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Outcome Harvesting Ricardo Wilson-Grau 9 February 2012 Beirut, Lebanon.

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Presentation on theme: "Outcome Harvesting Ricardo Wilson-Grau 9 February 2012 Beirut, Lebanon."— Presentation transcript:

1 Outcome Harvesting Ricardo Wilson-Grau 9 February 2012 Beirut, Lebanon

2 The next two hours Purpose: Introduce you to the principles of Outcome Harvesting as a monitoring and evaluation tool for Outcome Mapping. Intended results: You will understand the essential principles of Outcome Harvesting and be able to decide when and if it could be useful in your Outcome Mapping work.

3 Outcome Harvesting A tool for monitoring and evaluating the results of development interventions Developed since 2003 by me and my colleagues Claudia Fontes, Fe Briones Garcia, Gabriela Sánchez, Goele Scheers, Heather Britt, Jennifer Vincent, Julie Lafreniere, Juliette Majot, Marcie Mersky, Martha Nuñez, Mary Jane Real, and Wolfgang Richert, and currently Barbara Klugman and Natalia Ortiz.

4 1. International social change networks

5 2. Funding agencies

6 Outcome Harvesting 0. Focus on utilisation 1.Design the harvest 2.Review documentation and draft outcomes 3.Engage with informants 4.Substantiate 5.Analyse, interpret 6.Support use of findings

7 Outcome Harvesting to meet needs MonitoringEvaluation “I can honestly say that not a day goes by when we don’t use those evaluations in one way or another.”

8 Outcome Harvesting 0. Focus on utilisation 1.Design the harvest 2.Review documentation and draft outcomes 3.Engage with informants 4.Substantiate 5.Analyse, interpret 6.Support use of findings

9 0. Focus on usefulness Primary intended users Principal intended uses Useful M&E questions

10 Examples Management team requires information about programme effectiveness in order to make funding decisions for the next three years.

11 Examples Management team requires information about programme effectiveness in order to make funding decisions for the next three years. To what extent did the outcomes we influenced in represent patterns of progress towards our strategic objectives? Was our investment in the activities and outputs that contributed to our outcomes cost-effective? What? So what?

12 Focus on usefulness compared to OM INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 1: Vision STEP 2: Mission STEP 3: Boundary Partners STEP 4: Outcome Challenges STEP 5 : Progress Markers STEP 6 : Strategy Maps STEP 7: Organizational Practices STEP 8: Monitoring Priorities STEP 9: Outcome Journals STEP 10: Strategy Journal STEP 11: Performance Journal OUTCOME & PERFORMANCE MONITORING INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 12: Evaluation Plan EVALUATION PLANNING

13 My comparison INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 1: Vision STEP 2: Mission STEP 3: Boundary Partners STEP 4: Outcome Challenges STEP 5 : Progress Markers STEP 6 : Strategy Maps STEP 7: Organizational Practices STEP 8: Monitoring Priorities STEP 9: Outcome Journals STEP 10: Strategy Journal STEP 11: Performance Journal OUTCOME & PERFORMANCE MONITORING INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 12: Evaluation Plan EVALUATION PLANNING

14 Outcome Harvesting 0. Focus on utilisation 1.Design the harvest

15 The M&E balancing act

16 The OM concept of “outcome” as changes in social actors

17 Useful Evaluation Question To what extent did the outcomes we influenced in represent patterns of progress towards our strategic objectives? Data required to answer In the light of monitoring and evaluation questions, what data is required and how and from whom will it be obtained?

18 SOCIAL ACTOR Individual Organisation Institution Behaviour Relationships Actions, activities Policies and practices CHANGE Group or community To be harvested

19 Outcome defined A.An observable and significant change in a social actor’s behaviour, relationships, activities, actions, policies or practice that has been achieved... B.… and that has been influenced by the change agent.

