Presentation on theme: "Essentials of Management Chapter 16"— Presentation transcript:
1Essentials of Management Chapter 16 Managing Ineffective Performers
2Employee Factors Contributing to Ineffective Performance Insufficient mental ability and educationInsufficient job knowledgeJob stress and burnoutLow motivation and loafingExcessive absenteeism and tardinessEmotional problems or personality disorderAlcoholism and drug addiction
3Employee Factors Contributing to Ineffective Performance, continued Tobacco addiction or withdrawal symptomsConducting outside business on the jobFamily and personal problemsPhysical limitationsPreoccupying office romanceFear of traveling, especially flyingPoor organizational citizenship behavior
4Job Factors Contributing to Ineffective Performance Ergonomics problems and repetitive motion disorderRepetitive, physically demanding jobBuilt-in conflict (e.g., repo specialist)Night-shift work assignmentSubstandard industrial hygiene“Sick” building (has airborne pollutants)
5Managerial Factors Contributing to Ineffective Performance Inadequate communication about job responsibilitiesInadequate feedback about performanceInappropriate leadership styleNegative and untrusting attitudeBullying or intimidating behavior by manager
6Organizational Factors Contributing to Ineffective Performance Organizational culture that tolerates poor performancePoor ethical climateCounterproductive work environmentNegative work group influencesIntentional threats to job securityViolence or threats of violence
7Organizational Factors Contributing to Poor Performance, continued Sexual harassmentWorkplace harassment in general (such as based on race or sexual orientation)Reward structure that encourages deviant behavior (such as heavy commission pay)Note: Poor performance might be based on combination of factors related to employee, job, manager, and organization.
8Control Model for Managing Ineffective Performers DefinePerformanceStandardsDetect DeviationFromAcceptablePerformanceDefine andAssess theCauseSelect andImplementAction PlanSetImprovementGoalsCommunicateWithSubstandardPerformerRe-evaluateAfter TimeIntervalContinue orDiscontinueAction Plan
9Control Model for Managing Ineffective Performers, continued Define performance standards (specify what is expected of employees).Detect deviation from acceptable performance (use control measures including direct observation of performance).Define and assess the cause (could be factor within person, job, company, or the manager).
10Control Model for Managing Ineffective Performers, continued Communicate with substandard performer (discussion or confrontation about unacceptable performance or behavior; show care and concern).Set improvement goals (attaining goal will correct performance deviation).Select and implement action plan (vital part of remedying poor performance).
11Control Model for Managing Ineffective Performance, continued Select and implement an action plan (continued)Types of action plans (hundreds are possible, with some requiring an organizational program including the employee assistance program)Implementation of the action plan (use steps 5-7 of control model in slide 8)
12Control Model for Managing Ineffective Performance, concluded Re-evaluate performance after time interval (when control model works, employee performance will improve).Formal and informal reviews (could be sit-down review of quick checkup)Positive reinforcement and punishment (depending on progress)Continue or discontinue the action plan for improvement (stay alert for future problems)
13Coaching and Constructive Criticism Coaching involves constructive criticism. Keep in mind the following suggestions:Focus feedback on employee work and behavior rather than his or her attitudes and personality.Be timely with negative feedback.Listen actively and empathize.Ask good questions (the simpler the better).
14Coaching and constructive criticism, continued Engage in joint problem solving.Offer constructive advice.Give the poor performer an opportunity to observe and model someone who exhibits acceptable performance.Obtain a commitment to change.Conduct some coaching sessions outside of the performance evaluation.Applaud good results.
15Progressive Discipline The step-by-step application of corrective discipline, as follows:Confrontation, discussion, counselingOral warningWritten warningSuspension or disciplinary layoffDischarge
16Rules for Applying Discipline All employees should be notified of what punishments will be applied for what infractions.Discipline should be applied immediately after infraction is committed.The punishment should fit the undesirable behavior.Managers should be consistent in their application of discipline for each infraction.
17Rules for Applying Discipline, continued Disciplinary remedies should be applied impersonally to offenders.Manager must document performance or behavior that led to punishment.Focus attention on the unsatisfactory behavior or performance, not attitudes or traits.When discipline is over, return to usual work relations.
18Positive Consequences of Punishment Employees who believe in just world likely to accept punishment when they violate rules or perform poorly.When employees observe that another employee has been punished justly, they will rally on side of management.Punishment informs employees that certain types of conduct will not be tolerated.
19Four Types of Difficult People Disgruntled workers are angry and see themselves as victims.Passive-aggressive workers often express anger by neglecting to take action.Uncivil workers are very rude.Change resistors tend to live in past and have difficulty learning new procedures and adjusting to new initiatives.
20Tactics for Dealing with Difficult People Combination of tactics usually required to deal with difficult person.The more ingrained the behavior, the more difficult to change.Give feedback and stay focused on issues at hand.Use tact and diplomacy.Use humor (but avoid sarcasm).
21Tactics for Dealing with Difficult People, continued Give recognition and attention.Listen and then confront or respond.Stand fast and do not make unwarranted concessions.Boost the difficult worker’s self-confidence.If difficult person is your boss, defend yourself without a defensive tone.
22Dealing with Cynical Behavior Cynicism is negative attitude toward employer, comprising three dimensions:A belief that organization lacks integrityNegative affect toward the organizationTendencies toward disparaging and critical behaviorIgnoring cynical comments might work.Demand evidence to support harsh comments.
23TerminationEmployees must be fired for good cause (legally justifiable or good business reason).Documentation helps avoid wrongful discharge.According to due process, employees must be given a fair hearing before being dismissed.Manager should deal with feelings of coworkers after employee is terminated.
24Minimizing Major Errors in Firing Never fire an employee when angry.Never fire an employee based on second-party information.Be direct and clear in your language.Avoid surprises. (For example, poor performance reviews can take the surprise element out of being terminated.)