earns 100% on the exam for filling medical prescriptions…. Student C: The student knows how and successfully fills medical prescriptions… Student D: The teacher successfully taught the student to fill medical prescriptions….
Exercise Please work as group in writing three learning objectives for your Program. Now, re-write these objectives as LOs Be prepared to share them and analyze the difference – they will be collected in order to be used latter.
NCAAA 10 Minute Break Session 2 Importance & Benefits of LOs Where do LOs come from? Characteristics of LOs LO Process and Levels NQF Learning Domains & LO – Verbs
The Importance of LOs evidence for accountability 1. LOs build evidence for accountability, accreditation, and for continuous improvement. Showevidence Show evidence of how well students learn. Useevidence Use evidence for continuous improvement and strategic plans.
The Importance of LOs 2.Know what you are doing… 3.Know why you are doing it… 4.Know what students are learning as a result; (key for assessment). 5.Make improvement changes based on results (research based improvements)
The Importance of LOs Shifting from: learning Teachers teaching…. to students learning results Teaching effectiveness…. to learning results
Course learning outcomes serve the following purposes… To inform students of what is expected of them. To guide the teacher in his/her approach to delivery of content and assessment that focuses on what the student will be able to do as a result of the learning. To influence the domain and level of learning required of the delivery and assessment. To fulfill the requirements of one or more Program outcomes.
Learning Outcomes help… contentskills 1. Select learning content objectives and skills (What to teach? Teaching content priorities?) 2. Development of instructional strategies that align with specific learning outcomes. 3. Develop and select instructional and Program materials that align with specific learning outcomes. 4.Construct evaluation instruments for assessing student performance based on the learning. outcomes. 5.Improve overall Program and as a faculty.
Benefits of Learning Outcomes values 1.Learning outcomes measure & characterize the values that an institution, Program, or course have articulated for student development & performance. 2.A set of student learning outcomes define what students will know and be able to do when they have completed any degree, regardless of his/her major.
Benefits for Learning Outcomes guide 3.Student learning outcomes will help guide faculty across the university to develop curricula, plan courses, determine financial needs, design syllabi, construct learning activities, and assess student learning. framework 4.LOs provide a framework for learners and advisers in order to discuss the goals of the curriculum and the personal career goals for individual students.
Framework for L.O. StudentNeeds EmploymentNeeds Institutional Mission Program Outcomes CourseOutcomes TeacherObjectives Student Learning Outcomes Assessment Methods Teaching Strategy
Benefit: OBE “Outcome-Based Education” Outcome-based education is a method of teaching that focuses on what students know and can actually do after they are taught. All curriculum and teaching decisions are made based on how best to facilitate the desired outcome.All curriculum and teaching decisions are made based on how best to facilitate the desired outcome. The desired outcome is selected first and the curriculum is created to support the intended outcome.The desired outcome is selected first and the curriculum is created to support the intended outcome. This leads to a planning process in reverse of traditional educational planning.This leads to a planning process in reverse of traditional educational planning.
Where do L.O. come from? Learning Outcomes flows out from…… …the Mission Statement What must students do to demonstrate that the Institution and Program Mission Statements are accomplished?
Effects Program and Course Learning Outcomes Learning Outcomes Cause Mission Mission Needs Needs What will the student know and do in order to demonstrate the Mission is successfully achieved?
Where do L.O. come from? In addition to Knowledge & Cognitive Skills Domains, Learning Outcomes flows out from…… …student needs assessment … and employers needs (cause and effect chart)
Effects Learning Outcomes Cause Student Student Needs Needs What will the student know and do in order to demonstrate student needs are successfully achieved?
demonstrated: Holders of a bachelor degree in any Program should have demonstrated: 1.Knowledge 1.Knowledge of a comprehensive, coherent and systematic body of knowledge in a field of inquiry; ability 2.The ability to investigate complex problems and develop creative solutions with limited guidance; ability 3.The ability to use appropriate statistical techniques in the analysis and resolution of complex issues, and select and use the most appropriate mechanisms for communicating the results to a variety of audiences; 4.Capacity 4.Capacity to provide leadership and willingness to cooperate fully with others in joint projects and initiatives; skill required for effective practice 5.In the case of a professional Program the full range of knowledge and skill required for effective practice in the profession concerned. Characteristics of a Graduate Are: Are these LOs?
Start at the End Teaching Assessment Objectives Learning Mission Student Teaching Assessment Objectives Learning Mission Student Methods Methods (Content) Outcomes Needs Needs Methods Methods (Content) Outcomes Needs Needs Picture Picture an ideal graduate: 1. Knowledge & skills 2. Performance 3. Career & Life 4. Worldview & Values All Students Know & Do LO performance drives learning objectives, assessment methods & assessment methods drive teaching methods
Graduate Characteristics (needs) Learning Outcomes & Learning Objectives (Content ) Learning and Teaching Strategies DifferentiatedInstruction AssessmentEmpiricalorObservable Start What to teach? What students do? What to assess? How to assess? How to teach?
