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Designing an Educational Program Kathy Stewart, MD David Feldstein, MD PCFDP11/13/10.

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Presentation on theme: "Designing an Educational Program Kathy Stewart, MD David Feldstein, MD PCFDP11/13/10."— Presentation transcript:

1 Designing an Educational Program Kathy Stewart, MD David Feldstein, MD PCFDP11/13/10

2 Introduction

3 Objectives Describe active learning techniques for small and large groups Describe active learning techniques for small and large groups Formulate learning objectives for an educational program Formulate learning objectives for an educational program Design appropriate instructional techniques for an educational program Design appropriate instructional techniques for an educational program Formulate an evaluation plan for an educational program Formulate an evaluation plan for an educational program

4 Overview of Program Planning Things to consider when planning a program Learners educational needs Intended learner outcomes Learning activities Evaluation plan

5 Overview Learning Objectives Learning Activities Evaluation

6 Overview Learning Objectives Learning Activities Evaluation

7 Pedagogy v. Andragogy Pedagogy Pedagogy Art and science of teaching children Art and science of teaching children Andragogy Andragogy Art and science of helping adults learn Art and science of helping adults learn

8 Pedagogy v. Andragogy PedagogyAndragogy Learner Dependent on teacher Self-directed

9 Pedagogy v. Andragogy PedagogyAndragogy Learner Dependent on teacher Self-directed Experience Little previous experience Wealth of experience is a resource for new learning

10 Pedagogy v. Andragogy PedagogyAndragogy Learner Dependent on teacher Self-directed Experience Little previous experience Wealth of experience is a resource for new learning Readiness to Learn Ready to learn when told Ready to learn when experience a need for more knowledge

11 Pedagogy v. Andragogy PedagogyAndragogy Learner Dependent on teacher Self-directed Experience Little previous experience Wealth of experience is a resource for new learning Readiness to Learn Ready to learn when told Ready to learn when experience a need for more knowledge Orientation to Learning Subject-centered curriculum Problem-centered curriculum

12 Pedagogy v. Andragogy PedagogyAndragogy Learner Dependent on teacher Self-directed Experience Little previous experience Wealth of experience is a resource for new learning Readiness to Learn Ready to learn when told Ready to learn when experience a need for more knowledge Orientation to Learning Subject-centered curriculum Problem-centered curriculum Motivation External motivation Internal motivation

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14 Learning Objectives Goals Goals Broad and generalized Broad and generalized The ultimate ‘target’ The ultimate ‘target’ Too broad for designing assessment Too broad for designing assessment Example: Student will learn proper grammar and spelling. Example: Student will learn proper grammar and spelling. Objectives Objectives Specific, measurable, short-term observable learner behaviors Specific, measurable, short-term observable learner behaviors

15 Learning Objectives Specific, measurable, short-term observable learner behaviors Specific, measurable, short-term observable learner behaviors Lead to assessment Lead to assessment Ensure students reach goals Ensure students reach goals Target four areas Target four areas Audience Audience Behavior Behavior Condition Condition Degree Degree

16 Three Domains of Learning Affective domain Affective domain Five levels: Receiving, responding, valuing, organizing, characterizing Five levels: Receiving, responding, valuing, organizing, characterizing Psychomotor domain Psychomotor domain Cognitive domain Cognitive domain Bloom’s taxonomy Bloom’s taxonomy

17 Bloom’s Taxonomy

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19 Clark, B. (2002). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.

20 Writing Objectives Knowledge: Cite, define, list, name, select, state, write Knowledge: Cite, define, list, name, select, state, write Comprehension: Associate, classify, contrast, distinguish, interpret, review Comprehension: Associate, classify, contrast, distinguish, interpret, review Application: Calculate, demonstrate, order, practice, relate, use Application: Calculate, demonstrate, order, practice, relate, use

21 Writing Objectives Analysis: Analyze, summarize, debate, distinguish, criticize, differentiate Analysis: Analyze, summarize, debate, distinguish, criticize, differentiate Synthesis: Assemble, collect, design, manage, prepare, specify Synthesis: Assemble, collect, design, manage, prepare, specify Evaluation: Appraise, determine, judge, measure, score, test Evaluation: Appraise, determine, judge, measure, score, test Verbs to avoid: Appreciate, know, learn, comprehend, study, understand, believe Verbs to avoid: Appreciate, know, learn, comprehend, study, understand, believe

22 Writing Objectives Psychomotor domain: Integrate, measure, visualize, hold, project, diagnose Psychomotor domain: Integrate, measure, visualize, hold, project, diagnose Affective domain: Exemplify, realize, reflect Affective domain: Exemplify, realize, reflect

23 Example 1 Diagnose diabetes Diagnose diabetes

24 Example 2 Students will gain knowledge regarding the management of complex congenital heart disease. Students will gain knowledge regarding the management of complex congenital heart disease.