20 Outcome example A.On May 16, 2007, World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz resigns in a wake of scandals. B.The Government Accountability Project got the incriminating information to the media, leading to widespread international coverage, and in turn, inescapable pressure for Mr. Wolfowitz to resign. Source: Evaluation of the Ford Foundation’s Global Governance Programme (2009)

21 Design of Outcome Harvest compared to OM INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 1: Vision STEP 2: Mission STEP 3: Boundary Partners STEP 4: Outcome Challenges STEP 5 : Progress Markers STEP 6 : Strategy Maps STEP 7: Organizational Practices STEP 8: Monitoring Priorities STEP 9: Outcome Journals STEP 10: Strategy Journal STEP 11: Performance Journal OUTCOME & PERFORMANCE MONITORING INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 12: Evaluation Plan EVALUATION PLANNING

22 My comparison INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 1: Vision STEP 2: Mission STEP 3: Boundary Partners STEP 4: Outcome Challenges STEP 5 : Progress Markers STEP 6 : Strategy Maps STEP 7: Organizational Practices STEP 8: Monitoring Priorities STEP 9: Outcome Journals STEP 10: Strategy Journal STEP 11: Performance Journal OUTCOME & PERFORMANCE MONITORING INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 12: Evaluation Plan EVALUATION PLANNING

23 0. Focus on utilisation 1.Design the harvest 2.Review documentation and draft outcomes Outcome Harvesting When? Who? What? Where?

24 Exercise Please take five minutes to read this short, one-page case study from AWID, the Association for Women’s Rights in Development. Then, with the person seated next to you, identify one outcome: A.Who changed what, when and where?

25 MGD3 Fund Description: During 2011, the Dutch government decided to allocate an additional €12 million to the MGD3 Fund and to launch a new phase of support for the MGD3 with €70 million for the Fund for Leadership Opportunities for Women (FLOW) to strengthen the rights and opportunities for women and girls. The formulation of an outcome is as specific, verifiable and as detailed as makes sense for the primary intended users and their principal uses.

26 Exercise Now please identify how AWID contributed to it. A.Who changed what, when and where? B.What activities and outputs plausibly contributed to the change in the social actor, however partially, indirectly and even unintentionally?

27 MGD3 Fund Contribution of AWID: AWID compiled the document "Mid-term Summary of the MDG3 Fund Value Added and Outcomes", which was used by the Dutch Ministry in its internal advocacy for the replenishment of the MDG3 Fund. This material along with AWID’s coordination efforts among MDG3 grantees also supported the Dutch gender lobby platform with a strong advocacy tool that they used to lobby the Dutch government to commit these additional resources for women’s rights organizations around the world.

28 Other information? Significance of the outcome Collaboration with other social actors Contribution of other actors and factors History Context Evidence of impact on people’s lives And so forth – it all depends on the information required to answer the M&E questions.

29 For example Outcome’s significance: In the light of the impact to which you wish to contribute, why is this outcome important?

30 Outcome example A.On May 16, 2007, World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz resigns in a wake of scandals. B.The Government Accountability Project got the incriminating information to the media, leading to widespread international coverage, and in turn, inescapable pressure for Mr. Wolfowitz to resign. C.The Wolfowitz episode dramatically exposed the weak governance structure of the World Bank itself and it is unlikely that governance at the Bank can revert to the minimal scrutiny and oversight carried out before the scandal.

31 Reviewing documentation and drafting outcomes compared to OM INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 1: Vision STEP 2: Mission STEP 3: Boundary Partners STEP 4: Outcome Challenges STEP 5 : Progress Markers STEP 6 : Strategy Maps STEP 7: Organizational Practices STEP 8: Monitoring Priorities STEP 9: Outcome Journals STEP 10: Strategy Journal STEP 11: Performance Journal OUTCOME & PERFORMANCE MONITORING INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 12: Evaluation Plan EVALUATION PLANNING

32 My comparison INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 1: Vision STEP 2: Mission STEP 3: Boundary Partners STEP 4: Outcome Challenges STEP 5 : Progress Markers STEP 6 : Strategy Maps STEP 7: Organizational Practices STEP 8: Monitoring Priorities STEP 9: Outcome Journals STEP 10: Strategy Journal STEP 11: Performance Journal OUTCOME & PERFORMANCE MONITORING INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 12: Evaluation Plan EVALUATION PLANNING