Automobile Characteristics (Needs) Learning Outcomes & Learning Objectives Learning and Teaching Strategies DifferentiatedInstruction AssessmentEmpiricalorObservable Start You want to buy a car. What are the quality objectives? Speed, family capacity, economic, attractive color, 250 kph top speed 0 to 100 in 4.2 sec Seats 8 passengers 40 mpg. Wife likes color Race track testing Count seats (8) Road test (40mph) Wife likes color Practice racecar driving, acceleration & clutch speed drills, light foot gas peddle practice, observe wife’s color choices
Elements of the Program Specification Process informed by: Aims of the Program What’s the purpose of the Program? Characteristics of a Graduate Learning Outcomes of the Program NCAAA NQF (domains of learning) Level Descriptors What should students know and be able to do on completion? Subject Benchmarks Professional Body Requirements including: Knowledge & understanding Cognitive Skills Interpersonal Skills and Responsibility Communication, IT & Numerical Skills Psychomotor Skills Outcomes for level attained through: Attainment verified by: Grades awarded according to: Program learning outcomes broken down by level to ensure incremental attainment over duration of course Course learning outcomes Course assessment Assessment criteria Learning Outcome Process Start
Learning Outcome Alignment Alignment & Mapping At ALL Levels Mission & Student Needs Flow to Highly Specified Knowledge & Skill Performance University College Programs DEPARTMENTS CLASSCOURSES STUDENTS A SSESSMENT Learning Outcomes
University - Institution Program Program Program Classroom Classroom Classroom Students Classroom Students Classroom Students Classroom Systemic Thinking for LOs (including assessment)
LOs Quality System for Systems (including assessment)
NQF Level Descriptors Level descriptors levelLevel descriptors are generic statements describing the characteristics and context of learning expected at each level (year). These help guide faculty expectations of students and they are designed to ensure equivalence and consistency of standards across subject areas. National Qualification FrameworkThey are set out in the University’s Academic Regulations and Policies and are based on those recommended by the National Qualification Framework (NQF).
RPR Quotes level The Panel also examined a number of student projects for a number of courses. While some of the topics were appropriate …. the work presented often falls below what would be expected at this level. Some projects were essentially descriptions that did not involve any analysis or practical activity. demonstrated Some projects were essentially descriptions that did not involve any analysis or practical activity. Others, which involve practical work, were written up without any material that demonstrated the design and implementation of the systems described. The Panel feels that many of the projects do not meet the CLOs (course learning outcomes).
Characteristics of Good Learning Outcomes Measurable 1. Measurable or Observable Clear 2. Clear to the student & instructor Integrated 3. Integrated, developmental, and transferable 4. Use discipline-specific competencies or basis standards as a basis, not an end 5. Similar scope & scale 6. “In order to..” do ….. gets to the purpose, uniqueness, and real world application of learning and teaching. 7. Use a variety of learning domains
Usually written in the future tense Usually written in the future tense Identify important learning requirements Identify important learning requirements Are achievable Are achievable Use clear language easily understandable to student Use clear language easily understandable to student When writing outcomes, it may be useful to use the following expression: “At the end of this Program or course the student should be able to…….” “At the end of this Program or course the student should be able to…….” Then follow with a verb. Useful verbs are: ????? Good LOs are… Good LOs are…
Establish Draft Provide Prepare Tabulate Write Schedule Update Audit Articulate Align Collect Construct Generate List Produce Compile Document Demonstrate Develop Suggested Verbs Helpful? Need much more!!
Consider Maximize Maintain Reflect Continue Review Ensure Enlarge Understand Examine Strengthen Explore Encourage Deepen Some of these verbs can be used if tied to specific actions or quantification Verbs Not To Use Better? Yes… BUT!!
NQF Learning DomainsSuggested Verbs Knowledgelist, name, record, define, label, outline, state, describe, recall, memorize, reproduce, recognize, record, tell, write Cognitive Skills estimate, explain, summarize, write, compare, contrast, diagram, subdivide, differentiate, criticize, calculate, analyze, compose, develop, create, prepare, reconstruct, reorganize, summarize, explain, predict, justify, rate, evaluate, plan, design, measure, judge, justify, interpret, appraise Interpersonal Skills & Responsibility demonstrate, judge, choose, illustrate, modify, show, use, appraise, evaluate, justify, analyze, question, and write Communication, Information Technology, Numerical demonstrate, calculate, illustrate, interpret, research, question, operate, appraise, evaluate, assess, and criticize Psychomotor demonstrate, show, illustrate, perform, dramatize, employ, manipulate, operate, prepare, produce, draw, diagram, examine, construct, assemble, experiment, and reconstruct KEY POINT Learning Domain is based on the verbs used Chose the verb for the learning outcome to fit the learning domain or or Chose the domain and fit the verb to the learning outcome.
Generic Example At the time of receiving a bachelor’s degree, students: identifydefinesolve problems Can identify, define, and solve problems locateevaluate Can locate and critically evaluate information mastered Have mastered a body of knowledge and a mode of inquiry Can understand diverse philosophies and cultures within and across societies communicate effectively Can communicate effectively understand the role of creativityinnovation discovery Can understand the role of creativity, innovation, discovery, and expression across disciplines effective citizenship Have acquired skills for effective citizenship and life-long learning. Are these LOs?
Example of Program LOs At the time of receiving a BSN Degree, students: Can identify, define, and solve problems; Can locate and critically evaluate information; Have mastered a body of knowledge and a mode of inquiry; Can understand diverse philosophies and cultures within and across societies; Can communicate effectively; Can understand the role of creativity, innovation, discovery, and expression across disciplines; and Have acquired skills for effective citizenship and life-long learning. What is the major problem with this list?? Analyze this
Specific Program LOs (Dentistry Examples) 1.Graduates should demonstrate sound knowledge of the following areas as they relate to the practice of dentistry (includes a list of over 20 specific dentistry content areas). 2.Graduates must have the ability to apply their knowledge and understanding of relevant principles and theories in carrying out the following types of responsibilities (e.g. problem recognition for disease identification and diagnosis, problem solving in dental care, critical thinking of dental research, patient investigation—biopsy techniques, radiography, treatment plans). Write 3 specific Program LOs for your Program by using the generic Program LOs shown on the previous slide. (present to group using flip chart + Analyze)
30 Minute Break Prayer
Session 3 General Guidelines Recommendations & Suggestions NQF Learning Domains & LOs Writing LOs NCAAA
Difference between course learning outcomes & Program learning outcomes? LOs at Program LOs at Program level are broad for all students in the Program. Course LOs Course LOs are content or skill specific: Describing what the student will be able to do. They determine: 1. Content, 2. Delivery and 3. Assessment of each course, and, along with other courses, meet the Program outcomes.
