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B r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY Technology Related to Facial Identification Dr Derek Carson University of Abertay

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Presentation on theme: "B r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY Technology Related to Facial Identification Dr Derek Carson University of Abertay"— Presentation transcript:

1 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY Technology Related to Facial Identification Dr Derek Carson University of Abertay

2 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY Photofit – UK 1970’s -Penry The face is no more than the sum of its parts.

3 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY Modern Systems Computer based Electronic Facial Identification Technique (E-Fit). /Pro-fit. Benefits: Huge exemplar database Viewed in context Easier manipulation Different Race Databases No lines

4 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY E-fit Procedure Stage 1 -Verbal Description - Cognitive Interview. Stage 2. Aberdeen Index. Stage 3. Choosing best exemplar Sizing Positioning Stage 4. Use of paint package – artistic enhancement.

5 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY

6 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY Bruce et al. (2000) Morphed composite was always identified as well as the best individual likeness.

7 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY Recent Advances The evolution of new technologies?

8 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY Configural/Holistic Processing

9 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY

10 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY

11 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY

12 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY More Holistic Systems Evo-Fit – Dr Charlie Frowd – University of Lancaster Professor Peter Hancock – University of Stirling Professor Vicki Bruce- University of Newcastle Efit-V -Dr Chris Solomon – University of Kent at Cantebury.

13 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY

14 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY Frowd, Hancock and Carson (2004).

15 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY Current Pilot Testing Lancashire Constabulary. Derbyshire Constabulary. Northumbrian Constabulary.

16 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY Recent Developments – Evo-Fit Simultaneous versus sequential presentation. Time taken to make decisions. Standard versus tailored models. Potential role for caricaturing? Vulnerable witnesses? Colour? 3 D capabilities?

17 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY CCTV and Facial Mapping Is it a Panacea? Forensic Trail evidence – Locard’s Exchange Principle – every contact leaves a trace. The image can be replayed and viewed by the arbiters of fact- the judge and jury.

18 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY But How Reliably?

19 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY Burton, Wilson, Cowan & Bruce (1999). Stills taken from University of Glasgow Psychology Department. Stimuli were the lecturing staff. 10 male and 10 female non-posed. Subjects were:20 psychology students. 20 non psychology students. 20 police officers (13.5 years of service).

20 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY Each subject shown 10 video clips X 2. At test shown 20 high quality images.

21 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY Results

22 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY Facial Mapping Techniques Comparison of two images – obvious limitations due to quality of footage. Heads must be at similar angle. Comparison not based on numeric distance but of relative similarities. Role for statistics pertaining to the prevalence of a particular feature in a given population.

23 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY Facial Mapping Techniques Exculpatory evidence can be presented if marked unexplained differences are apparent. Similarity does not indicate identity unless the presence of unique identifiers can be established. Significance of similarity must be taken into account to support other types of evidence.

24 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY Church V HMA [1996] Scots Law Requirement for corroboration. ¾ eyewitnesses provided positive ID Quality of footage disputed. At appeal two experts noted significant differences. R v Loveridge [2001] Consent from suspect is generally required for comparison footage.

25 b r e a k i n g b a r r i e r s UNIVERSITY OF ABERTAY Summary Technological change is inevitable. Just because we can does not necessarily mean we should. We must always ensure that the roll out of technologies is given due consideration. SUMMARY


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