33 My comparison INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 1: Vision STEP 2: Mission STEP 3: Boundary Partners STEP 4: Outcome Challenges STEP 5 : Progress Markers STEP 6 : Strategy Maps STEP 7: Organizational Practices STEP 8: Monitoring Priorities STEP 9: Outcome Journals STEP 10: Strategy Journal STEP 11: Performance Journal OUTCOME & PERFORMANCE MONITORING INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 12: Evaluation Plan EVALUATION PLANNING

34 Outcome Harvesting 0. Focus on utilisation 1.Design the harvest 2.Review documentation and draft outcomes 3.Engage with informants

35 Skype or telephone In person

36 MGD3 Fund Comment [RW-G1]: Can you be more specific? Who in government? Which agency? Description: During 2011, the Dutch government decided to allocate an additional €12 million to the MGD3 Fund and to launch a new phase of support for the MGD3 with €70 million for the Fund for Leadership Opportunities for Women (FLOW) to strengthen the rights and opportunities for women and girls.

37 Rita Fund Comment [RW-G1]: Who created this fund? When was it created? Specifically where was it created? Comment [RW-G1]: Who created this fund? When was it created? Specifically where was it created? Comment [RW-G2]: Is this an appropriate characterisation of “funding gap”? Comment [RW-G3]: Did AWID do something more active to influence the creation of the Fund? Description: The Rita Fund is created in the United States. The Rita Fund is a woman’s fund which strives to respond to the “funding gap” between donors’ interest and their actual funding by creating a reliable non restrictive funding source for women’s funds operating worldwide. Contribution of AWID: AWID’s report Where is the Money for Women’s Rights?, published in 2008, was the source of information and inspiration from which came the idea to create the Rita Fund.

38 Outcome Harvesting to date

39

40

41

42

43 How much or little detail? Depends on the users, uses and M&E questions. Can be one sentence as in the example or a page or more….

44 Outcome example A.On May 16, 2007, World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz resigns in a wake of scandals. B.The Wolfowitz episode dramatically exposed the weak governance structure of the World Bank itself and it is unlikely that governance at the Bank can revert to the minimal scrutiny and oversight carried out before the scandal. C.The Government Accountability Project got the incriminating information to the media, leading to widespread international coverage, and in turn, inescapable pressure for Mr. Wolfowitz to resign.

45 Title: On May 16, 2007, World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz resigns in a wake of scandals. Outcome: On May 16, 2007, World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz resigns in a wake of wide-ranging scandals. Among them: Wolfowitz’s companion, Shaha Riza, received salary raises far in excess of those allowable under Bank rules; Riza received a questionable consulting position with a U.S. defense contractor in 2003 at his direction that resulted in State and Defense Department inquiries; Juan Jose Daboub, Bank Managing Director and Wolfowitz-hire, attempted to remove reference to “family planning” from the Bank’s new health sector strategy; Wolfowitz’s office was responsible for weakening a “climate change” strategy document; Bank Senior Management delayed reporting to Bank staff that a fellow staffer had been seriously wounded in a shooting in Iraq; Bank lending to Africa was deficient and delayed and could only meet lending targets if new loans were brought to the Board for approval without the proper formulation procedures; and that Wolfowitz was trying to broaden the Bank’s portfolio in Iraq over Board opposition, among other disclosures. Within a year, four controversial Wolfowitz appointees had left the Bank, including special advisors Robin Cleveland and Kevin Kellems, General Counsel Ana Palacio and Suzanne Folsom, the director of the Bank’s Department of Institutional Integrity (INT). Contribution of the grantee: The Government Accountability Project was the recipient of anonymously sent internal World Bank memos and tips relevant to many of the disclosures leading to the Wolfowitz resignation, among them, information that Wolfowitz was negotiating a contract with the resident Iraq Country director, in violation of the Bank’s Articles of Agreement; an about the shooting of a Bank employee in Iraq and the Bank’s failure to follow its protocol for informing staff about these injuries; payroll records of Shaha Riza; internal documents showing that Daboub, the Wolfowitz-appointed Managing Director, had instructed a team of Bank specialists to delete all references to “family planning” from the proposed Country Assistance Strategy for Madagascar; internal documents indicating that Daboub had ordered the toning down of references to “climate change” in Bank environmental strategy papers; etc. GAP was directly responsible for getting this information to the media – through press releases, leaking documents or corroborating information – leading to widespread international coverage, and in turn, inescapable pressure for Mr. Wolfowitz to resign. As The Economist wrote on April 12, 2007: “As he prepares to welcome ministers to the bank's spring meetings in Washington, DC, on April 14th and 15th, Mr. Wolfowitz's own toes … may feel a bit toasty. For that, he can thank the Government Accountability Project (GAP), a vibrant participant in America's civil society.” Significance: The Wolfowitz episode dramatically exposed the weak governance structure of the World Bank itself, even as its senior officials demand good governance to borrowing countries. In the wake of the scandal, it is unlikely that governance at the Bank can revert to the minimal scrutiny and oversight carried out before the scandal.