Program Learning Outcome Example: Program Learning Outcome studentwill be able to critically evaluate Upon successful completion of the Program…. a student will be able to critically evaluate problems and alternative solutions in a wide variety of business and organizational contexts in different socio-cultural and political environments. How is this clear? Measurable? Observable? What NQF domain of learning? How will you assess this?
Course Learning Outcome Example: Course Learning Outcome students will be ableto discuss 7 different ways On successful completion of the course students… will be able to discuss 7 different ways how information technology can be used to help business organizations to succeed in their objectives. How is this clear? Measurable? Observable? What NQF domain of learning? How will you assess this?
Use a verb that indicates what the learner is expected to be able to do at the end of the period of learning; measurable or observable. Word(s) that indicate on what or with what the learner is acting. If the outcome is about skills then the word(s) may describe the way the skill is performed or the tool to be used. Word(s) that indicate the nature (in context or in terms of standard) of the performance required as evidence that the learning was achieved. Well written L.O. are….
Learning Outcome Magar’s 3 Parts for Successful LOs 1. A measurable verb 2. The important condition (if any) under which the performance is to occur and 3. The criterion of acceptable performance. When Magar’s 3 parts of a LO are used correctly a LO may also be a KPI
Student needs Learning outcomes Student needs example: “Student needs to learn how to fish in the ocean to survive on the island.” What are some learning outcomes that fit this student’s needs? 1.(Knowledge)__________________________ ___________________________________ 2.(Cognitive)___________________________ ____________________________________ 3.(Skill) _______________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________
Write a Learning Outcome (whole group activity 1/2) We’re taking a friend desert camping for the first time. What does a graduate of desert camping school need to know or what skills are required? Like, “What to do if a sand storm comes up?” 1.______________________________ 2.______________________________ 3.______________________________
Re-write as Learning Outcomes Using Megar’s 3 Parts (whole group activity 2/2) 1.What to do if a sand storm comes up? 2.What to do if he runs out of water? 3.He needs compass reading and mapping skills? Re-write the content objectives as LOs. 1.______________________________ 2.______________________________ 3.______________________________ How do the LOs utilize Magar’s 3 Parts?
1.Aim for between four and eight learning outcomes for each course, and up to twenty-five for an entire Program. “A successful learner from this Program will be able to …..” 2.Start Program outcomes with the phrase: “A successful learner from this Program will be able to …..” On successful completion of the course, you will be able to …..” 3.Start course outcomes with the phrase: “On successful completion of the course, you will be able to …..” Recommendations & Suggestions
4.These phrases lead to action verbs so that students are able to demonstrate that they have learned or achieved the outcome. objective 5. “to demonstrate” leads to objective assessment or evaluation or measurement of student performance and achievements. one verb 6.Use one verb per learning outcome, and keep the sentence structure simple. 7.Avoid unnecessary language; if absolutely necessary, use more than one sentence to ensure clarity.
Recommendations & Suggestions process do 8.Verbs relating to knowledge outcomes – ‘know,’ ‘understand,’ ‘appreciate’ – tend to be vague, or to focus on the process students have gone through (e.g. understand research [process]) rather than the final outcome of that process (e.g. create & list [do] strategies appropriate to the research topic). 9.Use action verbs, such as: ‘solve,’ ‘write,’ ‘evaluate,’ ‘analyse’ to indicate how students can demonstrate acquisition of that knowledge.
National Qualification Framework The principal elements in the NQF are: Levels: numbered and linked to qualification titles to describe the increasing intellectual demand and complexity of learning expected as students progress to higher academic awards. Credits Points: allocated to describe the amount of work or volume of learning expected for an academic award or units or other components of a Program. Domains of Learning: The broad categories of types of learning outcomes that a Program is intended to develop.
NQF Domains of Learning Outcomes Learning Outcomes are aligned with the five domains of learning provided in the NQF. Domains of learning apply to both Program and Course learning outcomes Always keep in mind both Program & Course L.O.s
Five Learning Domains: NQF 1.Knowledge 2.Cognitive skills 3.Interpersonal skills and responsibility 4.Communication, information technology and numerical skills 5.Psychomotor skills NCAAA Use with Program, Course, and Field Experience Specifications templates.
1. Knowledge Knowledge Knowledge: the ability to recall, understand, and present information, including: factsKnowledge of specific facts and details Knowledge of concepts, principles and theories Answers may be memorized or closely paraphrased from assigned material. Knowledge of procedures; steps in a process. VERBS Define, list, name, recall basic information
2. Cognitive Skills Cognitive skills: the ability to…. Apply conceptual understanding of concepts, principles, and theories, Apply procedures involved in critical thinking and creative problem solving, both when asked to do so, and when faced with unanticipated new situations, Investigate issues and problems in a field of study using a range of sources and draw valid conclusions. Ability to comprehend the meaning of material. Answers must be in the student’s own words while still using terminology appropriate to the course material. VERBS Explain, summarize, distinguish between, restate
3. Interpersonal Skills and Responsibility Including the ability to: Take responsibility for their own learning and continuing personal and professional development, Work effectively in groups and exercise leadership when appropriate, Act responsibly in personal and professional relationships, Act ethically and consistently with high moral standards in personal and public forums.