25 Example 3 Demonstrate their efficiency in the use of systems based practice. Demonstrate their efficiency in the use of systems based practice.

26 Writing Your Own Objectives Now take 5 minutes to write 2-3 objectives for a learning program that will facilitate Now take 5 minutes to write 2-3 objectives for a learning program that will facilitate

27 Sharing Your Objectives Pair up in groups of 2-3 and share and critique each others learning objectives Pair up in groups of 2-3 and share and critique each others learning objectives

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29 Instructional Techniques Factors to Consider Factors to Consider 1. Learning objectives 2. Instructor’s skills and comfort 3. Learners 4. Context 5. Content 6. Characteristics of techniques 7. Logistical constraints 8. Time

30 Potential Techniques Knowledge Acquisition Knowledge Acquisition Lecture Lecture Computer tutorials Computer tutorials or listservs or listservs Sharing of information or questions Sharing of information or questions

31 Potential Techniques Enhancing Cognitive Skills Enhancing Cognitive Skills Case study Case study Debate Debate Observation with discussion Observation with discussion

32 Potential Techniques Psychomotor skills Psychomotor skills Demonstration and return demonstration Demonstration and return demonstration Simulation – Live or computer-based Simulation – Live or computer-based Skill practice session Skill practice session

33 Learner Attention Span Mills, H.R. (1977) Techniques of Technical Training, 3rd Ed

34 Active Learning “Involves learners in doing things and thinking about the things they are doing” “Involves learners in doing things and thinking about the things they are doing” Less emphasis on transmitting information Less emphasis on transmitting information Emphasis on developing student’s skills Emphasis on developing student’s skills Learners engaged in activities Learners engaged in activities Learners involved in higher-order thinking Learners involved in higher-order thinking Bonwell and Eison, 1991

35 Making it Active Brainstorming Brainstorming Buzz groups Buzz groups Problem solving Problem solving Mini-assessment Mini-assessment Interactive computer programs Interactive computer programs Reflective writing Reflective writing

36 Practice with Learning Activities Get back in your group of 2-3 and discuss potential learning activities for your learning program Get back in your group of 2-3 and discuss potential learning activities for your learning program

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38 What Happens After the Course? Assessment: Analysis and use of data by students/faculty/departments to make decisions about improvements in teaching or learning Assessment: Analysis and use of data by students/faculty/departments to make decisions about improvements in teaching or learning Evaluation: Analysis and use of data by faculty to make judgments about student performance. Includes determination of grade. Evaluation: Analysis and use of data by faculty to make judgments about student performance. Includes determination of grade.

39 Evaluation and Assessment Drive course planning Drive course planning Based on desired learning activities and outcomes Based on desired learning activities and outcomes Take a variety of forms: Take a variety of forms: Surveys Surveys Interviews Interviews Observation Observation Skills assessment exams Skills assessment exams Standardized scenarios Standardized scenarios

40 Clark, D. (2008). bdld.blogspot.com. Retrieved from web Nov, Backwards Planning

41 Kirkpatrick D. (1994). San Francisco, CA: Barrett-Koehler.

42 Evaluation Methods Methods Evaluation Levels 1Reaction2Learning3Behavior4Results Survey Questionnaire / Interview  Focus Group  Knowledge Test / Check  Work Review  Skills Observation  Presentations / Teach Bk  Action Planning  Action Learning  Key Business HR Metrics 

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44 Conclusions Questions or comments about your learning programs? Questions or comments about your learning programs? What have you learned? What have you learned?

45 Conclusions Describe active learning techniques for small and large groups Describe active learning techniques for small and large groups Formulate learning objectives for an educational program Formulate learning objectives for an educational program Design appropriate instructional techniques for an educational program Design appropriate instructional techniques for an educational program Formulate an evaluation plan for an educational program Formulate an evaluation plan for an educational program


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