46 A story On May 16, 2007, World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz resigns in a wake of wide-ranging scandals. As The Economist wrote on April 12, 2007: “As he prepares to welcome ministers to the bank's spring meetings in Washington, DC, on April 14th and 15th, Mr. Wolfowitz's own toes … may feel a bit toasty. For that, he can thank the Government Accountability Project (GAP), a vibrant participant in America's civil society.” Wolfowitz’s companion, Shaha Riza, received salary raises far in excess of those allowable under Bank rules; Riza received a questionable consulting position with a U.S. defense contractor in 2003 at his direction that resulted in State and Defense Department inquiries; Juan Jose Daboub, Bank Managing Director and Wolfowitz-hire, attempted to remove reference to “family planning” from the Bank’s new health sector strategy; Wolfowitz’s office was responsible for weakening a “climate change” strategy document; Bank Senior Management delayed reporting to Bank staff that a fellow staffer had been seriously wounded in a shooting in Iraq; Bank lending to Africa was deficient and delayed and could only meet lending targets if new loans were brought to the Board for approval without the proper formulation procedures; and that Wolfowitz was trying to broaden the Bank’s portfolio in Iraq over Board opposition, among other disclosures. The Government Accountability Project was the recipient of anonymously sent internal World Bank memos and tips relevant to many of the disclosures leading to the Wolfowitz resignation, among them, information that Wolfowitz was negotiating a contract with the resident Iraq Country director, in violation of the Bank’s Articles of Agreement; an about the shooting of a Bank employee in Iraq and the Bank’s failure to follow its protocol for informing staff about these injuries; payroll records of Shaha Riza; internal documents showing that Daboub, the Wolfowitz-appointed Managing Director, had instructed a team of Bank specialists to delete all references to “family planning” from the proposed Country Assistance Strategy for Madagascar; internal documents indicating that Daboub had ordered the toning down of references to “climate change” in Bank environmental strategy papers; etc. GAP was directly responsible for getting this information to the media – through press releases, leaking documents or corroborating information – leading to widespread international coverage, and in turn, inescapable pressure for Mr. Wolfowitz to resign. The Wolfowitz episode dramatically exposed the weak governance structure of the World Bank itself, even as its senior officials demand good governance to borrowing countries. In the wake of the scandal, it is unlikely that governance at the Bank can revert to the minimal scrutiny and oversight carried out before the scandal. Within a year, four controversial Wolfowitz appointees had left the Bank, including special advisors Robin Cleveland and Kevin Kellems, General Counsel Ana Palacio and Suzanne Folsom, the director of the Bank’s Department of Institutional Integrity (INT).

47 One liners 1.In December 2005, the United Nations issues a groundbreaking whistleblower protection policy. 2.In August, 2006, GAP, in tandem with the World Bank Staff Association, stopped an attempt by then Bank President Paul Wolfowitz’s office to hurry through a flawed draft whistleblower protection policy. 3.In January, 2007, the Board of Executive Directors of the African Development Bank (AFDB) approves a whistleblower protection policy. 4.On May 16, 2007, World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz resigns in a wake of scandals. 5.The World Bank adopts recommendations for improving the Bank’s investigative unit INT and the Director of INT resigns. 6.In June 2008, the World Bank passes an improved whistleblower protection policy.