4. Communication, Information Technology and Numerical Skills Including the ability to: Communicate effectivelyCommunicate effectively in oral and written form, UseUse information and communications technology, and Use basic mathematicalUse basic mathematical and statistical techniques.
5. Psychomotor Skills Psychomotor skills: manual dexterity Extremely important in some fields of study. For example, very high levels of psychomotor skills are required for a surgeon, an artist, or a musician. Psychomotor skills apply only to certain fields, and their nature varies widely.
Example 1 Poor Learning Outcome: knowledge domain for cognitive skillStudents will name the three types of rock in order to differentiate among the three (knowledge domain for cognitive skill). Good Learning Outcome: Students will compare and contrast the characteristics of the three types of rocks in order to differentiate among the three.Students will compare and contrast the characteristics of the three types of rocks in order to differentiate among the three.
Student needs LOs (small groups) 1. Identify a student need for your specialized course (center circle). 2. List 5 learning outcomes that are directly based on this need (connecting circles). 3. Explain how each LO meets Magar’s 3 part requirements (connecting lines). Bubble Map - 2
2 nd Day Sessions First SessionSecond SessionThird Session Review Key Components Relationships between Teaching Methods and Assessments Methods and LOs Assessment of Learning Outcomes Intro LO Attitudes LO Qualitative Assessment Rubrics LO Quantitative KPIs Mapping Addressing Common Problems Associated with Writing LOs & Assessment
LO Review 1.What is the difference between a learning objective and learning outcome? 2.Where do LOs come from? 3.How are LOs used or applied (benefits)? 4.What are the characteristics of a good LO? 5.What kind of verbs are required for LOs? 6.What are the 3 parts to Megar’s LOs?
Learning Outcomes Formula Verbor Action Phrase “In order to…” Why? = Great Learning Outcomes What students need to know? “Student identifies, consults and evaluates reference books appropriate to the topic” Why do they need to know this? “locate background information and statistics.” In order to + Or
Writing Learning Outcomes Learning outcomes should specify the minimum acceptable standard for a student to be successful (pass a course) “threshold level”. This means that it is important to express learning outcomes in terms of the essential learning for a course, so there should be a small number of learning outcomes which are of central importance, not a large number of superficial outcomes.
Active it describes what students can do Active it describes what students can do Attractive students want to achieve it Attractive students want to achieve it Comprehensible students know exactly what it means Comprehensible students know exactly what it means Appropriate to the student’s current goals and career plans Appropriate to the student’s current goals and career plans Attainable most students will meet it, with appropriate effort Attainable most students will meet it, with appropriate effort MEASURABLE essential for assessment MEASURABLE essential for assessment Review: A good L.O. is….
Avoid learning outcomes which are too broad in scope Avoid learning outcomes which are too broad in scope, such as ‘Recall the fundamental concepts of Structural, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering.’ Avoid learning outcomes which are too narrow in scope Avoid learning outcomes which are too narrow in scope, such as ‘State the six categories in Bloom’s Taxonomy.’ Avoid overloading your course with too much ‘content’; comprehendexplainimportant as being able to use the information through: Avoid overloading your course with too much ‘content’; knowledge and understanding outcomes emphasize what your students will be able to comprehend and explain, but this isn’t as important as being able to use the information through: application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Things to avoid…
LOs & Quality of Teaching NCAAA Standard 4, paragraph 4.6 appropriateTeaching must be of high quality with appropriate strategies used for different categories of learning outcomes and student learning styles. Differentiated InstructionDifferentiated Instruction
LO Alignment LOs … LOs determine student assessment… … … student assessment determines BOTH… BOTH… teaching strategy and teaching methods. Together they form a FAMILY
NQF Learning Domains and Learning Outcomes Teaching Strategies Assessment Methods 1.0 Knowledge 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2.0 Cognitive Skills 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 3.0 Interpersonal Skills & Responsibility 3.1 3.2 4.0 Communication, Information Technology, Numerical 4.1 4.2 5.0 Psychomotor 5.1 5.2 LO alignment with NQF, teaching strategies, & assessment methods. Template is designed for alignment
RPR Quote concerns about the level of the assessment instruments (Tools) soundness of the assessment. The Panel examined the Course Specifications for a significant number of courses. It had some concerns about the level of the assessment instruments (Tools) that were used in the delivery of some of the courses, the coverage of learning outcomes that these assessment instruments addressed, and the soundness of the assessment.
Teaching Methods and LOs 1.Focus is on learning outcomes in debates on teaching strategies or methods in higher education Teaching methodsnot means to an end 2.“Teaching methods” are not an end in themselves, they are a means to an end student performance vehicle(s) 3.They are the vehicle(s) teachers use to lead students towards particular learning outcomes. 4.Evaluate teaching methods against the learning outcomes that we are seeking for our students to know and demonstrate.
Teaching Methods and LOs 5.First step measurableobservable 5.First step in operationalizing it is to clarify the learning outcomes at which we are aiming (measurable or observable). differentiated instruction “fitness for purpose” 6.Second step involves developing a contingency approach (differentiated instruction) to the choice of teaching methods; whereby there is “fitness for purpose” (alignment of each LO with teaching strategy-methods).
