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Essentials of Management Chapter 16

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1 Essentials of Management Chapter 16
Managing Ineffective Performers

2 Employee Factors Contributing to Ineffective Performance
Insufficient mental ability and education Insufficient job knowledge Job stress and burnout Low motivation and loafing Excessive absenteeism and tardiness Emotional problems or personality disorder Alcoholism and drug addiction

3 Employee Factors Contributing to Ineffective Performance, continued
Tobacco addiction or withdrawal symptoms Conducting outside business on the job Family and personal problems Physical limitations Preoccupying office romance Fear of traveling, especially flying Poor organizational citizenship behavior

4 Job Factors Contributing to Ineffective Performance
Ergonomics problems and repetitive motion disorder Repetitive, physically demanding job Built-in conflict (e.g., repo specialist) Night-shift work assignment Substandard industrial hygiene “Sick” building (has airborne pollutants)

5 Managerial Factors Contributing to Ineffective Performance
Inadequate communication about job responsibilities Inadequate feedback about performance Inappropriate leadership style Negative and untrusting attitude Bullying or intimidating behavior by manager

6 Organizational Factors Contributing to Ineffective Performance
Organizational culture that tolerates poor performance Poor ethical climate Counterproductive work environment Negative work group influences Intentional threats to job security Violence or threats of violence

7 Organizational Factors Contributing to Poor Performance, continued
Sexual harassment Workplace harassment in general (such as based on race or sexual orientation) Reward structure that encourages deviant behavior (such as heavy commission pay) Note: Poor performance might be based on combination of factors related to employee, job, manager, and organization.

8 Control Model for Managing Ineffective Performers
Define Performance Standards Detect Deviation From Acceptable Performance Define and Assess the Cause Select and Implement Action Plan Set Improvement Goals Communicate With Substandard Performer Re-evaluate After Time Interval Continue or Discontinue Action Plan

9 Control Model for Managing Ineffective Performers, continued
Define performance standards (specify what is expected of employees). Detect deviation from acceptable performance (use control measures including direct observation of performance). Define and assess the cause (could be factor within person, job, company, or the manager).

10 Control Model for Managing Ineffective Performers, continued
Communicate with substandard performer (discussion or confrontation about unacceptable performance or behavior; show care and concern). Set improvement goals (attaining goal will correct performance deviation). Select and implement action plan (vital part of remedying poor performance).

11 Control Model for Managing Ineffective Performance, continued
Select and implement an action plan (continued) Types of action plans (hundreds are possible, with some requiring an organizational program including the employee assistance program) Implementation of the action plan (use steps 5-7 of control model in slide 8)

12 Control Model for Managing Ineffective Performance, concluded
Re-evaluate performance after time interval (when control model works, employee performance will improve). Formal and informal reviews (could be sit-down review of quick checkup) Positive reinforcement and punishment (depending on progress) Continue or discontinue the action plan for improvement (stay alert for future problems)

13 Coaching and Constructive Criticism
Coaching involves constructive criticism. Keep in mind the following suggestions: Focus feedback on employee work and behavior rather than his or her attitudes and personality. Be timely with negative feedback. Listen actively and empathize. Ask good questions (the simpler the better).

14 Coaching and constructive criticism, continued
Engage in joint problem solving. Offer constructive advice. Give the poor performer an opportunity to observe and model someone who exhibits acceptable performance. Obtain a commitment to change. Conduct some coaching sessions outside of the performance evaluation. Applaud good results.

15 Progressive Discipline
The step-by-step application of corrective discipline, as follows: Confrontation, discussion, counseling Oral warning Written warning Suspension or disciplinary layoff Discharge

16 Rules for Applying Discipline
All employees should be notified of what punishments will be applied for what infractions. Discipline should be applied immediately after infraction is committed. The punishment should fit the undesirable behavior. Managers should be consistent in their application of discipline for each infraction.

17 Rules for Applying Discipline, continued
Disciplinary remedies should be applied impersonally to offenders. Manager must document performance or behavior that led to punishment. Focus attention on the unsatisfactory behavior or performance, not attitudes or traits. When discipline is over, return to usual work relations.

18 Positive Consequences of Punishment
Employees who believe in just world likely to accept punishment when they violate rules or perform poorly. When employees observe that another employee has been punished justly, they will rally on side of management. Punishment informs employees that certain types of conduct will not be tolerated.

19 Four Types of Difficult People
Disgruntled workers are angry and see themselves as victims. Passive-aggressive workers often express anger by neglecting to take action. Uncivil workers are very rude. Change resistors tend to live in past and have difficulty learning new procedures and adjusting to new initiatives.

20 Tactics for Dealing with Difficult People
Combination of tactics usually required to deal with difficult person. The more ingrained the behavior, the more difficult to change. Give feedback and stay focused on issues at hand. Use tact and diplomacy. Use humor (but avoid sarcasm).

21 Tactics for Dealing with Difficult People, continued
Give recognition and attention. Listen and then confront or respond. Stand fast and do not make unwarranted concessions. Boost the difficult worker’s self-confidence. If difficult person is your boss, defend yourself without a defensive tone.

22 Dealing with Cynical Behavior
Cynicism is negative attitude toward employer, comprising three dimensions: A belief that organization lacks integrity Negative affect toward the organization Tendencies toward disparaging and critical behavior Ignoring cynical comments might work. Demand evidence to support harsh comments.

23 Termination Employees must be fired for good cause (legally justifiable or good business reason). Documentation helps avoid wrongful discharge. According to due process, employees must be given a fair hearing before being dismissed. Manager should deal with feelings of coworkers after employee is terminated.

24 Minimizing Major Errors in Firing
Never fire an employee when angry. Never fire an employee based on second-party information. Be direct and clear in your language. Avoid surprises. (For example, poor performance reviews can take the surprise element out of being terminated.)

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