# Intro to Logic: the tools of the trade You need to be able to: Recognize an argument when you see one (in media, articles, people’s claims). Organize arguments.

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Intro to Logic: the tools of the trade You need to be able to: Recognize an argument when you see one (in media, articles, people’s claims). Organize arguments into a proper argument outline. Identify characteristics of an argument: premise, conclusion, assumptions, and consequences. Know the difference between deductive and inductive argument forms. Know some common informal fallacies. 1

Round One Definitions: Argument Proposition Premise Conclusion Conditional statement 2

An argument is not just contradicting your opponent. (A contradiction an automatic gainsaying of any statement that another person makes). An argument is a connected series of statements intended to establish a proposition. 4 Monty Python Argument Clinic.

Vaughn’s definition of an argument: A combination of statements in which some of them [the premises] are intended to support another one of them [the conclusion]. 5

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Deductive Logic/ Inductive logic/ Informal fallacies Argument intended To guarantee The truth of its conclusion. IF the premises are true, Then the conclusion is GUARANTEED To be true. 7

Example of an argument: It is good to take a philosophy class. It develops your critical thinking skills. 8

Example of an argument: “It develops your critical thinking skills” is intended to support, or give reason for: It is good to take a philosophy class. 9

Example of an argument: Premise: Taking philosophy develops your critical thinking skills. ------------------------------------ Conclusion: It is good to take a philosophy class. 10

Check for unstated assumptions. 11

Example of an argument: Premise: It is good to develop your critical thinking skills. (Unstated Assumption) 12

Outlining an argument.. Premises and conclusions are written as propositions: statements that are either true or false. Propositions consist of the subject clause, and predicate clause (or property about that subject). I.e. “All cats are grey.” “all cats” is the subject, “are grey” is the predicate. “Philosophy classes help you think well.” can be true or false. 13

Conditional “IF  Then” statements. “If you want to develop critical thinking skills, then you should take a philosophy class.” 14

P1. “If you want to develop critical thinking skills, you should take a philosophy class.” P2. you want to develop critical thinking skills C. You should take a philosophy class. 15

Outlining an argument P1. “If you want to develop critical thinking skills, you should take a philosophy class.” P2. you want to develop critical thinking skills. C. You should take a philosophy class. A= “you want to develop critical thinking skills.” B= “You should take a philosophy class.” P1: If A then B P2: A C: Therefore, B Valid, modus ponens 16

It must have rained last night. The road is wet. 17 Which are premises? Which is the conclusion?

P: If the road is wet, then it rained last night (conditional inference statement) P: The road is wet (empirical evidence). -------------------------- C: It must have rained last night (conclusion). 18

P1. If the road is wet, then it rained outside. P2. The road is wet C. Therefore, it rained last night. ------------------ This argument can be written P1. If A then B P2. A C. Therefore, B Where A = “the road is wet,” And B= “it rained last night” 19

P 1. If the road is wet, then it rained last night (implied or assumed) P 2. The road is wet (empirical evidence). C. It rained last night (conclusion). 20 Premises Conclusion

How to recognize an argument: Indicator words for conclusions: Consequently Thus Therefore As a result Hence Vaug hn. 21 Indicator words for premises: --because --since --for --given that --the reason being

Identifying arguments in articles. A thesis statement is the author’s conclusion. It is what the author will convince you about. Usually articles have two or three premises to support the conclusion. 22

Creating arguments Your own essays will have one conclusion/ thesis statement about two arguments supporting the thesis. 23

P1. If you want to be like Sean White, then use American Express. P2. (assumed). You want to be like Sean White. C. Use American Express. A= you want to be like Sean White B= you use American Express. If A then B A Therefore B. 25

c In Deductive format: P1: If you buy cable, you’ll end up in a roadside ditch. P2. You don’t want to end up in a roadside ditch. Conclusion: Don’t buy cable. P1. Either buy cable or Direct TV. P2. Don’t buy cable. C. Buy Direct TV. 26

Slippery slope. P1. If you buy cable, you’ll end up in a roadside ditch. Step A. When you use cable, they put you on hold B. You get angry and blow off steam C. when you blow off steam, accidents happen D. When accidents happen, you get an eye patch E. When you get an eye patch, people think you’re tough F. when people think your tough, they want to see how tough. Z. When people want to see how tough, you end up in a roadside ditch. 27

Critiquing arguments 1.Check to see if the reasoning is good (does the conclusion follow from the premises?). 2.Check for soundness (e.g. are the premises true?). 3.Check for strong or weak sample sizes (if it is an inductive argument). 4.Check for unstated assumptions in the argument. 5.Check for unwanted or absurd consequences of an argument (i.e. assume the argument is sound). 6.Check for informal fallacies.

Validity vs. Soundness 30

The FORM or REASONING of an argument can be separated from the CONTENT. Even if the premises are true, the reasoning can be bad. And, even if the premises are false, the reasoning can be good. Validity = form of argument Soundness= truth of propositions 31

Two valid deductive structures: Modus ponens : If A, then B, A, Therefore B. Modus tollens: If A, then B, Not B, Therefore, not A. Two Invalid structures: Affirming the consequent: If A, then B, B, Therefore A. Denying the antecedent. If A, then B, Not A, Therefore Not B.

False premises but the reasoning is good. Wason Selection Task 33

False premises, good reasoning. P1. All pigs are pink. P2. This is a pig. C. Therefore, this pig is pink. (Valid modus ponens; unsound)

False premises, but good reasoning. P1. If the sun rises in the east, then pigs fly. P2. The sun rises in the east. C. Therefore pigs fly.

True premises, bad reasoning P1. If Bill Gates lives in Washington, then Bill Gates lives in the USA. P2. Bill gates lives in the USA. C. Therefore, Bill Gates lives in Washington. (Invalid: Affirming the consequent). 36

True premises, bad reasoning. P1. If Jones stands in the heavy rain without an umbrella, then Jones will get wet. P2. Jones is wet. C. Jones was standing in the heavy rain without an umbrella.

P1. All bathrooms have toilets in them. P2. This room has a toilet in it. C: This room is a bathroom. P1. all toilets are in bathrooms P2. this room has a toilet in it C this is a bathroom

P1. All bathrooms have toilets in them. P2. This room has a toilet in it. C: This room is a bathroom. ------------------------ P1: All A’s are B’s P2: B C: A Counterexample: Home Depot has a toilet in it, but it doesn’t mean that it’s a bathroom.

Critiquing arguments 1.Check to see if the reasoning is good (E.g. does the conclusion follow from the premises?). 2.Check for soundness (e.g. are the premises true?). 3.Check for strong or weak sample sizes (if it is an inductive argument). 4.Check for unstated assumptions in the argument. 5.Check for unwanted or absurd consequences of an argument (i.e. assume the argument is sound). 6.Check for informal fallacies.

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