Teaching Methods & LOs ensure that the method will enable the students achieve demonstrate 7.When selecting any teaching and learning method it is important to ensure that the method will enable the students to achieve and demonstrate what are intended as learning outcomes. differentiated instruction 8.There are different kinds of methods available (differentiated instruction): 1.effective in building up subject knowledge 2.contribution to developing generic skills
Teaching Methods Mapping Courses Codes101102103104105106107108 Teaching Methods Lecture Small Groups Discussion Project Activity Debate Research Lab Guest Expert Demonstration
LO Alignment Student needs to learn how to fish in the ocean to survive on the island. Learning outcomes that fit this need? 1.Student is able to catch one fish per day. 2.Student catches fish by demonstrating 3 different fishing methods. What assessment methods will align with them? ______________________________________ What teaching methods will the teacher use to enable students to successfully demonstrate LO achievement? _______________________
RPR Quotes The course CS320 Programming Languages: Concepts and Paradigms covers procedural, object-oriented, functional and logic paradigms. However, the assessment instruments covered only procedural Programming. [incomplete assessment] incomplete Some were incomplete, lacking for example some assessment instruments. For example a course portfolio for CS371 Web Development contained only one of the three quizzes. In course specifications for CS330 Introduction to Operating Systems, only the final examination was provided. Some course specifications are inconsistent.
LO Alignment (small groups) 1.Put one of your course LOs in the center circle. 2.Indentify LO student assessments that will determine the level of student performance in the 5 outer circles. 3.List teaching methods that align with the LO and the student assessment on the lines attached to the outer circles. (bubble map 2)
Learning OUTCOMES ….are “ performance of knowledge, skills, and attitudes embedded within them.” Attitudes may include ethics. Attitudes???
ATTITUDES ATTITUDES Why do we teach ATTITUDES? ATTITUDES What are the ATTITUDES that student performance outcomes expect? How do you teach attitudes ? How to assess attitudes?
Qualitative KPI + Rubric Goal Give traffic ticket to speeder without conflict KPI Scores 4.00 out of 5.00 on the “No Conflict Rubric” Speech Tone Covered all Material Emotional Control Stops in a Save Zone Closure 100 % Calm and Peaceful 100% Covered 100% Calm & in Control 100% Safe Speeder says Thanxs Peaceful Mostly Covered Mostly Calm & in Control Mostly Safe Accepts ticket Accepts ticket Nervous Generally Clear Tense Marginally Safe Speeder is Silent AnointingVagueFrighteningDangerous Speeder Argues Loud & Demanding Confusing & Unclear. High Emotions Major Safety Hazard Speeder curses 54210
Qualitative KPI + Rubric Goal To enroll the nicest students in KSA KPI Rank higher then all other KSA Programs ?? according to I-Rubric points below: according to I-Rubric points below: SmileDressAttitudeEthicsFriendly Always smiles AlwaysImmaculateAlwaysPositive Never miss prayers Always Engaging Frequently Smiles Always Presentable Mostly Positive Prays most days Many Friends SeldomSmilesUsuallyNiceOkay Prays all Fridays Friendly Laughs at Jokes RarelyNice Mostly Negative Sometimes prays FewFriends Never Smiles AlwaysSloppy Always Negative Always Skips prayer Has No Friends 64210
Bubble Map + attitude student need In the center circle write an attitude ; a student need for a course or a Program. In the connected circles write learning outcomes you want performed. write how to teach and asess this attitude for each learning outcome On the lines outside each learning outcome circle write how to teach and asess this attitude for each learning outcome
Session 5 Relationship between teaching methods and assessment methods…. with learning outcomes. with learning outcomes.
Start at the End Teaching Assessment Objectives Learning Mission Student Teaching Assessment Objectives Learning Mission Student Methods Methods (Content) Outcomes Needs Needs Methods Methods (Content) Outcomes Needs Needs Teaching strategy and methods depend on the assessment methods utilized. The assessments utilized depends on the learning outcome VERB that guides the assessment process to validate student learning and direct teaching methods.
Key for Learning Outcomes Learning outcomes must be…. measurable and meaningful to be assessed accurately. Who will know? Student? Faculty? How will I know? Evidence? What evidence is needed? Demonstration: statistical, observable, or quantifiable data… or rubrics? Key is ASSESSMENT
NCAAA: L.O. + Assessment NCAAA Standard 4, paragraph 4.4: Student assessment processes must be appropriate for the intended learning outcomes and effectively and fairly administered with independent verification of standards achieved.
Assessment of Learning Outcomes 1.Indirect Assessment 2. Direct Assessment
Quality Assurance of Assessment of Learning Outcomes …. May be achieved: direct 1.By direct observation – inspection of assessment indicators with benchmarks with analysis; (imbedded KPIs with benchmarking for LOs or rubrics) indirect assessment processes 2.By indirect measurement– by examining the specifications of assessment processes. indirect 3.By indirect feedback – from students, from employers, from external examiner, from professional bodies (surveys).
Align Assessment with LOs Assessments should provide instructors and students with evidence of how well the students have learned what is intend them to learn. What educators, practitioners, & students want students to learn and be able to do should guide the choice and design of the assessment. There are two major reasons for aligning assessments with LOs. First, alignment increases the probability that educators will provide students with the opportunities to learn and practice or demonstrate the knowledge and skills that are required. Second, when assessments and LOs are aligned, “good grades” are more likely to translate into “good learning” performance. When LOs and assessments are misaligned, many students will focus their efforts on activities that may lead to good grades on assessments, rather than focusing their efforts on learning what is important to do or achieve in the real world.
LOs and Assessment State clearly each outcome you are seeking: State clearly each outcome you are seeking: How would you recognize it? What does it look like? What precisely will the student be able to do or demonstrate? Selecting and Implementing Assessment Methods directly assessed Not every LO can always be directly assessed; identify those that you prize most highly and that can be meaningfully measured. for example; KPIs with multiple benchmarks or rubrics Select strategic methods or instruments for gathering evidence to show whether students have achieved the expected learning outcomes (for example; KPIs with multiple benchmarks or rubrics).
