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Higher / Int.2 Philosophy 5. ” All are lunatics, but he who can analyze his delusion is called a philosopher.” Ambrose Bierce “ Those who lack the courage.

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Presentation on theme: "Higher / Int.2 Philosophy 5. ” All are lunatics, but he who can analyze his delusion is called a philosopher.” Ambrose Bierce “ Those who lack the courage."— Presentation transcript:

1 Higher / Int.2 Philosophy 5

2

3 ” All are lunatics, but he who can analyze his delusion is called a philosopher.” Ambrose Bierce “ Those who lack the courage will always find a philosophy to justify it.” Albert Camus

4 Higher / Int.2 Philosophy 5

5 Our Learning Mini Test Finish Off Posters Deductive Arguments Forms – Modus Ponens and Modus Tollens

6 Higher / Int.2 Philosophy 5 1.Define the word Philosophy. (3 marks) 2.Define the philosophical understanding of ‘argument’ (2 marks) 3.What two types of statement go into making up an argument? (2 marks) 4.What two types of wording do not contribute to an argument? (2 marks) 5.Who came up with the form of the syllogism? (1 mark) 6.Give two reasons why premises might be hidden? (2 marks) 1.Define the word Philosophy. (3 marks) 2.Define the philosophical understanding of ‘argument’ (2 marks) 3.What two types of statement go into making up an argument? (2 marks) 4.What two types of wording do not contribute to an argument? (2 marks) 5.Who came up with the form of the syllogism? (1 mark) 6.Give two reasons why premises might be hidden? (2 marks)

7 Higher / Int.2 Philosophy 5 Finish Off Posters

8 Higher / Int.2 Philosophy 5 To the Notes – Page 12

9 Higher / Int.2 Philosophy 5 A deductive argument is one where it is thought that the premises provide a guarantee of the truth of the conclusion. The premises provide support for the conclusion which is so strong that if the premises are true, it is impossible for the conclusion to be false.

10 Higher / Int.2 Philosophy 5 Birds Scotland Aberdeen is in Scotland John is in Aberdeen Therefore John is in Scotland Aberdeen All chickens are birds John is a chicken Therefore John is a bird Chickens John John

11 Higher / Int.2 Philosophy 5 To the Notes Page 13 / 14 A valid argument is when which ‘works’ - where the conclusion logically follows from the premises. If it doesn’t, it is called invalid. (GLOSSARY) Page A conditional proposition (premise) is one using the form ‘if p then q’ (GLOSSARY) To the Notes Page 13 / 14 A valid argument is when which ‘works’ - where the conclusion logically follows from the premises. If it doesn’t, it is called invalid. (GLOSSARY) Page A conditional proposition (premise) is one using the form ‘if p then q’ (GLOSSARY)

12 Higher / Int.2 Philosophy 5 DEDUCTIVE FORMS - MODUS PONENS AntecedentConsequent CP1If X then Y P2 X (affirming) CTherefore Y Affirming the Antecedent - Modus Ponens DEDUCTIVE FORMS - MODUS PONENS AntecedentConsequent CP1If X then Y P2 X (affirming) CTherefore Y Affirming the Antecedent - Modus Ponens

13 Higher / Int.2 Philosophy 5 Critical Thinking Quick Helps – Affirming & Denying Critical Thinking Quick Helps – Affirming & Denying If it is too hot, then I will sweat It is too hot Therefore, I will sweat The Second Line is agreeing with the first part of the first line This is AFFIRMING the ANTECEDENT (thing that comes first) AFFIRMING the ANTECEDENT = MODUS PONENS

14 Higher / Int.2 Philosophy 5 Critical Thinking Quick Helps – Affirming & Denying Critical Thinking Quick Helps – Affirming & Denying If there is a fire, then there must be smoke There is no smoke Therefore, there is no fire The Second Line is denying the second part of the first line This is DENYING the CONSEQUENT (the thing that comes after) DENYING THE CONSEQUENT = MODUS TOLLENS

15 Higher / Int.2 Philosophy 5 Our Learning Mini Test Finish Off Posters Deductive Arguments Forms – Modus Ponens and Modus Tollens


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