48 Engaging with informants compared to OM INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 1: Vision STEP 2: Mission STEP 3: Boundary Partners STEP 4: Outcome Challenges STEP 5 : Progress Markers STEP 6 : Strategy Maps STEP 7: Organizational Practices STEP 8: Monitoring Priorities STEP 9: Outcome Journals STEP 10: Strategy Journal STEP 11: Performance Journal OUTCOME & PERFORMANCE MONITORING INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 12: Evaluation Plan EVALUATION PLANNING

49 My comparison INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 1: Vision STEP 2: Mission STEP 3: Boundary Partners STEP 4: Outcome Challenges STEP 5 : Progress Markers STEP 6 : Strategy Maps STEP 7: Organizational Practices STEP 8: Monitoring Priorities STEP 9: Outcome Journals STEP 10: Strategy Journal STEP 11: Performance Journal OUTCOME & PERFORMANCE MONITORING INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 12: Evaluation Plan EVALUATION PLANNING

50 Outcome Harvesting 0. Focus on utilisation 1.Design the harvest 2.Review documentation and draft outcomes 3.Engage with informants 4.Substantiate

51 Present the final outcome formulation to one or more credible (independent, knowledgeable) person(s) and ask them to go on record with their opinion: 1. To what degree you are in agreement with the description of the Dutch government’s decision to allocate an additional €12 million to the MGD3 Fund and to launch a new phase of support for the MGD3 with €70 million for the Fund for Leadership Opportunities for Women (FLOW) [ ] Fully agree [ ] Partially agree [ ] Disagree Comments if you like: 2. How much do you agree with the description of how AWID influenced the Dutch government’s decision? [ ] Fully agree [ ] Partially agree [ ] Disagree Comments if you like:

52 Case studies To enhance the understanding and credibility of the findings.

53 Substantiation compared to OM INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 1: Vision STEP 2: Mission STEP 3: Boundary Partners STEP 4: Outcome Challenges STEP 5 : Progress Markers STEP 6 : Strategy Maps STEP 7: Organizational Practices STEP 8: Monitoring Priorities STEP 9: Outcome Journals STEP 10: Strategy Journal STEP 11: Performance Journal OUTCOME & PERFORMANCE MONITORING INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 12: Evaluation Plan EVALUATION PLANNING

54 My comparison INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 1: Vision STEP 2: Mission STEP 3: Boundary Partners STEP 4: Outcome Challenges STEP 5 : Progress Markers STEP 6 : Strategy Maps STEP 7: Organizational Practices STEP 8: Monitoring Priorities STEP 9: Outcome Journals STEP 10: Strategy Journal STEP 11: Performance Journal OUTCOME & PERFORMANCE MONITORING INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 12: Evaluation Plan?? EVALUATION PLANNING

55 Outcome Harvesting 0. Focus on utilisation 1.Design the harvest 2.Review documentation and draft outcomes 3.Engage with informants 4.Substantiate 5.Analyse, interpret

56 Organise the outcomes so that they can be interpreted in ways that will enable you to answer the Outcome Harvesting questions. To what extent did the outcomes we influenced in represent patterns of progress towards our strategic objectives? Classify the outcomes according to strategic objectives, country or region, year…

57 Excel Database

58 Access database Access Database

59 Policy change Legislature passes women’s right to land inheritance law Over the past 5 years, in 90% of the cases the Land Commission has given to widows the titles of their late husbands’ land Practice change Time Women’s group launches campaign + Widow takes late husband’s family to court + Court decides against widow Late husbands’ families murder three widows For the first time, press runs story on women’s land inheritance + Legislator drafts law + Finance committee discusses draft law + President declares women's land inheritance a right + Agriculture committee discusses draft law + Ten widows take late husbands’ family to court + Land Commission approves regulations for women’s inheritance of deceased husband’s land + Religious leader declares women's land inheritance a right + Women’s group initiates legal aid for widows + Court decides landmark case in favour of widow + Agricultural union admits widows as members + Seeking processes, patterns, trends

60 Theory of change RESULTS SOCIAL ACTORS ASSUMPTIONS MISSION STRATEGIES IMPACT

61 Systems approach

62 Analyse, interpret compared to OM INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 1: Vision STEP 2: Mission STEP 3: Boundary Partners STEP 4: Outcome Challenges STEP 5 : Progress Markers STEP 6 : Strategy Maps STEP 7: Organizational Practices STEP 8: Monitoring Priorities STEP 9: Outcome Journals STEP 10: Strategy Journal STEP 11: Performance Journal OUTCOME & PERFORMANCE MONITORING INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 12: Evaluation Plan EVALUATION PLANNING