LOs and Assessment Using Evidence Gathered in Assessment: procedures 1.Specify procedures for analyzing and interpreting the evidence gathered in assessment. determine any performance expectations 2.Prior to scoring assessments, determine any performance expectations (target benchmarks—external and internal). relationship 3.What is the relationship between the findings (actual and target benchmarks)? Are scores or performance demonstrations consistent, inconsistent, or at opposite ends of the spectrum? 4.Use the data to pinpoint the areas in your Program that are achieving Program goals and also areas of your Program that warrant change for improvement.
LOs and Assessment The following table presents examples of the kinds of assessment activities that can be used to assess different types of learning outcomes, and the ways that we can analyze or measure performance to produce useful feedback for teaching and learning.
T ype of Learning Outcome Examples of Types of AssessmentHow to Measure Knowledge—Remember Students will be able to: recall recognize Objective Test items that require students to recall or recognize information: Fill-in the Blank Multiple Choice items with question such as, “what is a…”, or “which of the following is the definition of) Labeling diagrams Reciting (orally, musically, or in writing) Accuracy – correct vs number of errors Item Analysis (at the class level, are there items that had higher error rates? Did some items result in the same errors?) Cognitive—Understand Students will be able to: interpret exemplify classify summarize infer compare explain Papers, oral/written exam questions, problems, class discussions, concept maps, homework assignments that require (oral or written). Summarizing readings, films, speeches, etc. Comparing and/or contrasting two or more theories, events, processes, etc. Classifying or categorizing cases, elements, events, etc., using established criteria Paraphrasing documents or speeches Finding or identifying examples or illustrations of a concept, principle Scoring or performance rubrics that identify critical components of the work and discriminates between differing levels of proficiency in addressing the components Analyze Students will be able to: differentiate organize attribute Activities that require students to discriminate or select relevant from irrelevant parts, determine how elements function together, or determine bias, values or underlying intent in presented materials. These might include: Case studies, Critiques, Labs, Papers, Projects, Debates, Concept Maps, Rubrics, scored by instructor/clinical staff, external clients, employers, internship supervisor, etc.
KPI & LO in SSRP KPI: NCAAA KPI Reference Number: _____________ Institutional KPI Reference Number: _________ Actual Benchmark Target Benchmark Internal Benchmark* External Benchmark** New Target Benchmark Analysis (list strengths and recommendations): * Explain: 1. Why this internal benchmark provider was chosen? 2. How was the benchmark calculated? 3. Name of the internal benchmark provider. ** Explain: 1. Why this external benchmark provider was chosen? 2. How was the benchmark calculated? 3. Name of the external benchmark provider.
General Example Objective To attract high-calibre students – defined as the top 25% in the national exams. Strategy Market Program to top 25% KPI and Outcome Data or Evidence Percentage of enrolled students from the top 25% Target Benchmark 40% of students enrolled next year to be in this high-calibre category
Standard 4 Teaching and Learning Knowledge / Cognitive Domain (for an Engineering Program) Learning Outcome: The student is able to list and describe the mechanical prosperities and durability of construction materials. Students name and define 10 mechanical properties commonly found in steel construction materials. KPI Students name and define 10 mechanical properties commonly found in steel construction materials. Target Benchmark 90% Goal (9 out of 10) KPI Finding Benchmark 75% Assessment finding (2012) Internal Benchmark 79% Past benchmark (2010) External Benchmark New Target Benchmark 75% Cairo University 80% New Goal Analysis: How is this data interpreted? What is the improvement plan to reach the new goal? What is the improvement plan to reach the new goal?
KPI Analysis??? Know what you are looking for… (direct or indirect) KPI Student teacher ratio Target benchmark 10:1 (Standard 3) Target benchmark 6.1 (Standard 4) Actual Benchmark 6:1 (current reality) Standard 4 application – Teachers happy, small class size indirectly indicates quality LO. Standard 3 application – Administration sad, small class size directly indicates high cost per student.
Standard 4 Teaching and Learning Knowledge / Cognitive Domain Learning Outcome Deliver lessons that support active student learning. (NCAAA LO for Teacher Preparation Program student) KPI Deliver lessons that support student learning at 4.50 out of 6.00 rate; based on the active student learning rubric number Edu. 2.25. Target Benchmark 4.50 (faculty target goal) KPI Finding Benchmark 2.33 (calculated in 2012) Internal Benchmark 2.25 (based on 2010 finding) External Benchmark 4.75 New Target Benchmark 3.50 (University of Finland) (faculty target goal) Analysis: How is this data interpreted? What is the improvement plan to reach the new goal? Analysis: How is this KPI also a learning outcome? Now Evaluate with KPI
Grading & Performance Rubrics What are Rubrics? A rubric is a scoring tool A rubric is a scoring tool that explicitly represents the performance expectations for an assignment or piece of work. A rubric divides the assigned work into component parts and provides clear descriptions of the characteristics of the work associated with each component, at varying levels of mastery. Rubrics can be used Rubrics can be used for a wide range of assignments: papers, projects, oral presentations, artistic performances, group projects, or qualitative assessments. Rubrics can be used Rubrics can be used as scoring or grading guides, to provide formative feedback to support and guide ongoing learning efforts, or both.
