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Identification principles and the use of forms and codes Tore Solheim 2010 Identification = to prove the identity of a person by objective comparison 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Identification principles and the use of forms and codes Tore Solheim 2010 Identification = to prove the identity of a person by objective comparison 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Identification principles and the use of forms and codes Tore Solheim 2010 Identification = to prove the identity of a person by objective comparison 1

2 Recognition of a person Proof of identity Subjective Mistakes? –Affectionate state –Psychological trauma –Later doubt Use with outmost caution 2

3 Person identification Comparison of a.m. with p.m. information Objective By neutral experts Must never be wrong Save relatives 3

4 Identification Who is responsible? –Police –Coroner/medical examiner –Judge –ID-commission (team) How important? –Different countries Correct body for burial? Many unidentified bodies? Recognition easy and cheap 4

5 Work in respect of the dead and their families Respect of the individual after death –Ethics of identification –Must use time and effort Only the police have sufficient resources Only the police have international co-operation –Interpol Working committee Forms with computer program (DVI-system) Guide Recommendation for international co-operation 5

6 Odontologic comparison Comparison of odontologic data Radiographic comparison Photographic comparison Superimposition techniques Facial reconstruction techniques Final Identification must be a result of a compete evaluation of all evidence Team work 6

7 Odontologic comparison report Conclusions –Odontologic identity established –Odontologic identity probable –Odontologic identity possible –Odontologic identity excluded Subjective assessment –No guide –Statistical evidence 7

8 Statistical considerations Keiser-Nielsen –Od.id. established At least 12 concordant uncharacteristic features –Calculation of possibilities Possibilities are not the same as probabilities –Interrelation of fillings Skinner want to reduce the population –The dead person can be anyone Only the police can guarantee the missing person list (population) A person not reported missing 8

9 Wrong identification? Identification by elimination What is the possibility of a wrong identification DNA comparisons – <1/ Odontologic comparison? Identity established??? 9

10 How frequent occurs another person with the same features? Identity established < 1/ Identity probable < 1//100 Identity possible  >1/100  Epidemiologic data?? 10

11 Forms Forensic examinations -> written report –Also identification A form –Saves time –Not forget anything Help for inexperienced All fields should be filled in National forms –Often too simple –US after Sept 11. form from 2 to 40 pages Prepared for big disasters 11

12 The Interpol form International co-operation Revised several times Comprises all 3 fields of Identification 2 out of 15 pages for forensic odontology Used in all Nordic countries Designed for electronic use –Cross off boxes –DVI system computer program made in Denmark –Print the forms –Comparison sheet 12

13 The odontologic form A.M and P.M forms F1 administrative page F2 odontologic description A legal report –Not a working document Registrations should be complete The report should stand alone –All important background information –Main police findings –Main forensic medical findings All fields should be filled in 13

14 The comparison form Formulation of conclusion Reason for the conclusion –Explain non-concordant details –Write which details the conclusion is based upon –Which details (filling) and which tooth 4 amalgam fillings (17,27,36,35) Signature of two dentists 14


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