63 STEP 12: Evaluation Plan PLANNING My comparison INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 1: Vision STEP 2: Mission STEP 3: Boundary Partners STEP 4: Outcome Challenges STEP 5 : Progress Markers STEP 6 : Strategy Maps STEP 7: Organizational Practices STEP 8: Monitoring Priorities STEP 9: Outcome Journals STEP 10: Strategy Journal STEP 11: Performance Journal OUTCOME & PERFORMANCE MONITORING INTENTIONAL DESIGN EVALUATION

64 STEP 12: Evaluation Plan PLANNING My comparison INTENTIONAL DESIGN STEP 1: Vision STEP 2: Mission STEP 3: Boundary Partners STEP 4: Outcome Challenges STEP 5 : Progress Markers STEP 6 : Strategy Maps STEP 7: Organizational Practices STEP 8: Monitoring Priorities STEP 9: Outcome Journals STEP 10: Strategy Journal STEP 11: Performance Journal OUTCOME & PERFORMANCE MONITORING INTENTIONAL DESIGN EVALUATION

65 Outcome Harvesting 0. Focus on utilisation 1.Design the harvest 2.Review documentation and draft outcomes 3.Engage with informants 4.Substantiate 5.Analyse, interpret 6.Support use of findings

66 6. Support for use of findings

67 My summary comparison between Outcome Harvesting and Outcome Mapping

68 Outcome Harvesting 0. Focus on utilisationSTEP 8: Monitoring Priorities 1. Design the harvestSTEP 9: Outcome Journals 2. Review documentation and draft outcomes STEP 9: Outcome Journals STEP 10: Strategy Journal? STEP 11: Performance Journal? 3. Engage with informantsSTEP 9: Outcome Journals 4. SubstantiateSTEP 9: Outcome Journals? 5. Analyse, interpretI NTENTIONAL D ESIGN, E VALUATION 6. Support use of findings

69 Many thanks! Do you have questions? ricardo wilson-grau consulting Rua Marechal Marques Porto 2/402, Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro, CEP , Brasil Telephone: ; Skype: ricardowilsongrau Direct via VOIP, dialing locally from: The Netherlands (or Europe): USA or Canada:

70 S.M.A.R.T. outcomes SpecificExample Each outcome is formulated in sufficient detail so that a primary intended user without specialised subject or contextual knowledge will be able to understand and appreciate what changed. Who changed what, when and where? In , the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs replenished its Budget Line on Gender Equality to fund the implementation of their Women’s Rights Program, which included significant funding for women’s organizations.

71 SMART outcomes MeasurableExample The description of the outcome provides objective, verifiable quantitative and qualitative information, independent of who is collecting data. How much? How many? When and where did the change happen? In , the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs replenished its Budget Line on Gender Equality to fund the implementation of their Women’s Rights Program, which included significant funding for women’s organizations.

72 SMART outcomes AchievedExample By AWID while perhaps not fully attributable to AWID. A plausible relationship, a logical link between the outcome and what AWID did that contributed to it. What did AWID do, when and where that contributed — wholly but probably partially, indirectly or indirectly, intentionally or unexpectedly? WITM had a session on funding at CSW that generated important discussions and sparked conversations with various partners in the movement as well as bi- laterals and provided evidence for the steady or expanding funding support for women’s organizations.

73 SMART outcomes RelevantExample The outcome represents noteworthy progress towards the impact you desire. Shifts in donor and development policy and practices for a greater financial and political commitment to gender equality and women’s rights, including women’s organizations.

74 SMART outcomes TimelyExample The outcome occurred within , although AWID’s contribution may have been months or even years before. In , the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs replenished its Budget Line on Gender Equality… WITM had a session on funding… and provided evidence for the steady or expanding funding support for women’s organizations.

75 Outcome substantiation One or more people independent of AWID and knowledgeable about a mutually agreed percentage of the outcomes, or of a representative group of outcomes, agrees (or not) with the formulation of the outcome and AWID’s contribution. The credible “authority” goes on public record with her or his opinion about the outcome and AWID’s contribution.


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