Example Oral Exam: This rubric describes a set of components and standards for assessing performance on an oral exam A (18-20 points) Exemplary B (16-17 points) Competent C (14-15 points) Developing D/R Dimensions: Overall Understanding Shows a deep/robust understanding of the topic with a fully developed argument per the categories below Shows a limited understanding of the topic, not quite a fully developed argument per the categories below Shows a superficial understanding of the topic, argument not developed enough per the categories below Shows no understanding of the topic and no argument per the categories below Argument Clearly articulates a position or argument Articulates a position or argument that is incomplete or limited in scope Articulates a position or argument that is unfocused or ambiguous Does not articulate a position or argument Implications Fully discusses the major implications of the argument or position Adequately discusses some of the major implications of the position Discusses minor implications (missing the major ones) OR does not discuss major implications adequately Doesn’t discuss the implications of the argument or position
Qualitative KPI + Rubric Goal Goal Active learning teaching methods. LO Teacher candidate will deliver lessons that support active student learning (cognitive domain) at 4.75 rate using Rubric 1.42; including not more than 3 classroom visits. PtsParticipation per class Small groups per class per classProblemsolving Use of technology # of Active Methods 6 All students participate All students engaged Teacher & students together 6 475%Students 75% Students Teacher & students separately 4-5 350%Students 50% Students Student Only 2-3 225%Students 25% Students Teacher Only 1 0Teacher Only OnlyLectureWholeGroupOnly Knowledge only level questions NoTechnology0
Qualitative KPI + Rubric Data Goal Goal Active learning teaching methods. LO LO Deliver lessons that support active student learning. N = 100 Students (suggested NCAAA LO) Involving discussions Small groups Problem solving Use of technology # of Active Methods 6 X N = 0 6 X 3 = 18 6 X 4 = ? 6 X 10 = ? 6 X 0 = 0 4 X 2 = 8 4 X 2 = 8 4 X 7 = 28 4 X 6 = ? 4 X 10 = ? 5 2 X 5 = 10 2 X 10 = 20 2 X 10 = ? 2015 1 X 12 = 12 1 X 12 = 12 1 X 20 = 20 1 X 30 = ? 5060 0 X 75 = 0 0 X 75 = 0 20 / 100 =.20 0 X 60 = 0 86/100 =.86 501020
LO for Standard 4 Interpersonal Skills and Responsibility KPI: _________________________________________________________________ NCAAA KPI Reference Number: _____________ Institutional KPI Reference Number: _________ Break bad news & discuss sensitive issues Learning Outcome: _Break bad news & discuss sensitive issues ________________ Learning Domain: _________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Actual BenchmarkTarget BenchmarkInternal Benchmark*External Benchmark** New Target Benchmark Analysis (list strengths and recommendations): * Explain: 1. Why this internal benchmark provider was chosen? 2. How was the benchmark calculated? 3. Name of the internal benchmark provider. ** Explain: 1. Why this external benchmark provider was chosen? 2. How was the benchmark calculated? 3. Name of the external benchmark provider. Complete Rubric & the KPI templates
Qualitative KPI + Rubric LO LO Gastrointestinal system, medical graduates will be able to safely demonstrate the following four procedures. KPI KPI Perform each exam 9 out of 10 times successfully and earn a rating of 5.50 out of 6.00 on the “Gastrointestinal System Rubric.” Pts 1. Insert Nasogastric Tube 2. Perform Rectal Exam 3. Perform Proctoscopy 4. Perform a Faecal Occult Blood Analysis 1. Insert Nasogastric Tube 6 100% Perfect 4 3 2 0 Make a rubric
Write KPI and LO for your Program. Write a KPI and LO for your course KPI: _________________________________________________________________ NCAAA KPI Reference Number: _____________ Institutional KPI Reference Number: _________ Learning Outcome: _________________ Learning Domain: _____________________________________________________ Actual BenchmarkTarget BenchmarkInternal Benchmark*External Benchmark** New Target Benchmark Analysis (list strengths and recommendations): * Explain: 1. Why this internal benchmark provider was chosen? 2. How was the benchmark calculated? 3. Name of the internal benchmark provider. ** Explain: 1. Why this external benchmark provider was chosen? 2. How was the benchmark calculated? 3. Name of the external benchmark provider.
Write a rubric for your Program or course LO Goal KPI LO Pts 6 4 3 2 0
LO Trend Report LO that support active student learning. (NCAAA LO for Teacher Preparation Program student) LO Percentage of students scoring 4.50 for delivering lessons that support active student learning. (NCAAA LO for Teacher Preparation Program student) 200520072009201120132015 100% 90% 80%78% 70%77%prediction 60%(70%) 50%49%target 40%36%benchmark 30%28% 20% 10% Analysis: discussion and evaluation strengths, recommendations, predictions strengths, recommendations, predictions
Introductory Assessment Map
Intermediate Assessment Map
Level Assessment Map
NCAAA Domains of Learning Assessment Strategies 123456 Knowledge Knowledge Facts Concepts/theories Procedures Cognitive Skills Cognitive Skills Apply skills when asked Creative thinking & problem-solving Interpersonal Skills & Responsibility Interpersonal Skills & Responsibility Responsibility for own learning Group participation & leadership Act responsibly & professional Ethical standards of behavior Communication IT Numerical Skills Communication IT Numerical Skills Oral & written Use of IT Basic math & stats Psychomotor Skills Psychomotor Skills Assessment Strategies… Assessment Strategies…
Program Learning Outcomes Mapping Matrix Identify on the table below the courses that are required to achieve the Program learning outcomes. Insert the Program learning outcomes, according to the level of instruction, from the above table below and indicate the courses and levels that are required to teach each one; use your Program’s course numbers across the top and the following level scale. Levels: I = Introduction P = Proficient A = Advanced (see help icon) Course Offerings NQF Learning Domains and Learning Outcomes A-100A-101A-102A-103A-104A-105A-106A-107A-108A-109A-110A-111A-112 1.0Knowledge 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2.0Cognitive Skills 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 3.0Interpersonal Skills & Responsibility 3.1 3.2 4.0Communication, Information Technology, Numerical 4.1 4.2 5.0Psychomotor 5.1 5.2
Session 6 Common Problems Associated with Writing Learning Outcomes
Common Problems : 1.Language is too vague or too specific for course level 2.Use of ambiguous words and phrases 3.There are too many learning outcomes 4.There are too many verbs in one learning outcome 5. Overuse of the same verb 6.Inappropriate cognitive level 7.Use of progression 8.Learning outcomes are not realistic 9.Learning outcomes that are not, or cannot be, assessed
1. Language is too vague or too specific for course level This is where learning outcomes are either written at a broad level more suitable for a Program or where the language is too prescriptive describing actions of a student that may be achievable at the end of a specific class rather than an entire course.
