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Harshal R Salve, Kapil Yadav, Chandrakant S Pandav Centre for Community Medicine All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

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Presentation on theme: "Harshal R Salve, Kapil Yadav, Chandrakant S Pandav Centre for Community Medicine All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India."— Presentation transcript:

1 Harshal R Salve, Kapil Yadav, Chandrakant S Pandav Centre for Community Medicine All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

2  The Universal Declaration of Human Rights  The Constitution of India  What is women empowerment?  Significant global events towards women empowerment  Women empowerment & population stabilization  History of status of women in India  Current status of women empowerment in India  The way forward 4/28/2015 2

3 Article 2. Universal declaration of human rights. (Available at “Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status” 4/28/2015 3

4  WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship EQUALITY of status and of opportunity and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation 4/28/2015 4

5 Women's empowerment has five components: o Sense of self-worth o Right to have and to determine choices o Right to have access to opportunities and resources o Right to have the power to control their own lives, both within and outside the home o Ability to influence the direction of social change to create a more just social and economic order, nationally and internationally Guidelines on women's empowerment, united nations population information network (POPIN) un population division, department of economic and social affairs /28/2015 5

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7 1 st UNs World Conference on Women, Mexico 1975 The UN Convention for Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) nd UN World Conference on Women, Copenhagen th UN World Conference on Women, Beijing, China 1995 Millennium Summit, New York /28/ rd UN World Conference on Women, Nairobi 1985

8  28 countries: women make up over 30% of parliamentarians  European countries: Increase in the number of women police officers helps to overcome reluctance in reporting sexual assault  Sweden: Improved paternity leave has reduced the gender pay gap  Nepal: Tax exemptions have incentivized families to transfer land to daughters, sisters and wives Michelle Bachelet (ED & secretary-general), And Justice for All, The Times of India, New Delhi; July 7,2011 4/28/2015 8

9 Women Empowerment Increased awareness Improved help seeking behaviour Improved social status Improved social status Population stabilization Age at marriage Number of children Child spacing Age at 1 st child Decision taking power 4/28/2015 9

10 Freedom to choose partners for marriage Daughters were not considered as liability or unwelcomed guest in the family Widow marriages were permissible Freedom to choose partners for marriage Daughters were not considered as liability or unwelcomed guest in the family Widow marriages were permissible Status of women Vedic period ( BC) Vedic period ( BC) Women had Subjugated status But gave the message that respectable wife is one who humbles herself vis-à-vis her husband Women had Subjugated status But gave the message that respectable wife is one who humbles herself vis-à-vis her husband Period of epics ( BC) Period of epics ( BC) Did not deserve the freedom at any point of time in her life Not marring a girl before the age of 14 years was a sin Did not deserve the freedom at any point of time in her life Not marring a girl before the age of 14 years was a sin Age of Manushatra (500 – 200 BC) Age of Manushatra (500 – 200 BC) 4/28/ Maitreyi, Gargi Philosophers & women seers

11 "A woman must never be independent. As a child she should depend on father, in her youth on her husband and after his death to her sons.” "She has to obey her husband or brother whoever takes responsibility of her and she must not insult his memory after his death.“ "A woman can emaciate her body by living on pure flowers, roots, and fruit but she must never think of another man after her husband's death or about remarriage.“ 4/28/

12 "A man can remarry if the wife dies.“ "The husband employs his wife in the collection and expenditure of his wealth, in keeping everything clean, in the fulfillment of religious duties, in the preparation of his food, and in looking after the household utensils." "A husband must be constantly worshiped as a god by a faithful wife, despite that he is destitute of virtue, or seeking pleasure elsewhere, or devoid of good qualities.“ 4/28/

13 Purdah system was in place Polygamy, strict laws for women were prevalent Purdah system was in place Polygamy, strict laws for women were prevalent Medieval period (11 th century) Medieval period (11 th century) 11 th to 19 th century Women lived life of total subjugation & virtually lost all hopes of emancipation 19 th century Social reform movements by Vidyasagar, Ranade, Jyotiba Phule, Maharshi Karve etc. Increase in child marriages, sati, dowry, social out casting of widows Status of women 4/28/

14  1829: Sati Prohibition Act  1848: 1 st School for Girls by Jyotiba Phule  1856: Widow Remarriage Act  1929: Sarada Act (Child Marriage Restraint Act) 4/28/

15 4/28/

16  Step daughter of a famous Dr. Sakharam Arjun  Married at age of 11 years to a uneducated, poor Dadaji Thakur  Legally repudiated her child marriage  Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1885, and the Age of Consent Act in /28/

17  Studied at “London School of Medicine for Women”  Worked at Madam Kama Hospital in Surat for few years  Worked at Malavi hospital at Surat for most of her life now known as “Rukhmabai hospital”  First Indian woman doctor who practiced medicine Dr. Anandi Joshi was the first lady doctor 4/28/

18  Under the leadership of Gandhiji, women participated in social movement against dowry and child marriages “If by strength is meant moral power, then woman is immeasurably man's superior”.  Under the leadership of Gandhiji, women participated in social movement against dowry and child marriages 4/28/

19 “You can tell condition of nation by looking at the status of its women” 4/28/

20 “I measure the progress of a community by the degree of progress which women have achieved” 4/28/

21 Hindu Marriage Act 1955 The Dowry Prohibition Act The maternity Benefit Act 1961 The Equal Remuneration Act 1976 The Indecent Representation of Women [Prohibition] Act 1986 Formation of National Commission of Women /28/

22 4/28/ Constitutional amendments for reservation of seats in the local bodies of Panchayat and Municipalities 1993 The National Policy for the Empowerment of Women 2001 Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005

23 4/28/

24 o Total population million (2011) {Almost equal to the combined population of U.S.A., Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Japan put together} o Women population million (48.5%) o Sex ratio (0 – 6 years) – 914 (women/1000 men) {Lowest since independence} 4/28/

25 Census data 2001,2011, RGI, GOI Literacy rate Department of education, Ministry of Human Resource & Development /28/

26  Work participation of women(2001) – 25.63%  Urban: rural ratio of work participation of women :  Women working in unorganized sectors – 80%  Women economically active at 15 years (2009) – 33% 4/28/ Source: Google images

27  Participation of women in elections increased over the years  Proportion of women turnout for voting (2009) – 58.2% Source: Election Commission of India 4/28/

28  Proportion of women in national parliament dipped till year 2007  “Women Reservation Bill” is still pending in the parliament 4/28/ Proportion of women in national parliament

29  37 % - experienced physical or sexual violence by their husbands.  High inter-state variations (Himachal Pradesh – 6 %, Bihar – 59 %).  54 % women feel that it is justified if the husband beats his wife (under certain circumstances). 4/28/ Source: Google images

30 4/28/

31 Women Empowerment Strength Economically independent women Industry Wisdom Women literacy Women participation in election Proportion of women in parliament, local bodies Empathy 4/28/

32 ANM ASHA AWW Women empowerment by community participation Health system 4/28/ million 0.19 million 1.2 million

33 4/28/ Universal primary education Emphasis on girl child Economic equality

34 Population stabilization…is it possible? “Its always seems impossible until its done” 4/28/ Nelson Mandela ( Social Activist and 1 st President of South Africa)

35 4/28/ Knowing is not enough, we must apply; Willing is not enough, we must do.”…. Goethe Knowing is not enough, we must apply; Willing is not enough, we must do.”…. Goethe THANK-YOU JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE (1749 – 1832) German Writer (Poetry, Drama, Prose, Philosophy & Sciences) Pictorial artist, Biologist, Theoretical Physicist, Polymath


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