Examples Example of an outcome that is too broad: Students will be able to identify and demonstrate the dynamic nature of the environment in which marketing decisions are taken. Example of an outcome that is too specific: Students will be able to outline the functions of marketing within a financial institution.
2. Ambiguous words and phrases This refers to the use of vague terms like: know, understand, learn, be familiar with, be exposed to, be acquainted with, be aware of, appreciate, etc. The main problem with using these verbs or phrases is that they are not universally understood so students or another teacher may interpret them differently. demonstrateQuestions to consider are: how can you be sure that the students know or understand? and how can they demonstrate that they know or understand?
Examples Example of an outcome with ambiguous words: Students will be able to understand the function, structure and components of the musculoskeletal system. Suggested alternative: Students will be able to explain the function, structure and components of the musculoskeletal system.
3. Too many learning outcomes It is recommended at course level to have between four and six learning outcomes. Tips: If you have too many outcomes you may want to consider whether some of the learning outcomes could be combined (and assessed via a rubric). You may decide that a particular outcome is more relevant to a specific class than the entire course in which case you may wish to remove it. Use your assessment and what it is measuring to prompt you.
4. Too many verbs in one learning outcome Too many action verbs in one learning outcome can be confusing as it may not be clear which action is the most important for the student to be required to demonstrate. work in groups apply basic principlesIn the example: consider if the focus for this outcome is on whether students can work in groups or whether they can apply basic principles and how this outcome is, or should be, assessed.
Example Example of outcome with too many verbs: Students will have worked in small groups and considered the application of basic principles to different industrial processes. There may be instances, where two verbs are co- dependent and consequently relevant to one learning outcome as seen in the example below: recognize and solve Students will be able to recognize and solve problems relating to the basic concepts of chemical reactions.
5. Overuse of the same verb In some cases, particularly when finding an alternative for ambiguous words/phrases such as know, understand or be familiar with, there can be a tendency to find a solution for one learning outcome and repeat it for others. solve calculateIn some disciplines such as math there may be a need for repetitive use of words such as ‘solve’ or ‘calculate’ where there is no alternative required or possible.
6. Inappropriate cognitive level This is where there is an over use of verbs that require students to demonstrate knowledge where they may also be required to demonstrate a deeper learning such as analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Choose the verb based on the relevant domain of learning.
7. Use of progression in learning outcomes This is where a learning outcome refers to improvement in learning or other phrases that imply progression (series, sequence, succession, string, chain, evolution, development). Progression is difficult to measure as the student would need to demonstrate levels of learning at varying points of time. It may be best to remove the reference to progression.
Example Example of progression in a learning outcome: Students will have an increased proficiency in presentation skills. Suggested Alternative: Students will be able to demonstrate a proficiency in presentation skills.
8. Learning outcomes that are not practical This is where learning outcomes are not realizable due to constraints of time and/or resources. For example a learning outcome might demand an assessment load too great for the students or for the teacher.
9. Outcomes that are not, or cannot, be assessed As the traditional faculty-centered approach involved writing objectives from the point of view of what the lecturer intended to deliver. Some learning outcomes can address the delivery of content only and are not covered anywhere in the assessment of the course.
Useful Tips Check that each learning outcome is addressed in some way by assessment. Check that all elements of the assessment have been included in the set of learning outcomes.
Course Constructive Alignment Template Intended Learning Outcomes AssessmentTeaching & Learning Activities On successful completion of the course, the student should be able to: 1. 2. 3. Continuous Assessment? Percentage % Final Examination – Format? % Pass Standard Penalties Total grade Assessments types Rubrics What will the students do to learn? Teaching methods Class activities
Exercise Example 1: To increase the student’s ability to visually identify white cells on a differential. The student will identify correctly all white cells on a differential. Example 2: The student will gain knowledge of automated chemistry tests. The student will state the principle for each automated chemistry test listed
Exercise Example 3 : The student will be familiar with red blood cell maturation in the bone marrow. The student will diagram the maturation of red blood cells. Example 4: The student will understand the interpretation of hemoglobin electrophoresis patterns. Given several electrophoresis scans, the student will correctly diagnose each normal or abnormal pattern.
Exercise Please identify which learning domain the following ILOs are related to: Lecture LOs (Hemolytic Anemias) After attending the lecture, reading the assignment, and performing the tests in the laboratory, the student will: 1.Define the term hemolytic anemia. 2. Classify the major hemolytic anemias by their intrinsic or extrinsic causes.
Exercise 3.Summarize each disease discussed in lecture including distinguishing characteristics, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, pathology, and treatment. 4.For each disease discussed in lecture, determine the appropriate tests to resolve the problem. Include the principle and mechanism of each test in the evaluation. 5.Given a set of laboratory data and patient history, correctly diagnose the disease.
One more Exercise Please read the listed LOs and identify what common problems are associated with each one and re–write it.
Conclusion Thank you for your time and reflections Dr. Gregory J. Maffet Dr. Nasser M. Sarhan